Communicating with Your Audience in 140 Characters
IntroductionWith the development of digital and new media in recent years, museums have beenforced to break away from traditional channels of written communication, such as textpanels or exhibition catalogues, as they seek to engage with their audiences in new onlineenvironments. In reaction to the ever increasing pace of digital communication, messageshave been getting shorter and shorter. Twitter, a popular social networking site, has takenthis to an extreme in limiting communication to 140 characters per message - even shorterthan a standard mobile phone text message. What exactly are the benefits of Twitter? Howcan museums use it to effectively communicate with their audiences? And what are thechallenges of communicating in 140 characters or less? This presentation aims to addressthese questions and to provide some practical advice on how museums can maintain aninteresting digital dialogue via this social media platform.What is Twitter and how does it work?Let’s start by taking a step back and having a quick look at the background and basics ofTwitter.Since its foundation in 2006, Twitter has grown to become one of the top 10 most visitedwebsites on the Internet, with over 500 million active users. It’s a social networking servicewhich allows its users to send out short messages, so called ‘tweets’. It’s also referred toas a microblogging service, as compared to a traditional blog its content is restricted insize. In the case of Twitter, as I already mentioned, messages are limited to 140characters, though these can include links and photo attachments.Unlike some other social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter is a lot more open.You don’t need to register to read other people’s messages, though there is an option tomake your tweets private but the majority of people don’t use this. Registered users cansubscribe to - or ‘follow’ - the tweets of other users they are interested in, which are then
all aggregated in one news feed, but the user being followed doesn’t need to approve this.You can also direct a message at a specific user, by preceding your tweet with their username, and users who follow each other can exchange so called ‘direct messages’, andthese do not appear in their public message stream.One very popular feature on Twitter is the use of hashtags. A hashtag is a word precededby the hash symbol (#), and can be used to mark keywords or topics in a Tweet (see Slide1 below for some examples of hashtags). Selecting the hashtag in a Tweet shows you allother Tweets with the same hashtag, so it acts as a kind of search function. Hashtags thatare very popular can become so called "Tending Topics", which means that so manypeople are using the hashtag at the same time it has become one of the most used in aparticular city or country. You can see on Twitter what the most popular hashtags at anygiven time are, and there are also third party applications where you can e.g. see themplotted out on a map (I have an example of one later on).Slide 1: Examples of hashtags
This is what a typical tweet might look like:Slide 2: Example of a typical tweet (screenshot from Twitter)What are the benefits of Twitter?Social media offers many benefits to museums and their audiences: •It acts as an alternative route of communication between museums and market segments that aren’t easily reached by traditional means. •It’s an opportunity for museums to enrich their offerings through user generated content from audiences. •The ability to be actively involved and contribute makes audiences feel validated, leading to increased engagement and motivation. •The ease of contributing lowers barriers to participation for audiences. •A lack of physical boundaries can bring museums and wider audiences together.The biggest benefit specifically of Twitter is, as mentioned, the fact that communicationsare public. You dont need to register to be able to read other users Tweets or followconversations, though you do need to register if you want to post Tweets yourself or join in
a conversation. But even then you dont need to befriend someone first and have themauthorise it. This very low participation barrier makes it easy for people to join in.Another of Twitters identifying features is its dynamic. Exchange of messages is generallyquite fast paced with a high expectation of real-time communication. These exchanges canoften make it feel more personal and many users have the feeling they are talking to aperson rather than an institution. This openness and dynamism of Twitter, combined withthe use of hashtags as a way to group tweets on the same topic, allows for andencourages a flow of themed, relevant and engaging discussions.And one of the great things about social media, is that you are not limited by specificmuseum opening times. This goes for other networks too, of course, but Twitter’sdynamics mean that if you’ve managed to give a discussion enough momentum, it willoften keep going long after a traditional event would have finished because the museumwould have long shut.What are the challenges of communicating in 140 characters?Firstly, why 140 characters? This is down to Twitter starting off as a text messagingservice, and a standard mobile phone message is a maximum 160 characters. Twitterlimited their messages to 140 characters, reserving 20 characters for usernames.On the up side, having a limitation of characters to your messages forces you to keep itsimple and straight to the point. Here’s an example of a message on Twitter and onFacebook, both announcing the same thing:Slide 3: Twitter versus Facebook (screenshots from Twitter and Facebook)
On the down side, however, there is a risk of ending up with so many abbreviations thatyour messages look encrypted. You also need to pick your words carefully so that you arenot misunderstood.How can museums use Twitter?The most straight forward and probably the most common way for museums to useTwitter, is general day-to-day communication, i.e. sharing updates, comments,photographs. From the side of the museum, this may include highlighting events,communicating study results, answering questions or sharing a bit of what goes on behindthe scenes. From the side of the visitors, communication may include sharing impressions,whether through comments or photographs, or asking questions, from practical thingssuch as "Does your café sell gluten free cake?", to interacting with staff and accessingspecialist knowledge, e.g. the opportunity to question curators (example of this in amoment).But as well as day to day communication, Twitter allows museums e.g. to increase accessto their collections, add value to existing events, or even hold events entirely online. Andthe dynamics of Twitter also make it a good medium for live interaction. There are endlesspossibilities and examples, so I have selected just a few:One effective way of increasing access is to tweet about what goes on behind the scenes,thus letting your audiences be part of it. A particularly good example comes from BrooklynMuseum in the US, who gave live updates via Twitter during the CT scanning of four oftheir mummies in 2009. When the museum tweeted that the mummy known as ‘Lady Hor’was in fact male, their followers on Twitter felt like they were watching history in themaking2.Slide 4: Tweet from Brooklyn Museum (screenshot from Twitter)
A good example of adding value to an existing on-site event, is the so called ‘Twitter Wall’at Berlin’s Lange Nacht der Museen. I don’t have time to go into the technical details here,but basically visitors can tweet their comments and recommendations as the nightprogresses, and all tweets are then broadcast onto a screen at the event’s central hub (ofcourse you can also view them online on Twitter via your phone or other mobile device).Other visitors can then refer back to the Tweets when planning what to do next, or thosewho can’t make it to the event can share in what’s happening.Following on from that idea, some museums have started hosting so called ‘Tweetups’.These are meetups, which usually take the form of guided tours, where participants areexplicitly encouraged to tweet live updates. In Germany, two groups in Frankfurt and inMunich – Kultup (http://kultup.org) and Kulturkonsorten (http://kulturkonsorten.de) – havebeen organising series of Tweetups at different museums and other cultural organisationsover the past year1. Participants tweet a running commentary of the guided tours, includingtheir own impressions and photographs. Users on Twitter can follow the proceedings, evensending in their own questions, and often feel as if they were taking part in the toursthemselves.Slide 5: Tweets from the Kultup in Frankfurt on 26 July 2012 (screenshots from Twitter)Tweeting live from conferences, to share proceedings with those that aren’t able to attend,has also become common practice. For example last year in Zagreb we tweeted live aboutwhat was going on at our CECA conference (see Slide 2 above) and as you know wevebeen busy tweeting about this years conference too.
At the other end of the scale, you get events that don’t just add value to or extend on-siteevents to online audiences, but that take place entirely on Twitter. I tend to refer to theseas hashtag events, as their common feature is that they use specific hashtags as theirprimary driver. To exemplify this, I have a small case study for you.Case Study: Museum Memories DayMuseum Memories Day was an online Twitter event run by Museum140 (http://www.museum140.com), an independent initiative founded in March 2011 to run fun andengaging social media projects based around museums. It is not affiliated to any museumin particular, so it is also a great example of how you can bring together different museumsand museum communities around the world through social media.Museum Memories Day was our inaugural project. It took place on 17 May 2011, as a runup to International Museums Day which had Museum and Memory as its theme that year.Everyone had been invited to tweet about their most memorable museum moments usingthe hashtag #MusMem. Since we were not limited to museum opening hours, anyoneanywhere in the world could take part regardless of what timezone they were in, andtweeting continued well into the evening. Similarly, the momentum of the event carriedover into International Museums Day the next day, and even into the weekend.Just as with any other event, you need to create some interest and buzz around it inadvance if you want people to take part. We announced the event a month before, and gotsome of our most active Twitter contacts to help spread the word. Between the launch andthe weekend following the event itself, we counted just over 3,000 Tweets using thehashtag #MusMem, and around half of those were to promote the event. The eventbecame a Trending Topic in twelve countries worldwide, but we also had Tweets frommany other countries.Slide 6: #MusMem trend map on 17 May 2011 (screenshot from http://trendsmap.com)
Museums and galleries of all kinds from around the world, as well as associatedorganisations and individual museum professionals, friends and enthusiasts participated.Recurring themes included mummies, dinosaurs, whales and art; childhood visits withfamily; first dates, marriage proposals and even weddings; emotional experiences such ascrying, singing and dancing. There were also stories of mishaps or being shouted at byguards, though the vast majority of stories were positive (see Slides 7-9 below for someexamples of #MusMem tweets). Some people also tweeted photos, which was a greataddition.Slide 7: #MusMem examples about mummies, dinosaurs, whales and art
Slide 8: #MusMem examples about childhood, dates, engagement and marriageSlide 9: #MusmMem examples about crying, singing, dancing and guards.
The many memories raised awareness of museums on Twitter, and reflected how muchpeople loved museums and galleries and were inspired by them. Here’s a graphicvisualising the 50 most commonly tweeted words:Slide 10: #MusmMem word cloud (created with http://www.wordle.net)Possibly one of the most well known hashtag events, in terms of museums, is#askacurator run by Sumo UK, which first took place in September 2010 and was recentlyrepeated in September of this year due to poplar demand. Curators from around 600museums the world over spent a day answering questions in real time via Twitter. Ofcourse, museums can answer questions any day of the year. However, curators aren’talways instantly accessible, as more often than not they are not the ones managingmuseum Twitter accounts, but during #askacurator they committed to making themselvesavailable in real time. Also, to have such a simultaneous global presence made the eventunique.Conclusion: Practical AdviceI want to finish with some practical advice on using Twitter to take back to your ownorganisations.Before jumping in, develop a Twitter strategy. You may think “Why do I need a strategy tosend out 140 character long messages”, but it’s always useful to think about where you’regoing, what you’ll be doing and the resources involved. There’s an excellent templateonline from the UK for a Twitter Strategy for Government Departments, which should covereverything that you need and more, that you can adapt for your purposes3.
Only take on what you can manage. Although Twitter is a low resource channel comparedto other communications such as a newsletter, a blog or an all-singing, all-dancingFacebook page, it still needs to be maintained. A neglected Twitter account makes a worseimpression than not having one at all. If you can only tweet on certain days or times of daye.g. because the staff member responsible works part time, then that’s okay but be upfront about it with your followers so they know what to expect.Be realistic about who you are going to reach. Being on Twitter will let you reach out tonew audiences, but they are not all going to translate into footfall at your museum. Andwhile Twitter allows you to connect with people interested in your museum who live in farflung corners of the world and can’t otherwise visit, it’s not going to create a thrivinginternational audience for you overnight. If English is not the language your museumusually communicates in, you might want to consider including regular tweets in English toattract more international followers, if that’s what you want.Make use of available tools to help you manage your Twitter account, such as sites thatallow you to schedule Tweets in advance. For example, you could set aside some time atthe beginning or end of each week to plan Tweets that are intended for certain days ortimes in the week ahead, for things you already know are going to happen or you knowyou want to tweet about. Then on the other days you just need to check in for messagesand questions to respond to, or tweet things that couldn’t be planned ahead.Dont just use Twitter as marketing channel. The Twitter community is unforgiving of userswho do. And if they catch on to you, you will lose followers as quickly as you gained them.Twitter is not your corporate website. Let your hair down a little. Be friendly andconversational. Don’t ignore questions. Say thank you for compliments andrecommendations. Recommend someone yourself. Welcome your followers. Followpeople back. And, most importantly......dont forget the "social" in social media!!Jenni FuchsMuseum140Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgTwitter: @jennifuchsAugust 2012Notes(1) Since writing this paper, a new series of museum Tweetups – MuseUp – has also beenlaunched in Berlin, with the first to take place on 12 November 2012.(2) See also http://www.brooklymuseum.org/community/blogosphere/2009/06/23/live-tweeting-mummy-ct-scanning-today/ and http://www.talkingpyramids.com/report-on-the-mummies-trip-to-the-hospital/(3) http://neilojwilliams.net/missioncreep/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/17313280-Template-Twitter-Strategy-for-Government-Departments.pdf