Guide to project management by j pricciPresentation Transcript
About EM Management ProjectProject Management: Style Guide Corporate A How-To Guide presented by: EM Collateral Jennifer L. Pricci
Behind the Curtain About EMA successful Project Manager must simultaneously manage thefour basic elements of a project: resources, time, money, andmost importantly, scope. All these elements are interrelated. ManagementEach must be managed effectively. All must be managed Projecttogether if the project, and the project manager, is to be asuccess. ResourcesPeople, equipment, material Style Guide Corporate TimeTask durations, dependencies, critical path MoneyCosts, contingencies, profit EM Collateral ScopeProject size, goals, requirementsMost literature on project management speaks of the need tomanage and balance three elements: people, time, and money.However, the fourth element is the most important and it is thefirst and last task for a successful project manager.
Managing Scope About EMThe project scope is the definition of what the project issupposed to accomplish and the budget (of time and money)that has been created to achieve these objectives. Management ProjectIt is absolutely imperative that any change to the scope of theproject have a matching change in budget, either time orresources. If the budget is not adjusted, the smart projectmanager will avoid the change in scope. Style GuideUsually, scope changes occur in the form of "scope creep". CorporateScope creep is the piling up of small changes that by themselvesare manageable, but in aggregate are significant. Make sureany requested change, no matter how small, is accompanied byapproval for a change in budget or schedule or both.You can not effectively manage the resources, time and money EM Collateralin a project unless you actively manage the project scope.When you have the project scope clearly identified andassociated to the timeline and budget, you can begin to managethe project resources. These include the people, equipment, andmaterial needed to complete the project.
Managing Resources About EMManaging project resources frequently involves more thanpeople management. The project manager must also managethe equipment used for the project and the material needed Managementby the people and equipment assigned to the project. Project PeopleProject employees, vendor staff, subcontract labor Equipment Style GuideFrom heavy equipment or development, test, and staging Corporateservers, CD burners or recording studio, tape decks, mixers,microphones and speakers MaterialCD blanks, computers, jewel cases, instruction manuals EM Collateral
Managing Resources: People About EMManaging the people resources means having the rightpeople, with the right skills and the proper tools, in the rightquantity at the right time. It also means ensuring that they Managementknow what needs to be done, when, and how. And it means Projectmotivating them to take ownership in the project too.Managing direct employees normally means managing thesenior person in each group of employees assigned to yourproject. Remember that these employees also have a line Style Guide Corporatemanager to whom they report and from whom the usually taketechnical direction. In a matrix management situation, like aproject team, your job is to provide project direction to them.Managing labor subcontracts usually means managing theteam lead for the subcontracted workers, who in turn managesthe workers. EM Collateral
Managing Resources: Equipment About EMThe equipment you have to manage as part of your projectdepends on the nature of the project. For a project to release anew version of a computer game, the equipment would include Managementcomputers, test equipment, and duplication and packaging Projectmachinery.The project management key for equipment is much like forpeople resources. You have to make sure you have the rightequipment in the right place at the right time and that it has the Style Guide Corporatesupplies it needs to operate properly. EM Collateral
Managing Resources: Material About EMMost projects involve the purchase of material. For a project torelease a music CD by a hot new artist, it would include the CDblanks, artwork for the jewel case, and press releases to be sent Managementto deejays. The project management issue with supplies is to Projectmake sure the right supplies arrive at the right time (well talkabout the right price later).All your skill in managing resources wont help, however, unlessyou can stick to the project schedule. Time management is Style Guide Corporatecritical in successful project management. EM Collateral
Managing Time About EMTime management is a critically important skill for anysuccessful project manager.Project Managers who succeed in meeting their project schedule Management Projecthave a good chance of staying within their project budget. Themost common cause of blown project budgets is lack ofschedule management. Tasks Style GuideDuration, resources, dependencies Corporate ScheduleTasks, predecessors, successors Critical PathChangeable, often multiple, float EM Collateral
Managing Time: Tasks About EMAny project can be broken down into a number of tasks thathave to be performed. To prepare the project schedule, theproject manager has to figure out what the tasks are, how long Managementthey will take, what resources they require, and in what order Projectthey should be done.Each of these elements has a direct bearing on the schedule.If you omit a task, the project wont be completed. If youunderestimate the length of time or the amount of resources Style Guide Corporaterequired for the task, you may miss your schedule. The schedulecan also be blown if you make a mistake in the sequencing ofthe tasks. EM Collateral
Managing Time: Schedule About EMBuild the project schedule by listing, in order, all the tasks thatneed to be completed. Assign a duration to each task.Allocate the required resources. Determine predecessors Management(what tasks must be completed before) and successors (tasks Projectthat cant start until after) each task.Its pretty simple and straightforward. For instance, think of aproject called "Getting Dressed In The Morning". The task "put onshirt" may have a longer duration if it is a buttoned dress shirt Style Guide Corporatethan if its a pullover. It doesnt matter which order you completethe tasks "put on right shoe" and "put on left shoe", but it isimportant to complete the "put on pants" task before starting the"put on shoes" task.The difficulty in managing a project schedule is that there are EM Collateralseldom enough resources and enough time to complete thetasks sequentially. Therefore, tasks have to be overlapped soseveral happen at the same time. Project management softwaregreatly simplifies the task of creating and managing the projectschedule by handling the iterations in the schedule logic for you.
Managing Time: Path About EMWhen all tasks have been listed, resourced, and sequenced,you will see that some tasks have a little flexibility in theirrequired start and finish date. This is called float. Other tasks Managementhave no flexibility, zero float. A line through all the tasks with Projectzero float is called the critical path. All tasks on this path, andthere can be multiple, parallel paths, must be completed on timeif the project is to be completed on time. The Project Managerskey time management task is to manage the critical path. Style Guide CorporateBe aware, that items can be added to or removed from thecritical path as circumstances change during the execution ofthe project. Installation of security cameras may not be on thecritical path, but if the shipment is delayed, it may become partof the critical path. Conversely, pouring the concrete foundationmay be on the critical path, but if the project manager obtains an EM Collateraladdition crew and the pour is completed early it could come offthe critical path (or reduce the length of the critical path).Regardless of how well you manage the schedule and theresources, there is one more critical element - managing thebudget.
Managing Budget About EMIf you have effectively managed the project resources andproject schedule, managing budget should not be a problem.It is, however, a task that requires the project managers careful Managementattention. You can only manage effectively a limited number of Projectcost items, so focus on the critical ones. CostsEstimated, actual, variability Style Guide Contingencies CorporateWeather, suppliers, design allowance ProfitCost, contingencies, remainder EM Collateral
Managing Budget: Costs About EMEach project task will have a cost. Whether it is the cost of thelabor hours of a computer programmer or the purchase price ofa cubic yard of concrete. In preparing the project budget, each of Managementthese costs is estimated and then totaled. ProjectSome of these estimates will be more accurate than others. Acompany knows what it will charge each of its projects fordifferent classifications of labor. Commodities are priced in avery competitive market so prices are fairly predictable. Other Style Guide Corporateestimates are less accurate, such as items or services wherehigher performance is required. For an expensive item,therefore, the percent increase could be a significant amount.When the estimated cost of an item is uncertain, the projectbudget often includes a design allowance. This is money that is EM Collateralset aside in the budget "just in case" the actual cost of the item iswildly different than the estimate.
Managing Budget: Contingencies About EMUnusual problems with suppliers are always a possibility onlarge projects. Companies usually include a contingencyamount in the project budget to cover these kinds of things. Management Project Style Guide Corporate EM Collateral
Managing Budget: Profit About EMSo a project budget is composed of the estimated cost, plus thecontingency and design allowance, plus any profit. The projectmanagers job is to keep the actual cost at or below the Managementestimated cost, to use as little of the design allowance and Projectcontingency as possible, and to maximize the profit thecompany earns on the project.To maximize your chances of meeting your project budget, meetyour project schedule. The most common cause of blown Style Guide Corporatebudgets is blown schedules. Meeting the project schedule wontguarantee you will meet the project budget, but it significantlyincreases your chances. And above all, manage the projectscope. Dont allow the project scope to "creep" upward withoutgetting budget and/or schedule adjustments to match. EM CollateralSuccessful project management is an art and a science thattakes practice. The ideas presented above can give you a basicunderstanding of project management, but consider it only abeginning.
The 80/20 Rule About EMIn 1906, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created amathematical formula to describe the unequal distribution ofwealth in his country, observing that twenty percent of the Managementpeople owned eighty percent of the wealth. In the late 1940s, Dr. ProjectJoseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the 80/20 Rule to Pareto,calling it Paretos Principle. While it may be misnamed, ParetosPrinciple or Paretos Law as it is sometimes called, can be a veryeffective tool to help you manage effectively. Style Guide CorporateThe 80/20 Rule means that in anything a few (20 percent) arevital and many (80 percent) are trivial. In Paretos case it meant20 percent of the people owned 80 percent of the wealth. InJurans initial work he identified 20 percent of the defectscausing 80 percent of the problems. Project Managers knowthat 20 percent of the work (the first 10 percent and the last 10 EM Collateralpercent) consume 80 percent of your time and resources. Youcan apply the 80/20 Rule to almost anything.
Applying the 80/20 Rule About EMThe value of the Pareto Principle for a manager is that itreminds you to focus on the 20 percent that matters. Of thethings you do during your day, only 20 percent really matter. ManagementThose 20 percent produce 80 percent of your results. Identify Projectand focus on those things. When the fire drills of the day begin tosap your time, remind yourself of the 20 percent you need tofocus on. If something in the schedule has to slip, if somethingisnt going to get done, make sure its not part of that 20 percent. Style Guide CorporateParetos Principle, the 80/20 Rule, should serve as a dailyreminder to focus 80 percent of your time and energy on the 20percent of you work that is really important. Dont just "worksmart", work smart on the right things. EM Collateral
Steps to Managing A Project About EM1 Define the Scope The first, and most important, step in any project is defining the scope of the project. What is it you are supposed to Management accomplish by managing this project? What is the project Project objective? Equally important is defining what is not included in the scope of your project. If you dont get enough definition from your boss, clarify the scope yourself and send it back upstairs for confirmation. Style Guide Corporate2 Determine Available Resources What people, equipment, and money will you have available to you to achieve the project objectives? As a project manager, you usually will not have direct control of these resources, but will have to manage them through matrix management. Find out how easy or difficult that will be to do. EM Collateral3 Check the Timeline When does the project have to be completed? As you develop your project plan you may have some flexibility in how you use time during the project, but deadlines usually are fixed. If you decide to use overtime hours to meet the schedule, you must weigh that against the limitations of your budget.
Steps to Managing A Project About EM4 Assemble Your Project Team Get the people on your team together and start a dialog. They are the technical experts. Thats why their functional Management supervisor assigned them to the project. Your job is to Project manage the team.5 List the Big Steps What are the major pieces of the project? If you dont know, start by asking your team. It is a good idea to list the steps in Style Guide Corporate chronological order but dont obsess about it; you can always change the order later.6 List the Smaller Steps List the smaller steps in each of the larger steps. Again, it usually helps you remember all the steps if you list them in EM Collateral chronological order. How many levels deep you go of more and more detailed steps depends on the size and complexity of your project.7 Develop a Preliminary Plan Assemble all your steps into a plan. What happens first? What is the next step? Which steps can go on at the same time with different resources? Who is going to do each step? How long will it take?
Steps to Managing A Project About EM8 Create Your Baseline Plan Get feedback on your preliminary plan from your team and from any other stakeholders. Adjust your timelines and work Management schedules to fit the project into the available time. Make any Project necessary adjustments to the preliminary plan to produce a baseline plan.9 Request Project Adjustments There is almost never enough time, money or talent assigned Style Guide Corporate to a project. Your job is to do more with the limited resources than people expect. However, there are often limits placed on a project that are simply unrealistic. You need to make your case and present it to your boss and request these unrealistic limits be changed. Ask for the changes at the beginning of the project. Dont wait until its in trouble to ask EM Collateral for the changes you need.10 Work Your Plan, But Dont Die For It Making the plan is important, but the plan can be changed. You have a plan for driving to work every morning. If one intersection is blocked by an accident, you change your plan and go a different way. Do the same with your project plans. Change them as needed, but always keep the scope and resources in mind.
Steps to Managing A Project About EM11 Monitor Your Teams Progress You will make little progress at the beginning of the project, but start then to monitor what everyone is doing anyway. Management That will make it easier to catch issues before they become Project problems.12 Document Everything Keep records. Every time you change from your baseline plan, write down what the change was and why it was Style Guide Corporate necessary. Every time a new requirement is added to the project write down where the requirement came from and how the timeline or budget was adjusted because of it. You cant remember everything, so write them down so youll be able to look them up at the end-of-project review and learn from them. EM Collateral13 Keep Everyone Informed Keep all the project stakeholders informed of progress all along. Let them know of your success as you complete each milestone, but also inform them of problems as soon as they come up. Also keep you team informed. If changes are being considered, tell the team about them as far ahead as you can. Make sure everyone on the team is aware of what everyone else is doing.
TO-DO List: Ranking About EMMaking a "things to do list" is not enough. You have to rankthem. You have to know which tasks are more important so youcan focus on them. Then you have to allocate resources to those Managementitems, measure your progress, and reward yourself for your Projectsuccesses.RankingI list all my to do items in a spreadsheet, although you can do Style Guidethem on paper as I used to do. You also can put them in your Corporatepalmtop computer or PDA, write them on your calendar, or inputthem to a time management software.The first step is to list all you have to do.Using the 80/20 Rule assign a rank to them so you can focus on EM Collateralthe important items. I use an A, B, C ranking. My A list are thethings I have to get done today, before I leave. My B list arethings I need to get done, but not necessarily today. My C list arethe things I need to find time to do soon.
TO-DO List: Time Management About EMIt wasnt enough to know what was important; what made the Alist. I also needed to know how long things would take and howmuch time I had to devote to them. I added a column to my to Managementdo list with the estimated time each task should take and an Projectadjacent column with the cumulative total.Time ManagementStart by surveying your own time. Take a week or so to sample Style Guideeach task on your to do list and assign the proper time values. CorporateMuch of your day may be taken up by interruptions - dealingwith events that happened, crises that came up, or problemsthat had to be solved. On average these interruptions consumefour hours a day. Working a typical ten-hour day, means youhave six hours a day for the things on your to do list. EM CollateralEach night, before you leave the office, update your to do list.Delete the things completed, delegated, or downgraded, addthe new things that had come up, rearrange the priorities to getthe most important tasks on top, and assign estimated time toeach. Then go down the list to the six hour mark and draw aline. That becomes your target for the next day.
TO-DO List: Reward Yourself About EMMost often, your target line falls somewhere on your A list.Seldom is it anywhere near the bottom. However, that is not yourgoal. Management ProjectReward YourselfWhen I hit or passed the line, I went home feeling like it hadbeen a productive and successful day. Instead of beating myselfup over the things I hadnt been able to get to, I acknowledged Style Guidemy success at having met or beaten my goal. The next day, I Corporatehad to start all over again and reach for the new goal, but I did itfrom the perspective of building on previous success rather thanfrom the frustration of constantly having more to do that I hadtime to accomplish.To be successful, you have to develop a system to manage your EM Collateraltime so you can get more done in the time you have. If yourtarget line on your to do list is always near the top, revise yoursystem so you can begin working a little farther down the listevery day. List the tasks you have to do. Prioritize those that areimportant, not just urgent. Have a plan for what to accomplisheach day. Work toward that plan. Reward yourself whenyou meet or beat your goal.
Your System About EMTo be successful, you have to develop a system to manage yourtime so you can get more done in the time you have. If yourtarget line on your to do list is always near the top, revise your Managementsystem so you can begin working a little farther down the list Projectevery day. Remember There are only 24 hours in a day Find out where youre wasting time. Create time management goals. Style Guide Corporate Implement a time management plan. Use time management tools. Prioritize ruthlessly. Learn to delegate and/or outsource. Establish routines and stick to them as much as possible. Get in the habit of setting time limits for tasks. EM Collateral Be sure your systems are organized. Dont waste time waiting.