FROM CARROTS, CROWBARS, AND CANDY TOOPTIONS, OPPORTUNITY, AND OWNERSHIP OFLEARNING: PRINCIPLES OF MOTIVATION &ENGAGEMENTJennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D.Howard Lake-Waverly-Winsted Middle School2013
Learning Targets I can examine the importance of increasingstudent engagement in text. I can dialogue about strengths and areas ofneed in my current practices in relation toengagement. I can reflect on the principles of engagementand apply them to my instructional practices.
Guiding Principles1. Meaning and Mastery areMotivating2. Learning is Social3. Self-Efficacy4. Interest/Relevance5. Control and ChoiceAdapted from J.T. Guthrie (2008)
Our dilemma as educators Majority of students do not read for pleasure Students are unmotivated, apathetic, resistantto reading school content 69% did not read for enjoyment (a signal forintrinsic motivation) 2010 international survey-U.S. ranked 34thoutof 36 developed countries in readingengagement
Importance of readingengagement Engagement & motivation contribute toachievement in reading Interest in reading correlates to readingcomprehension Reading engagement connects more strongly toachievement than home environment “Today, more than ever, valuable classroom timepresents the best opportunity-often the onlyopportunity-to turn kids on to reading” (Gallagher,2009).
Principle #1: Meaning and Masteryare Motivating Have you ever offered incentives in class toproduce a desired outcome? Candy for quiet reading time Games on Friday What incentivized programs have youexperienced? Health club discounts
Principle #1: Meaning and Mastery are Motivating
Special circumstances where “carrots” won’t hurt, andmight help.If assignment doesn’t inspire deep passion orrequire deep thinking, rewards can help. BUT: Offer a rationale as to why the task isnecessary. Acknowledge that the task is boring. Allow students to complete the task their ownway.Principle #1: Meaning and Mastery are Motivating
Essential Requirement for Extrinsic Rewards“Any extrinsic reward should be unexpectedand offered only after the task iscomplete. In other words, where ‘if-then’rewards are a mistake, shift to ‘now that’rewards.”(Pink, 2009, p.66)Principle #1: Meaning and Mastery are Motivating
What is motivating our students? Show good behavior Complete an assignment Extrinsic rewards get a good grade Outperform others Look smarter Understanding text—notimportant Understanding is mostimportant Argue, analyze, debate,explain, organize,connect, defend,conclude… Not isolated, connectedto “big picture” Short or long-termPerformance Goals Mastery GoalsPrinciple #1: Meaning and Mastery are Motivating
Mindse t“After seven experiments with hundreds of children, we had some of the clearest findings I’ve ever seen:Praising children’s intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performance.” by Carol Dweck
7 Practices of Mastery Motivation1. Provide mastery goals2. Make tasks relevant Relevance vs. Entertainment1. Use hands-on activities2. Transform text to meaning3. Scaffold mastery motivation4. Provide re-teach opportunities5. Reward effort over performancePrinciple #1: Meaning and Mastery are Motivating
Turn and Talk Share with a neighbor your reflections on whatyou’ve just heard or ideas about how to applyPrinciple #1: Meaning and Mastery areMotivating.
Principle #3: Self-Efficacy1. Recognize the gap2. Match the text to the reading levels of students3. Establish initial confidence4. Individual students set realistic goals5. “Grade the learning, not the knowing” (Harvey& Daniels, 2009)6. Student value-added assessments
Self-Reflection DIY report cards Goal setting & reflection prior to teacherfeedback Use of learning targets Reflect on peer models and selfPrinciple #3: Self-Efficacy
Principle #4: Interest/Relevance1. Making real-world connections2. Personalizing with questioning3. Extending intrinsic interests4. Self-expressing5. Puzzling (working through inconsistencies intext)
ReflectPause and ReflectWhat are you doing WELL? Which of yourinstructional practices align to these principles?Where have you been challenged? What needsto change for your students and your teaching?
Principle #5 Control and ChoiceSeekto balance teachervs. student centerednessPractices that cultivate motivation: Ownership of text Options for how to learn Autonomy with Accountability Input into curriculum Self-selection of knowledge displays Fed Ex Day Voice in standards for evaluation Inquiry projects
Who is in Control? “Excessive te ache r-centeredness is moredisengaging than we imagine. At thesame time, excessive stude nt-centeredness may be unproductive. Ourgoal is to move from teacher overcontrolto student empowerment.”Eng ag ing Ado le sce nts in Re ading , p. 35Principle #5 Control and Choice
Closing Remarks Professional Book Studies We are motivated by the same 5 principles! “We may have taught them the skills, butwithout the desire to use those skills, where isthe benefit? In many cases it will be whathappens or doesn’t happen in school that isgoing to make the difference” (Layne, 2009).