EASTVIEW HIGH SCHOOL’S  ACADEMIC LITERACY 9 COURSE:  Minnesota’s Exemplary Reading Program 2011   Jennifer McCarty Plucker...
Comfortable Reading Spaces with Teen Appeal  (Atwell, 2007) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
Book Flood  (Gallagher, 2009) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
Time to Read and Write  (Allington, 2006) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
Students Engaged with Technology (Alvermann, 2001; O’Brien, 2006)  Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
Formative Assessment  (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
Academic Literacy 9 <ul><li>An Individualized Intense and Strategic intervention class for students reading 2+ levels belo...
Academic Literacy 9: day at a glance <ul><li>Independent reading—the reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the class (r...
Priority #1:  Independent Reading <ul><li>Pair students with books of their choice </li></ul><ul><li>book browse </li></ul...
Grab their attention with high interest reads Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
So they have a book… how do we know they are reading?   <ul><li>Status of the Class </li></ul><ul><li>Running records of s...
Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
Reader’s Response Journals <ul><li>Ask students to show their  thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Push them beyond summary </li></...
<ul><li>“ I hate reading, but this book is making me wanna keep reading it.  I wish I would have found some books like thi...
Reading is thinking Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
Break Down the Barriers!! <ul><li>Do you know these students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tardy Tracy—isn’t there a clock on you...
Change Their Mindset (and yours)   “After seven experiments with hundreds of children, we had some of the clearest finding...
Strategic Instruction  (customized and individualized) <ul><li>Mini Lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Large g...
Sample mini-lessons <ul><li>Reading with a question in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Self monitoring: clicks and clunks </li></ul...
Read Alouds <ul><li>A shared text experience </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 minutes per day </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency example </li...
Word Games <ul><li>Great way to reward students </li></ul><ul><li>Scrabble, Buzz Word, Scattergories </li></ul><ul><li>Onl...
Executive Summary <ul><li>Research over the last 20 years has shown a clear connection between students’ literacy levels a...
Problem Statement <ul><li>While Eastview High School HAS made adequate yearly progress in reading through NCLB regulations...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>To illuminate the process, effectiveness, and student engagement in Eastview High School’s im...
Research Questions <ul><li>1.  To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measur...
Definitions <ul><li>Struggling (Striving) Reader:  </li></ul><ul><li>A secondary striving reader in ISD196 is a student wh...
Participants <ul><li>All are Eastview High School 9 th  graders </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Group ( n=28): </li></ul><ul><...
Methodology, Data Collection, and Findings <ul><li>Organized by research questions </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Quasi-experiment ...
Academic Literacy 9: Treatment Program <ul><li>Based on A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Develop...
Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Theoretical Framework: </li></ul><u...
Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Principles of Curriculum Design: </...
Instrumentation <ul><li>Measures of Academic Progress test from Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA, 2003) </li></ul><u...
Research Question #1 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured...
Quasi-Experimental Design <ul><li>MAP RIT Score, National Percentile Rank, and Growth (Posttest minus the Pretest score) <...
Mean Comparisons: MAP RIT <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul...
Mean Comparisons:  National Percentile Ranks <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 ...
Mean Comparisons:  One Year’s Growth <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </...
Research Question #2 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured...
Instrumentation <ul><li>Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver & Carter, 2006). </li></ul><ul><...
DRA2 Comparison of Means t  tests reveal statistically significant mean gains for all areas at the .01 level Dr. Jennifer ...
Research Q1 and Q2 Conclusions <ul><li>Adolescent Striving Readers need a Double Dose of Literacy Instruction </li></ul><u...
Opportunities for Further Research <ul><li>Isolate Variables to Closely Examine Factors Leading to Accelerated Growth in R...
Opportunities for Further Research <ul><li>Consider Multi-Literacies’ Role in Adolescent Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Dete...
“ A capacity and taste for reading gives access to whatever has already been discovered by others.”   ~Abraham Lincoln Dr....
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Eastview exemplary reading program award ira poster presentation

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  • Quasi-experiment: a study that resembles an experiment except that random assignment played no role in determining which participants got which level of treatment. ...
  • Introduce video. . .
  • Comprehension strategy theory- licensed and expert teachers direct instruction small class sizes The problem is not illiteracy, but comprehension” (Biancarosa &amp; Snow, 2004, p. 10). The work of Jeanne Chall(1983; 1986) introduced the reading community to the notion that children learn to read in grades kindergarten through three, and then read to learn from grades three on up. In reality, as the demands of the content and the difficulty levels of the text as well as the vast amount of information the child must navigate as they make their way through each subject during school, the reader must be able to not only read the words on the page, but understand and attach meaning to those words. In order to do so, the reader must be able to construct meaning of difficult vocabulary, sift through the many details to determine what is most important, activate prior knowledge to attach new learning with previous learning, think critically, and do all of this while continuing through the text fluently.( Allington, 2006; Irvin, et al., 2007; Snow &amp; Biancarosa, 2003). Zone of Proximal Development—individualized, customized instruction. . .scaffolding to support students through the process. I do, we do , you do Formative Assessment to determine zone. . .strengths, areas to improve, etc. Engagement/self-efficacy Dweck and Kohn—Performance vs. growth mindsets, meaningful feedback, Guthrie and Wigfield and Guthrie: choice, control, relevance, Obrien and Vacca— I can because I think I can “ Students who struggle the most re-engaged and REDEFINED themselves as competent when engaged in activities they viewed as relevant using digital tools and popular media” ~ O’Brien, 2008 Research base: Eccles, Wigfield, &amp; Schiefele, 1998: Guthrie, 2008; Smith &amp; Wilhelm, 2002; Strickland &amp; Alverman, 2004) Confidence building is KEY—students must see themselves as academic. . .successful. . .often Striving students sometimes view themselves as outsiders at EVHS—pull them IN
  • ANOVA— simply tell us –yes there is a difference somewhere in these three groups. Scheffe will tell us where exactly those differences exist.
  • Discuss why—control and al9 similar populations of students all id’d striving readers, adolescent reading growth is slow. . .research has shown can’t catch up in one year (Allington, 2009) Practical significance—gap between AL9 and Gen9 is narrower than between Control group and Gen9
  • NPR—important b/c it is what we use to id students. Based on national norms—50% means right smack in the middle compared to students across the nation. . .important to note that general population is skewed to the left w/ mean 71.9% (50 th percentile RIT=223) Practical significance—40 th percentile no longer id’d as striving reader. . .
  • Discuss why—control and al9 similar populations of students all id’d striving readers, adolescent reading growth is slow. . .research has shown can’t catch up in one year (Allington, 2009) Practical significance—gap between AL9 and Gen9 is narrower than between Control group and Gen9 Important implication—in order to narrow reading gap must accelerate reading growth (Allington). Important note: In 8 th grade, Con had negative growth (went backwards); AL9 remained flat (no digression or growth); and general population made approx 4 point gain. . .
  • Define engagement, fluency, and comprehension. . .
  • Scores: Engagement Fall: 3.4 Spring Engagement: 5.3 Fall Fluency: 9.9 Spring Fluency: 12.3 Fall Comprehension: 13 Spring Comprehension: 17.2 Fall Total: 26 Spring Total: 34.9 Goal is to get students out of instructional zone and into independent 6/8; 12/16 Fluency; 18/24 Comprehension Formative Assessment: Conferencing. . .
  • In other words, what specifically w/in the treatment program was most effective?
  • Deliver Conclusion here. . .
  • Eastview exemplary reading program award ira poster presentation

    1. 1. EASTVIEW HIGH SCHOOL’S ACADEMIC LITERACY 9 COURSE: Minnesota’s Exemplary Reading Program 2011 Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D. Research Poster Presentation International Reading Association May 9, 2011 Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    2. 2. Comfortable Reading Spaces with Teen Appeal (Atwell, 2007) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    3. 3. Book Flood (Gallagher, 2009) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    4. 4. Time to Read and Write (Allington, 2006) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    5. 5. Students Engaged with Technology (Alvermann, 2001; O’Brien, 2006) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    6. 6. Formative Assessment (Afflerbach, 2007; Stiggens, Arter, Chappuis & Chappuis, 2006). Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    7. 7. Academic Literacy 9 <ul><li>An Individualized Intense and Strategic intervention class for students reading 2+ levels below grade. </li></ul><ul><li>A double dose of literacy instruction (in addition to core classes). </li></ul><ul><li>A year long class with its’ own curriculum taught by licensed reading teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to practice (daily) reading and writing at their instructional level (zone of proximal development). </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity for students to receive background knowledge for core subjects through guided reading lessons. </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    8. 8. Academic Literacy 9: day at a glance <ul><li>Independent reading—the reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Status of the class (running records) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting and resetting </li></ul><ul><li>Book Browse/Book Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reader’s Response Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Mini-lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Literacy (Moodle) </li></ul><ul><li>Whole class read aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Word games </li></ul><ul><li>*A typical day includes 2-3 of the preceding activities </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    9. 9. Priority #1: Independent Reading <ul><li>Pair students with books of their choice </li></ul><ul><li>book browse </li></ul><ul><li>teacher suggestions based on interest inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Book Trailers (created by past students—example at the end if time) </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    10. 10. Grab their attention with high interest reads Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    11. 11. So they have a book… how do we know they are reading? <ul><li>Status of the Class </li></ul><ul><li>Running records of student progress </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks book titles and pace of reader </li></ul><ul><li>Also can include student engagement and ability to establish reading zone </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a collaboration between student self-evaluation and teacher observation </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    12. 12. Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    13. 13. Reader’s Response Journals <ul><li>Ask students to show their thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Push them beyond summary </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a format for entries </li></ul><ul><li>Supply students with notebooks ($1) </li></ul><ul><li>Can also respond on Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Entries not expected every day </li></ul><ul><li>Average # of entries: 2-3 per week </li></ul><ul><li>Goal = to make thinking processes more automatic eliminating the need for RRJs </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    14. 14. <ul><li>“ I hate reading, but this book is making me wanna keep reading it. I wish I would have found some books like this one before because then I think I would probably [have] read a little bit more when I was younger.” </li></ul><ul><li>~Jon, September, 2008 </li></ul>Sample Prompts This reminds me of… I wonder why… I need to reread the part where… A golden line for me is… A conclusion I’m drawing is… The most important message is… Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    15. 15. Reading is thinking Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    16. 16. Break Down the Barriers!! <ul><li>Do you know these students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tardy Tracy—isn’t there a clock on your cell phone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absent Abigail—MIA… a lot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobby Belligerent—the answer is always “NO!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Jokester—lots of jokes; often inappropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleepy, Dopey, Droopey… wait, are those dwarves? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezy Sally—frequent visits to Nurse Peggy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlie Charmer—everybody’s buddy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetful Fay—no pencil, no notebook, no problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Billy Bladder—suspiciously well-hydrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celine Cell—so many texts, so little time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messy Melissa—something could be living in that backpack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I-could-care-less Chris—surprisingly indifferent about everything </li></ul></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    17. 17. Change Their Mindset (and yours) “After seven experiments with hundreds of children, we had some of the clearest findings I’ve ever seen: Praising children’s intelligence harms their motivation and it harms their performance.” by Carol Dweck Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    18. 18. Strategic Instruction (customized and individualized) <ul><li>Mini Lessons—large or small group </li></ul><ul><li>Large group (7-13 students) </li></ul><ul><li>Small group (2-4 students) CREW (collaborative reading enhanced work time)—our version of guided reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson objectives based on students’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>10-15 minutes maximum </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    19. 19. Sample mini-lessons <ul><li>Reading with a question in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Self monitoring: clicks and clunks </li></ul><ul><li>RRJ Zoom </li></ul><ul><li>Thick and thin questions </li></ul><ul><li>Coding the text </li></ul><ul><li>Reading with expression </li></ul><ul><li>Suffixes and prefixes: Making Words </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    20. 20. Read Alouds <ul><li>A shared text experience </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 minutes per day </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency example </li></ul><ul><li>Can double as a mini-lesson for pre-, during, or post-reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>The Boy in the Striped Pajamas —Jon Boyne </li></ul><ul><li>Stuck in Neutral —Terry Trueman </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    21. 21. Word Games <ul><li>Great way to reward students </li></ul><ul><li>Scrabble, Buzz Word, Scattergories </li></ul><ul><li>Online: Text Twist, freerice.com </li></ul>Jennifer McCarty Plucker, Ed. D
    22. 22. Executive Summary <ul><li>Research over the last 20 years has shown a clear connection between students’ literacy levels and academic achievement. As a result, this quasi-experimental case study of ninth graders at Eastview High School, in suburban Minneapolis- St. Paul sought to explore intervention necessary to narrow the gap between struggling readers and their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>This study examined and compared the reading growth of students in a treatment program, a year-long Academic Literacy 9 Course taught in addition to their language arts classes, a control group of striving readers not enrolled in the treatment, and a sample from the school’s general ninth grade population. Additionally, an examination of the correlation between engagement and perceived self-efficacy and students’ reading growth was conducted. </li></ul><ul><li>Compelling evidence indicates that striving adolescent readers who receive strategic, systematic, and individualized intervention accelerated their reading growth in one year at three times the mean growth rate of their peers. Furthermore, a moderate correlation existed between the perceived self-efficacy of students engaged in the program, and their reading growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Replication of this study, customized to meet the needs of varied populations of striving readers, is recommended in order to add to the research field of adolescent literacy and contribute to the reading achievement of adolescents’ in all types of settings. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    23. 23. Problem Statement <ul><li>While Eastview High School HAS made adequate yearly progress in reading through NCLB regulations, Biancarosa & Snow (2004) point out “high-achieving schools have struggling readers and writers [and] in such environments struggling students may be more likely to be overlooked” (p.8). </li></ul>“ By sixth or ninth grade, three- and four-year lags in reading achievement are far too common. There are few intervention studies that last for four years in middle or high school, so there is far less research evidence on just what to do with older struggling readers” (Allington, 2009, p. 8) Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    24. 24. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>To illuminate the process, effectiveness, and student engagement in Eastview High School’s implementation of Academic Literacy 9, an intense year-long literacy intervention course for students reading in the 30 th percentile or lower. </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    25. 25. Research Questions <ul><li>1. To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the MAP test in comparison to the control group and a sample of the ninth grade general population? </li></ul><ul><li>2. To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the DRA2 test? </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    26. 26. Definitions <ul><li>Struggling (Striving) Reader: </li></ul><ul><li>A secondary striving reader in ISD196 is a student who scores at or below the 40 th percentile nationally in reading on at least two, preferably three, standardized test(s) (ISD 196, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>ISD 196 chose striving over struggling for connotative purposes. This study will use them interchangeably. </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    27. 27. Participants <ul><li>All are Eastview High School 9 th graders </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment Group ( n=28): </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Literacy 9 students </li></ul><ul><li>4 sections with approximately 7 students in each. </li></ul><ul><li>(necessary to exclude students who started program mid year, or moved out of program mid year) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Group ( n=21): students identified as striving readers—not enrolled in treatment program. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample from General Population of 9 th grade ( n=257): Students in regular 9 th grade classes, excluding treatment and control group students and honors students. </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    28. 28. Methodology, Data Collection, and Findings <ul><li>Organized by research questions </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Quasi-experiment with three groups </li></ul><ul><li>2.) Growth for Treatment Group </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    29. 29. Academic Literacy 9: Treatment Program <ul><li>Based on A Model Secondary (6-12) Plan for Reading Intervention and Development (MN Dept. of Ed, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Belief Statements and Curriculum Frameworks Developed by ISD 196 team of Reading Specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision of Reading Teachers at EVHS (video) </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    30. 30. Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Theoretical Framework: </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension Strategy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Zone of Proximal Development” </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Release of Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Formative Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement/Self-efficacy Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Literacy and Digital Literacy Research </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    31. 31. Systematic Strategic Reading Intervention: The Treatment (Academic Literacy 9) <ul><li>Principles of Curriculum Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable Reading Spaces with Teen Appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Book Flood </li></ul><ul><li>Time to Read and Write </li></ul><ul><li>Students Engaged with Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Reflection and Goal Setting </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    32. 32. Instrumentation <ul><li>Measures of Academic Progress test from Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—Spring of 2008; Posttest—Spring of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized Adaptive Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Untimed, approximately 50 minute test </li></ul><ul><li>Customized based on pre-test MAP score </li></ul><ul><li>Gives RIT score (typically ranging between 180—250 for 9 th grader) </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    33. 33. Research Question #1 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the MAP test in comparison to the control group and a sample of the ninth grade general population? </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    34. 34. Quasi-Experimental Design <ul><li>MAP RIT Score, National Percentile Rank, and Growth (Posttest minus the Pretest score) </li></ul><ul><li>Variance of Analysis (ANOVA) to determine if statistically significant difference in means (averages) exist between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Post hoc analysis (Scheffe) to determine which means are significantly different from which other means </li></ul>AL9 (n=28)— treatment group Con (n=21)— control group Gen9 (n=257)— sample from general population Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    35. 35. Mean Comparisons: MAP RIT <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    36. 36. Mean Comparisons: National Percentile Ranks <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>Con and Gen 9 </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Con </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    37. 37. Mean Comparisons: One Year’s Growth <ul><li>ANOVA: Statistically significant mean difference detected at the .01 level </li></ul><ul><li>Scheffe: Mean difference is significant at the .01 level for the following pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Gen9 </li></ul><ul><li>AL9 and Control </li></ul><ul><li>No statistical significance for: </li></ul><ul><li>Gen9 and Control </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    38. 38. Research Question #2 <ul><li>To what extent have students in Academic Literacy 9 improved their reading scores as measured by the DRA2 test? </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    39. 39. Instrumentation <ul><li>Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) </li></ul><ul><li>(Beaver & Carter, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-One Reading Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement (series of questions about reading experiences, reading goals, and plans for obtaining goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency (oral reading assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension (during, and post reading activities). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scored with a standardized rubric </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson Trains Reading Specialists to Use the Assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pretest—September, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Posttest—April, 2009 </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    40. 40. DRA2 Comparison of Means t tests reveal statistically significant mean gains for all areas at the .01 level Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    41. 41. Research Q1 and Q2 Conclusions <ul><li>Adolescent Striving Readers need a Double Dose of Literacy Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>One Year of Strategic Intervention is not Enough for Most Striving Readers </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    42. 42. Opportunities for Further Research <ul><li>Isolate Variables to Closely Examine Factors Leading to Accelerated Growth in Reading. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What role does the teacher play? Gender? SES? Ethnicity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is policy necessary to keep intervention programming in place? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What (or how strong of a) role do students’ barriers play in hindering reading growth? </li></ul></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    43. 43. Opportunities for Further Research <ul><li>Consider Multi-Literacies’ Role in Adolescent Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if and how SpEd and ELL Programs can Partner with General Education Reading Intervention Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Consider furthering the field of Mindset Research and Appreciative Inquiry Research? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the Voices of the Students’ Themselves </li></ul>Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker
    44. 44. “ A capacity and taste for reading gives access to whatever has already been discovered by others.”  ~Abraham Lincoln Dr. Jennifer McCarty Plucker

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