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Latin root word list

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  • 1. Root Word ListOne of the most difficult things about studying science (especially biology and medicine) is the many names and terms thatseem difficult. Most of them are based on Latin or Greek words. By using the following glossary you may be able to figurethe meaning of many of these terms as you come across them, which might help you to understandthem and learn them. Keep this packet in your science notebook. A carcin- tumor a- or an- without, lack of, not cardi- heart ab- away from carn- flesh acro- height, extremity carp- (-carp) wrist (fruit) acu- needle, sharp cata- down ad- toward, near, on cauda- stem aer-, aero- air caus- burn albu- white -cele tumor or swelling alg-, -algia pain -centesis puncture, tap allo- different centi- hundredth alveol- a cavity centri- center; at the center ambi-, amphi- both cephal- head amyl- starch cereb-, cerebro- brain ana- up, back, or apart cervic- neck anemo wind, moving air chiasm- marked crosswise angio- vessel, case, closed chel- claw annel ring chemo- by chemicals antho-, -anth flower chlor- green anthro-, anthropo- human choano- a funnel anti- against, opposed to chole- bile ante-, antero- before, forward chondro- cartilage apo- away from, separation chord string aqua water chrom-, chromat- color arachn- spider chym- juice arch-, archaeo- ancient, beginning -cide kill, destroy arthro- joint, jointed cilia- hair arteri- artery circum- around -ase an enzyme cocco- berry -asis, -osis state of, condition of cochl- snail aster, astro- star coelo-, celo- hollow, cavity atmo- breath coit- a coming together audi-, audio- hear coll- glue auto- self co-, con-, com-, co- with, together aux- grow, enlarge contra- against, opposite corpor-, corpus body cost ribs B cotyl cup cranio- head, skull bac- rod, stick crypto- hidden bentho- depths (of the sea) -cule little bi-, bis- double, twice, two cuti- skin bio- life cyan- blue blasto-, -blast germ cyclo- circle blephero- eyelid cysto-, cyst- bag bot- graze, feed cyt-, cyto-, -cyte cell brachi- arm brady- slow brevi- short D bronchi windpipe bry-, bryo moss or grow dactyl- finger de- away from, down from deca- ten C deci- tenth deutero- second capi-, capit- hair, head demi- half calor- heat demo- people capsa- a box dendr- tree carb- coal
  • 2. dent-, -dont teeth gon- sex or seedderm, dermat- skin -graph, -gram writing, description-desma- band, bond gymn- nakeddextro right (not left, that is) gyn- femaledi-, diplo-, dicho- double, twodia- throughdino- terrible Hdis- apart, reversal OR baddors- back hapl- singleduct lead helic- a spiral-dynia pain helminth type of wormdys- bad, difficult, painful hemi- half hem-, hemat- blood hepat- liver E herb- non-woody plant hetero- unlike; othere-, ex-, ec- out, away from hiberna- winterechino- spiny histo- tissueeco-, oeco- house homo-, homeo- similar OR manecto- outside homin- man-elle small hormono- exciteem-, en- in, into hydro- water OR hydrogen-emia blood condition hyper- over, above, excessiveenanti- opposite hypo- under, belowencephalo- brain hystero-, hyst- uterusendo- withinenter- intestineepi- upon, on, beside Iequi- equalergo-, -rgy energy OR organ ichthy- fisherythr- red idio- distinct oneex-, extra- outside, beyond im-, in-, into, in (OR without)eu- true, good immuno- safe, free infra- below, beneath insula island F intra- within inter between-fer, -ferent carry or bear -ism condition, doctrineferro- iron iso- equal, samefibr- fibers -ist one who…fiss- split -ite like, similar toflagel- whip -itis inflamed conditionflex- bend -ize combine with; to treatflu-, flux flowfoli- (with 1 L) plant, leaffolli- (with 2 L’s) bag, sac J&Kfor- before-form shaped like juxta-, junct near-fuge expelling -karyo nucleusfusi- a spindle kilo- 1000 kino-, kine-, kinesio- move G Lgameto- reproductive cell-gamy marriage labi- lipsganglio- knot lact- milkgastro- stomach lamin- sheet, layergen-, -gen, -genesis to produce; born; offspring laryng- larynxgeo- earth later- sidegerm seed lepido- a scalegest carried leuco-, leuk-, leuko- white-glia glue liga- bindglob ball lingua tongueglosso-, -glotti tongue lipo- fatgluc-, glyc- sugar, sweet -lith stonegnath the jaw limn- a lake
  • 3. littor- the seashore oo- eggloco-, loca- place op-, opto-, opthalmo- eye-logy study of opercul- a covering, lidlopho- a crest, tuft oro-, ora-, os mouthlyso-, -lyte, -lysis, lyto- breakdown, dissolve ortho- straight -osis disease, condition os-, osteo- bone M -ostomy, -otomy to make an opening into oscul- a little mouthmacro- big, large ot-, oto- earmagna- great, large -ous full of; similar tomal- bad, poor ovi-, ova- egg-malacia softeningmamm-, mast- breast-mania madness Pmarsupi- bag, pouchmed-, medio- middle paleo- ancientmedulla marrow -palp lipmega large palpit- fluttermegaly enlargement pan- allmeio- less para- beside, beyond; or, againstmela-, melano- black par-, paro, -parous to bear, to bring forthmer part path, patho disease, suffermeri-, meristo- divide ped- foot (or child, sometimes)meso- middle paed, paedo- childmeta- beyond/after OR change pelag- the seameter measure -penia decreasemito- thread per- by, withmicro- small perfora- bore throughmono- one peri- aroundmorph form phago-, -phage eatmulti- many -phas- speakmuta- change pheno- appearmyco fungus -phil-, attraction to, lovemyelo- spinal cord or bone marrow phleb, phlebo- veinmyo- muscle -phobia fear phone sound -phore carry, bearer N photo- light phre- diaphragm OR mindnarco- stupor, numbness phyll (2 L’s) leafnaso- nose phylo- (1 L) tribenecro- death phyto-, -phyte plantnemato thread pil-, pilo-, pillo- hairneo new pino- drinkneph-, nephro- kidney placo- a plateneuro- nerve plankt-, wanderingneutro- neither plas-, -plasia, plasm form, grownitro- nitrogen -plasty repair, reconstructionnoci- harm platy flat, broadnocti- night -plegia paralyzenomo-, -nomy name pleio- morenon- not pluri- manynoto- back pne-, pneu- breathnucleo- walnut, kernel pneumo- lung, air pod-, podi- foot poie- make poly- many O pom apple -pore, poro- passageob- against post- after, behindoculo- eye -potent- powerful-oid, -ous, -ode like, full of, resembling pre-, pro- before, in front of, forwardoligo- few procto- anusolfact- smell proto- first-oma tumor pseudo- falseomni- all
  • 4. psych- mind thio- sulfur-pter- wing thorac- chest-ptosis fall, drop thrombo- a clotpulmo- lung thylaco- sac, pouchpyo- pus thyro- oval shieldpyro- fire, fever -tion process of -tom, -tomy cutting topo- place Q&R toti- all toxi poisonquad, quadri- four trache- windpiperadio- wheel, spoke, ray trans- across, through, beyondre- back, again tri- threeren- kidneys trocho- a wheelretro- backward, located behind tropo-, -trope, -trophy nutrition, growth; or, turning-rhea discharge tympan drumrhin-, rhino- nose turg- swollenrhizo- root U S ultra- beyond, excess un- not, backsacchar- sugar uni- onesalta- leap ur- earliestsapiens thinking uro-, -uria tail (or urine)sapro- rotten-saur- lizardschiz- split Vsclero- hard vacci- cowscolio- twisted vacu- empty-scope examine; to show vario changesect- cut vas, vaso- vessel, duct, veinsemen, semin seed ven- veinsemi- half ventr- stomachseptic rotted vermi worm-simi- an ape vert- to change or turnsoma-, somato-, -some body vestigi- tracesoph wisdom/knowledge viru slime, ooze-spasm to cramp or convulse virul- poisonousspeci- type vis-, vid- seesperm, spermato- seed viv, vivi- livingspiro-, spira- breathe vort-, -volv to change or turnspleno- spleen -vore, -vorous eatsporo- seedstamen threads-stasis, -stat, stato- standing, stoppage, balance X&Zsteno- narrow xantho- yellowstimul tease, touch xero- dry-stom- mouth xylo phonesub- rear, less than, below zona- a beltsuper-, supra- above or excessive zoo- animalsym-, syn- similar, with zygo- united or yolk zyme ferment, leaven Ttachy fasttars ankle, foot Extrastaxo- arrangementtele-, telo- endten to hold fastteno-, tendo- stretchingtetan spasmtetra- fourtherap- treatment-therm, thermo- heatthigmo- a touch