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Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
Adolescent model plan[1]
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Adolescent model plan[1]

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  • 1. AN UPDATED MODEL PLAN FOR ADOLESCENT READING INTERVENTION AND DEVELOPMENTA resource for Minnesota schools and districts to provide guidance in developing quality reading intervention programs for adolescent students In Collaboration with The Minnesota Reading Association Secondary Reading Interest Council Spring 2011
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis tool was first created by the Quality Teaching Network: Reading (QTN: R) in2006. This group of exemplary educators was dedicated to assisting schoolsthroughout the state in improving student achievement. The QTN was organizedand supported by the Minnesota Department of Education under the leadership ofBonnie D. Houck, Reading Specialist.In 2010, the Secondary Reading Interest Council (SRIC), part of the MinnesotaReading Association, began the task of updating the original document to includecurrent best and research-based practices including the constructs of Response toIntervention. The project was spearheaded by Cory Stai, Vice President of SRIC,and Kari Ross, Reading Specialist at the Minnesota Department of Education.Major contributors included Dr. Jennifer McCarty, Stephanie Brondani, JulieScullen, Nancy Stalland, and Jessica Crooker, all members of the SRIC leadershipteam. Additional SRIC members provided valuable resources and acted asreviewers.Expert evaluators, including members of the Minnesota Academy of Reading andDr. Michael Graves, also provided insight and analysis of this work. “Thank you very much for devoting your time and expertise to the revision of the [Model Plan]. Your revisions, including the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, will make this document even more relevant and helpful to Minnesota schools and districts. The Members of the Minnesota Academy of Reading (MAR) appreciate your work and strongly support the emphasis the plan puts on several key issues.” ~Dr. Michael Graves 2
  • 3. Table of ContentsStatement of Purpose .................................................................................................................... 4Description of the Model .............................................................................................................. 5 Beliefs and Assumptions ........................................................................................................... 5 Research Base ............................................................................................................................ 6 How to Use This Model Plan .................................................................................................... 6 A Tiered Model .......................................................................................................................... 7 A Progression of Developmental Outcomes ............................................................................ 7Identification, Placement and Assessment .................................................................................. 8Scheduling Considerations for Tiered Interventions............................................................... 11Student Outcomes Progression Charts ..........................................Error! Bookmark not defined. Motivation and Engagement .................................................................................................. 12 Comprehension ........................................................................................................................ 15 Vocabulary Instruction ........................................................................................................... 23 Word Recognition, Analysis and Fluency ............................................................................. 26Bibliography and References ..................................................................................................... 27Glossary ....................................................................................................................................... 30Appendix A .................................................................................................................................. 30 3
  • 4. Statement of PurposeAs the literacy demands of adolescent learners continue to increase, it is imperative thatMinnesota’s educational institutions develop assessment and intervention plans (including ascope and sequence of developmental outcomes) that lead all students to acquire the literacyskills necessary for the 21st century. Reading proficiency develops over time, and students of allabilities need sustained and intentional reading instruction throughout their K-12 schooling inorder to be ready for the demands of college and the work place. At a time when significant andappropriate attention is being given to supporting the development of students in the early,formative years of literacy acquisition, this project is intended to provide advocacy, education,and support for the continuing and intentional instruction of adolescent readers.As reading educators, we strive to support literacy development in all students. To accomplishthis, we advocate thoughtful adoption of the 2010 Minnesota Academic Standards in EnglishLanguage Arts published by the Minnesota Department of Education. This project is not meantto replace, replicate, or interfere with the implementation of the academic standards. Althoughcare has been taken to align the content of this document with the standards, this model plan ismeant to inform and supplement the discussions and decisions made on behalf of strivingreaders. To those ends, it is expected that this plan will serve a variety of purposes for a varietyof audiences: To inform policymakers, instructional leaders, and practitioners of current, researched best practices for reading assessment, instruction, and intervention. To provide models and tools for the development of comprehensive, system-wide plans of reading assessment, instruction, and intervention. To address the unique considerations necessary to bridge the gap between students’ current reading abilities and grade-level expectations by accelerating learning. To support and enrich the professional development goals and needs of educational institutions in the area of reading. To enhance the development and implementation of curriculum for specific courses, programs, and differentiated plans of instruction and intervention.Because this project is meant to serve a diverse set of purposes, it was not possible to fully meetthe needs of all audiences while still maintaining a document that avoids becoming cumbersome,intimidating, or a perceived ―magic bullet.‖ We acknowledge and take responsibility for theshortcomings inherent in this document; however, it is our hope that it will serve as a usefulresource to forward the cause of guiding all adolescents to reading proficiency. 4
  • 5. Description of the ModelThe updated Model Plan for Adolescent Reading Intervention and Development has beendesigned to meet the cognitive needs of adolescent students whose reading performance rangesfrom those significantly below expectations through those reading at or above grade level so thatthey can independently and proficiently read complex and rigorous texts in every content area.In this model, core instruction is considered to be the standards-based instruction and curriculumall students receive in general education academic classroom settings. All students participate incore instruction, whereas interventions are in addition to and aligned with this basic componentof a comprehensive instructional framework. Even though core instruction is designed toprovide all students with rigorous and relevant curriculum, it may not sufficiently meet the needsof every learner. Some students will require intervention, additional support and instruction onreading skills and strategies, to successfully master grade-level expectations. A systematicframework, such as this Model Plan, outlines how data can be used to determine those studentswho need additional support. Intervention then is based on the screening, diagnostic, formative,and summative data collected on students at risk, and instruction is provided with evidence- andresearch-based practices that are specific to the needs of an adolescent struggling reader.Beliefs and AssumptionsIt is important to acknowledge that there are a variety of beliefs and assumptions that underliethe development of this plan: Students that are significantly behind their peers in grade-level reading achievement need: o An intervention plan that will accelerate their literacy growth. o Additional support above and beyond reading in language arts and other content areas. o Instruction from a licensed reading professional during time specified for reading instruction. (Note: In Minnesota secondary schools, reading intervention instruction during a specified daily reading class period requires delivery by a licensed reading professional as mandated by Rule 8710.4725.) o Intervention in addition to other services such as special education or limited English proficiency. Students reading at or above grade level will also benefit from explicit reading instruction to encourage ongoing growth and development of critical thinking skills. An instruction and intervention plan should be data driven and based on students’ needs to assure growth in reading development and to support the independent application of strategic reading throughout the school day. Triangulation of multiple data measures which include norm-referenced, criterion-based, and informal assessments should be used to create or redesign reading intervention plans and for moving students into, between, and out of appropriate interventions. Entrance and exit criteria should represent the accelerated growth needed to ensure students are making adequate progress toward grade-level expectations. It is not sufficient to provide intervention for any student merely for the purpose of preparing for a standardized test. 5
  • 6. Research BaseResearch by Fielding, Kerr, and Rosier (2007) states that for every grade level students arebehind their peers, 17 minutes per day of intentional, intensive reading intervention is needed toclose the gap and accelerate academic achievement. This is a daunting task given the timeconstraints in a school day, so suggested scheduling options are included in this plan to illustratefor schools how to accommodate courses before, during, and after the school day that supportstructuring levels of interventions for secondary students.Further, research recognizes and supports the great need to address the issue of adolescentliteracy and to assist all of our students in reading at grade level so that they may be productiveboth in their academic lives and in the adult world (Reading Next, 2005) (National Governor’sAssociation, 2005). Research also recognizes that in order for readers to be successful, they needto be engaged with text and motivated to read. It is important to provide: choice in reading, printand digital sources that are at students’ independent reading levels, opportunities to readindependently, and authentic experiences to respond and react to text orally and/or in writing.Adolescent readers are more motivated to read when they have choice, an interest in the text theyencounter, and opportunities to participate with a variety of texts (Guthrie, 2008).How to Use This Model PlanThe Model Plan for Adolescent Reading Intervention and Development is meant to serve as anexemplar for districts and schools as they develop their own reading intervention plans andcurricula. These suggestions reflect both research- and evidence-based best practices. Thestudent outcomes are based on the 2010 Minnesota Academic Standards in English LanguageArts relating to reading, but also include other pertinent components necessary for working withadolescent readers. In addition, the Literacy Standards for History/Social Studies, Sciences, andTechnical Subjects, part of the standards, highlight the complex reading demands placed onstudents throughout the school day.In beginning the process of constructing, or redesigning, a system for reading intervention, it isimportant to investigate research relating to motivating adolescent learners, the cognitivedemands of informational text in content-area reading, and evidence-based proven practices foradolescent learners. There are no packaged programs that will meet all the needs of strugglingadolescent readers equally. It is imperative for decision makers to clearly understand and identifystudents’ needs (based on data), outline the essential components of interventions that willsupport attainment of desired outcomes for students, and then create programs and structuresaccordingly. Effective systems include attention to professional development, appropriate classsize, allocation of resources, and a process for continual evaluation and feedback to ensurestudents’ needs are met or interventions are modified.Many terms and references used in this document may be unfamiliar to school and districtleaders. A glossary and a comprehensive list of additional resources are included at the end ofthis document to help clarify and support expectations and specific goals related toimplementation of the Model Plan. 6
  • 7. A Tiered ModelIn studying the data, a district or school may determine a tiered intervention plan would bestmeet the needs of their students. The tiers used in this model plan include:Core Instruction is general instruction for all students and designed to represent on-grade levelcurriculum and instruction as intended for the regular language arts classroom. All students arepart of core instruction. Intervention is in addition to this standards-based instruction. Althoughnot all Minnesota standards for the English language arts appear in the framework of this modelintervention document, districts must analyze and implement all grade-level standards withintentionality and consistency.Intervention I is designed to bridge the learning gap for students who are approaching grade-level mastery. These students need additional support to reach independence in meeting literacydemands using grade-level texts through supplemented instruction in addition to core instruction.This tier often represents students who fall in the 26th–40th percentile on district or stateassessments. Intervention in this tier can also be supported by differentiation in core academicareas that require complex reading tasks such as social studies, science, health, etc.Intervention II is designed to provide supplemental instruction in addition to core instruction tomeet the significant learning needs of students struggling to perform at grade level. This tieroften represents students who perform at the 11th- 25th percentile on district and stateassessments.Intervention III is designed to provide intensive intervention to students who exhibit significantdifficulties in literacy and need sustained, direct instruction in small group or one-to-one settingsin addition to core instruction. Students in Intervention III will need reading interventions thatare aligned with core instruction and support independent reading practices throughout theschool day plus intentional instruction in foundational reading skills. These students often scorebelow the 10th percentile on district or state assessments.A Progression of Developmental OutcomesThis Model Plan features four main areas that are essential considerations in a comprehensiveintervention plan designed to meet the needs of struggling adolescent readers: A. Motivation andEngagement, B. Comprehension, C. Vocabulary Expansion, and D. Word Recognition, Phonics,and Fluency.Not all students receiving intervention will need instruction in all of these areas, but all areasneed to be included in a school’s framework. Data collected on student needs will help determinethe interventions needed. Then the plan components can be used to chart clear pathways ofacademic growth. The charts on the following pages are organized as a progression of skills andknowledge needed for students to move through the intervention stages toward grade-levelproficiency. Each chart indicates student outcomes only; schools and districts must then identifyresources, materials, pedagogy, and professional development needed to support accomplishmentof these outcomes for all students. The majority of their time should be spent in guided,sustained reading as opposed to discrete skills work. 7
  • 8. Identification, Placement and AssessmentAssessments are an important component of an intervention plan. They need to be timely,reliable, and appropriate to indicate which students are falling behind and which students needtheir learning accelerated. This information can allow teachers to design instruction that respondsto the learning needs of individual students. By regularly assessing students’ progress in reading,teachers can identify which students need more help and which are likely to make good progresswithout extra help. It is important to note that students who are identified for intervention basedon a screening measure can fall into any level for reading behaviors, depending on individualskills and deficiencies. For example, a student may be in Core Instruction for fluency but needLevel III intervention for comprehension, thus an assessment plan that includes multiple datameasures is best.An effective assessment plan has four main objectives: Identify students who are at-risk or who are experiencing difficulties on an ongoing basis and who may need extra instruction or intensive interventions if they are to progress toward grade-level by the end of the school year (screening). Monitor students’ progress during the year to determine whether students in intervention are making adequate progress in literacy development (progress monitoring). Inform instructional planning in order to meet the needs of individual students (diagnosis). Evaluate the effectiveness of interventions and whether the instruction provided is intensive enough to help students achieve grade-level standards by the end of each year (evaluation).Using multiple data points is important for getting a broader understanding of readers’ needs forintervention. When choosing assessment tools, it’s imperative to understand what informationthe data provides, and what information is missing.With these objectives in mind, a comprehensive assessment plan should include at a minimuminclude screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic information.Screening Assessments: Screening assessments are quick and efficient measures of overallability and critical skills known to be strong indicators that predict student performance.Screening assessments do not necessarily need to be an additional measure; districts can beginthe screening process with existing data. As an example, a screening assessment might be anMCA score. Students who score in the ―Does Not Meet‖ and ―Partially Meets‖ categories aremost at risk for reading difficulties and may require additional testing including a diagnosticassessment. Other examples might include the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test or the Measuresof Academic Progress (MAP) assessments. Students that are two grade levels or below theirpeers on the Gates-MacGinitie, or score in the first or second quartile on the MAP assessment fortheir grade level, warrant further diagnostic assessment.By establishing an initial baseline for all students, these assessments identify individual studentswho do not meet grade-level expectations. Results are used as a starting point for instruction orto indicate a need for further evaluation. Students scoring below the 40th percentile on ascreening assessment may be in need of intervention, and further assessment is recommended. 8
  • 9. After identifying the students at or below the 40th percentile, students can be designated to atargeted intervention plan along with differentiated core instruction.Diagnostic Assessments: The purpose of diagnostic assessments is to provide information forplanning more effective instruction and intervention. Diagnostic assessments provide additionaldata beyond screening and should be given when there is a clear expectation that diagnosticinformation will offer new or more reliable data about a student’s academic needs. Thisinformation is used to plan more targeted and intensive instruction.A diagnostic tool might include CLOZE, MAZE, Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA),Qualitative Reading Inventory (QRI), oral reading fluency (ORF), or a curriculum-basedmeasure (CBM). The percentile score associated with the diagnostic assessment can add insightinto preliminary student placement information. These scores assist in targeting individualstudents who are in need of additional reading support and provide data on the effectiveness ofintervention and development programs. Using data from a norm-referenced assessment, alongwith the data from MCA and informal classroom assessments, can provide a triangulation of datawhich gather multiple perspectives so as to gain a more complete understanding of the needs ofstudents individually and as a group.Progress Monitoring Assessments: Progress monitoring assessments are also brief but are givenat regular intervals during intervention to determine whether a student is making adequateprogress. Progress monitoring assessment data should be collected, evaluated, and used on anongoing basis for the following purposes:To determine the rate of a student’s progress.To provide information on the effectiveness of intervention and to modify the intervention toolsif necessary.Progress monitoring measurements, like a diagnostic assessment, might include CLOZE, MAZE,oral reading fluency, or a curriculum-based measure. These tools can be administered regularlyto determine student growth and further assist in ensuring that individual students’ needs are met. 9
  • 10. TABLE 1: ASSESSMENT AND GROUPING OPTIONS BY LEVEL One way to organize a comprehensive assessment program that includes targeted student placement information can be illustrated in the chart below. Every school or district may have slightly different variations based on student need and available assessments, so a blank template is included in the appendices.Level of Intervention Grouping Assessment Shared Assessments Options1Classroom Intervention Small/ Flexible Gates-MacGinitieFor all students with specific Groups2 MCA IIIdifferentiation for students scoring at or Commonbelow 40th percentile and students who Assessmentsneed support in motivation and MAP ( NWEA)engagement, vocabulary, andcomprehension. Formative ClassroomIntervention Level I Groups of 16-25; DRP AssessmentsFor students scoring at or below 26th to 1 year course Fluency CBM40th percentile and/or who are reading CBM Writing Sampleone to two levels below their current Maze/Clozegrade level and need support in CARI Interest inventoriesmotivation and engagement, vocabulary Gates-MacGinitieand comprehension. Attitude surveysIntervention Level II Groups of 10-15; IRIFor students scoring at or below 11th to 1 year course QRI Engagement25th percentile and/or who are reading DRA observation chartsthree to four levels below their current ORFgrade level and need support and Fluency CBM Reader’s responsedevelopment in the areas of fluency, CBMmotivation and engagement, vocabulary, Maze/Cloze Self reflectionand comprehension. CARIIntervention Level III Groups of 1-5; IRIFor students scoring at or below the 10th 2-3 yr course; QRIpercentile and/or who show the most Intense direct DRAextreme deficits in many areas of reading instruction; ORFincluding phonics, fluency, motivation Seen daily Fluency CBMand engagement, vocabulary, and Maze/Clozecomprehension. CARI 1 The identified measures are not meant to be seen as recommendations, but examples of commonly used tools. Schools and districts should develop their own comprehensive assessment plan based on existing resources, needs of students, and alignment to broader literacy practices. 2 Classroom teachers must provide explicit instruction in reading strategies using multiple levels of text, provide additional vocabulary support, and use differentiation to vary content, process, and products. 10
  • 11. Scheduling Considerations for Tiered InterventionsIn order to adequately support student growth in an intervention class, the following areimportant considerations: Smaller intervention class size contributes to the success of students. Matching students to interventions and maintaining class sizes so that a highly qualified teacher can give students sufficient time and attention is necessary. Age and gender should be considered when grouping students (e.g., schedule single- grade classes, banded or multiple-grade classes, gender-specific groups). In situations where a significant percentage of the class population receives ESL or special education services, it is recommended that the reading intervention class be taught by the reading specialist in collaboration with the English as a Second Language or Special Education specialist.The schedule can be a perceived barrier to improvement. Alterations that account for theadditional time needed for students who are most at-risk for not being successful withoutintervention is the goal. The key idea is that intervention cannot come at the expense of coreinstructional time. In order to adequately address the needs for scheduling interventions, aplanning team comprised of stakeholders can be assembled. Their first priority is to establish anassessment plan for identifying students in need of intervention. Student needs should then bethe basis for intervention and scheduling decisions.Options for scheduling time and personnel for interventions: Students postpone elective courses until they exit intervention. This would create a class period for intervention in addition to a regular English class. After-school programs. For example, teachers can be on a late-start schedule. Teachers would provide small-group intensive instruction to students after school with or without credit. Or, have teachers work after school using compensatory dollars and teach small- group intervention courses. Catch-up at lunch for students who need additional help could be scheduled to meet with someone during lunch for 10 minutes to go over short, specific instruction on an individual skill.In attending to the needs of students, scheduling that allows flexibility and prioritizes literacymastery is key. Allocating time and resources based on a problem-solving approach ensures thatscheduling is not an obstacle. 11
  • 12. A. Motivation and EngagementAttention to instructional practices that increase students’ motivation, engagement, and self-efficacy is critical to developing readers. Students’ reading motivations are adapted from thework of John T. Guthrie in his text, Engaging Adolescents in Reading. This section identifiesstudent outcomes in the areas of motivation and engagement. Schools and districts areresponsible for providing resources and materials for students to accomplish these outcomes. Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionWith teacher assistance With teacher assistance Interpret and gain an Interpret, analyze and(i.e. scaffolding), (i.e. scaffolding), understanding of past understand past literacyinterpret and gain initial interpret and gain literacy data history and data history and theunderstanding of past understanding of past the implication of implication of assessmentliteracy data history and literacy data history and assessment (screening, (screening, formative,the implication of the implication of formative, summative—both teacherassessment (screening, assessment (screening, summative—both created and standardized)formative, summative— formative, summative teacher created and performance forboth teacher created and — both teacher created standardized) continued growth instandardized) and standardized) performance for literacy.performance for performance for continued growth incontinued growth in continued growth in literacy.literacy. literacy.Identify, with assistance, With teacher support, Articulate one or two Articulate severalgeneral strengths and articulate one or two specific and accurate accurate strengths andgoals related to the specific and accurate strengths and goals for goals for growth in thereading process. Can strengths and goals for growth in the reading reading process with abegin to develop a plan growth in the reading process with a relevant step-by-step plan.for growth in the reading process with a relevant plan.process. plan.Recognize and Recognize, understand Recognize, understand, Recognize, understand,understand one’s and begin to manage and consistently and universally managedistractions that hinder one’s distractions in manage one’s one’s distractions inthe ability to read for order to sustain reading distractions in order to order to sustain readingsustained periods of for established periods sustain reading for for longer periods oftime. of time. longer periods of time. time.With instructor support, With instructor support, Display stamina to Display stamina tobegin to develop develop stamina to sustain effort in the face embrace challenges andstamina to sustain effort sustain effort in order to of challenging tasks in sustain effort in order toin order to complete complete tasks. order to complete them. achieve mastery oftasks in small content.increments. 12
  • 13. A. Motivation and Engagement (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionWith teacher assistance, With teacher assistance, Self-select and desire to Self-select and desire tobegin to select texts at read entire self-selected read/complete a variety read a variety of gradestudent’s independent texts at student’s of texts at independent level texts acrossreading level. independent reading level. several genres. level.Identify general topics of Identify specific Investigate a variety of Investigate a variety ofpersonal interest and seek personal interests and personal interests and personal interests tonew knowledge through with teacher assistance with teacher assistance obtain and synthesizeother texts. obtain new knowledge obtain new knowledge new knowledge through diverse texts. through a comp- through a rehensive diversity of comprehensive text genres. diversity of text genres.With teacher support, Beginning to take Growing confidence in Displays confidence inencouraged to take academic risks, taking academic risks, taking academic risks,academic risks, navigate navigate difficult texts, navigating difficult text, navigating difficultdifficult texts, and apply and apply critical and applying critical text, and applyingcritical reading strategies reading strategies to reading strategies to critical readingto deepen explorative deepen explorative deepen explorative strategies to deepenlearning. learning in an effort to learning. explorative learning. develop confidence.With teacher assistance With teacher assistance, Self-select and Self-select andand managed choice for self-select and demonstrate learning demonstrate learningself-selection, demonstrate learning from texts read from texts readdemonstrate learning from texts read independently or independently orfrom texts read independently or collaboratively (e.g., collaboratively (e.g.,independently or collaboratively (e.g., written, oral, digital). written, oral, digital).collaboratively (e.g., written, oral, digital).written, oral, digital).Engage in teacher Engage in guided Engage in discourse Engage in authenticdirected discourse discourse centered on centered on texts for a discourse centered oncentered on texts for a texts for a sustained sustained period of time texts for a sustainedsustained period of time. period of time. working toward period of time. independence.With teacher support, With teacher support, With minimal teacher Work collaboratively;begin to work work collaboratively; support, work valuing diversecollaboratively; working valuing diverse collaboratively; valuing perspectives, managingto value diverse perspectives, managing diverse perspectives, conflict, and efficientlyperspectives, manage conflict, and efficiently managing conflict, and using time in order toconflict and efficiently using time in order to efficiently using time in maximize learning.use time to maximize maximize learning. order to maximizelearning. learning. 13
  • 14. A. Motivation and Engagement (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionPractice active reading With teacher support, Selects and applies Independently selectsstrategies for a variety ofselects and applies active reading strategies and applies activetexts, purposes and active reading strategies for a variety of texts, reading strategies for aoccasions in academic for a variety of texts, purposes and occasions variety of texts,settings and explore purposes and occasions in academic settings purposes and occasionstransfer to out-of-class in academic settings and explores transfer to both inside and outsideopportunities. and explores transfer to out-of-class of school. out of class opportunities. opportunities.With teacher support, With teacher support, Explore and utilize 21st Independently utilizeexplore and begin to explore and utilize 21st century digital literacy 21st century digitalutilize 21st century century digital literacy skills to assist in literacy skills todigital literacy skills to skills to assist in accomplishing accomplish academicassist in accomplishing accomplishing academic tasks centered tasks centered onacademic tasks centered academic tasks centered on reading and writing. reading and writing.on reading and writing. on reading and writing.See and understand the Move from extrinsic Intrinsically motivated Intrinsically motivatedvalue in moving from motivations to read to read for enjoyment, to read for enjoyment,extrinsic motivations to (teacher approval, knowledge acquisition knowledge acquisitionread (teacher approval, grades and others’ and understanding. and deepgrades and others’ perceptions) to intrinsic understanding.perceptions) to intrinsic motivation (enjoyment,motivation (enjoyment, knowledge acquisitionknowledge acquisition and understanding).and understanding). 14
  • 15. B. ComprehensionIt is imperative that the majority of text be expository. Text comprehension instruction shouldinclude both oral and written expressions that both support the intentional and thoughtfulinteraction between the reader and the text (Kamil, Pearson, Moje, Afflerbach, 2011). Thissection identifies student outcomes in the area of reading comprehension. Schools and districtsare responsible for providing resources and materials for students to accomplish these outcomes.Common Considerations Across Levels:Materials used for instruction must be matched to the reading levels of the students in each tier.Appropriate differentiated instructional materials should be available at each level ofintervention, including non-fiction text. Research supports a balance of fiction, non-fiction andinformational text in classroom libraries (Allington, 2002).Comprehension strategies should be explicitly taught across the tiers using the gradual release ofresponsibility model (i.e., greatest teacher modeling and support when introducing each skill,strong teacher support with large and then small group practice of skill, gradually leading togreater student independence, and eventually complete student independence in applying skill).Students at levels II and III will need longer periods of teacher modeling and group practice thanstudents in Intervention I and Core Instruction groups.Comprehension strategies and skills are presented here using the before-, during- and after-reading model of strategic reading. Before reading strategies allow students to activate and buildprior knowledge, set a reading purpose, and plan for reading. During reading strategies promoteactive thinking to make meaning from text and support the purpose for reading. After readingstrategies require students to check for understanding, integrate and transfer learning, andsynthesize new information. 15
  • 16. B. Comprehension (continued) Before Reading Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionRecall and use prior Recall and use prior Recall and use prior Recall and use priorknowledge, as modeled knowledge, with knowledge to aid knowledge to maximizeby the teacher, to aid teacher comprehension of comprehension ofcomprehension of support, to aid complex literary and complex literary andliterary and comprehension of and informational texts informational textsinformational texts. complex literary and with greater while reading informational texts. independence and independently and proficiency. proficiently.Establish the purpose Establish the purpose Establish the purpose Establish the purposefor reading by for reading by for reading by for reading byexamining text title or examining text title or examining text title or examining text title orother text features, as other text features with other text features other text featuresmodeled by the teacher. teacher support. independently. independently.Preview text (e.g., Preview text (e.g., Preview text (e.g., Preview text (e.g., usingusing pictures, using pictures, using pictures, pictures, diagrams,diagrams, titles and diagrams, titles and diagrams, titles and titles and headings) toheadings) to prepare for headings) to prepare for headings) to prepare to prepare to determineclose reading as close reading, with determine what the text what the text saysmodeled by the teacher. teacher support. says explicitly and to explicitly and to make make inferences. logical inferences.Recognize common Use common patterns Use common patterns Use common patternspatterns of text of text structure to aid of text structure to aid including narrative,structure to aid comprehension of comprehension of informational andcomprehension of literary and complex literary and persuasive textliterary and informational texts, informational texts with structures to aidinformational texts, as with teacher support. greater independence. comprehension ofselected and modeled complex literary andby the teacher. informational texts (e.g., problem/solution, opinion/reason and thesis proof). 16
  • 17. B. Comprehension (continued) Before Reading (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionGenerate questions and Generate questions and Generate questions Generate questionsmake predictions which make predictions which which include central which include centralinclude central ideas or include central ideas or ideas or themes of the ideas or themes of thethemes of the text, as themes of the text, with text and make text and makemodeled by the teacher, teacher support relevant predictions. predictions.using prior knowledge, to context.experience, and textfeatures.Use appropriate Select and use Select and use Select and usestrategies (graphic appropriate strategies appropriate strategies appropriate strategiesorganizer, note taking, (graphic organizer, note (graphic organizer, note (graphic organizer, noteoutlining, etc.) to aid taking, outlining, etc.) taking, outlining, etc.) taking, outlining, etc.)comprehension of to aid comprehension to maximize to maximizeliterary and of literary and comprehension of comprehension ofinformational texts informational texts complex literary and complex literary andwhile reading, as while reading, with informational texts informational textsmodeled and selected teacher support. while reading with while readingby the teacher. greater independence independently and and proficiency. proficiently. 17
  • 18. B. Comprehension (continued) During Reading Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionMaintain engagement Maintain engagement Maintain engagement Maintain engagementand monitor and monitor and monitor and monitorcomprehension to comprehension to comprehension to comprehension (i.e.,identify when identify when identify when metacognition) tounderstanding breaks understanding breaks understanding breaks analyze, reflect on, anddown. With teacher down. Recognize and down. Recognize and understand thinkingassistance, employ select appropriate select appropriate and learning process.strategies as strategies with teacher strategies with greater Use a variety ofappropriate, rereading support to self-correct independence to self- strategies to self-correctas necessary. when necessary, correct when necessary, as necessary, rereading rereading as rereading as as appropriate. appropriate. appropriate.Adjust reading rate to Adjust reading rate to Adjust reading rate to Adjust reading rate toreflect purpose and to reflect purpose and to reflect purpose and to reflect purpose and tomaximize maximize maximize maximizecomprehension. comprehension. comprehension. comprehension. Read ActivelyFrequently stop and Regularly stop and Periodically stop and When necessary stopretell. paraphrase. summarize. and summarize.Verify, revise, and Verify, revise, and Verify, revise, and Verify, revise, andgenerate new generate new generate new generate newpredictions about text. predictions about text. predictions about text. predictions about text.Make connections from Make connections from Make connections from Make connections fromtexts to background texts to background texts to background texts to backgroundknowledge, personal knowledge, personal knowledge, personal knowledge, personalexperiences, other texts, experiences, other experiences, other experiences, otherand/or current events texts, and/or current texts, and/or current texts, and/or currentand global issues.* events and global events and global events and global issues.* issues.* issues.**Note: Teachers should provide background knowledge and/or related texts, as appropriate,before reading. 18
  • 19. B. Comprehension (continued) During Reading (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionRecognize inferences Formulate inferences Formulate inferences Formulate inferencesand draw conclusions independently and and draw conclusions and draw conclusionswith teacher support. begin to draw with minimal teacher independently, citing conclusions with support, citing textual textual evidence to support by utilizing evidence to support support analysis. prior knowledge. analysis.Answer questions and Answer questions and Answer questions and Answer questions andgenerate new questions generate new questions generate new questions generate new questionsbased on text features using text features (i.e., using text and independently with awith support. headings, bold words) background knowledge higher degree of and background with greater analysis/synthesis using knowledge. independence. text and background knowledge.Use graphic organizers Use graphic organizers Select the most Strategically select andand note-taking and note-taking appropriate graphic use graphic organizersstructures to better structures to better organizers and note- and note-takingunderstand and understand and taking structures based structures to betterremember information remember information on texts and learning understand andwith teacher modeling with greater styles with teacher remember informationand support. independence. support and use them to independently. better understand and remember information independently.Think critically at all Think critically at all Think critically at all Think critically at alllevels of complexity levels of complexity levels of complexity levels of complexity(e.g., Bloom’s) about (e.g., Bloom’s) about (e.g., Bloom’s) about (e.g., Bloom’s) aboutboth literature and non- both literature and non- both literature and non- both literature and non-fiction texts and fiction texts and fiction texts and fiction texts and respondrespond to reading both respond to reading both respond to reading both to reading both orallyorally and in writing. orally and in writing. orally and in writing. and in writing. 19
  • 20. B. Comprehension (continued) After Reading Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionRestate the sequence Restate the sequence Restate the sequence Restate the sequence ofof events in the text in of events in the text in of events in the text in events in the text inorder. order. order. order.Determine a main Identify the main idea Identify the main idea Identify the main ideaidea using and supporting details. and distinguish and distinguish betweeninformation from the between relevant and relevant and irrelevanttext. irrelevant details. details independently.Identify if reading Identify if reading Evaluate how well Evaluate how wellgoals have been goals have been reading goals have reading goals have beenachieved related to achieved related to been achieved relatedachieved related toreading purpose. reading purpose. to reading purpose. reading purpose and set new goals where appropriate.Retell what was read Paraphrase the main Summarize the main Summarize the mainin the text either points of the text either points of the text both points of the text bothorally or in writing. orally or in writing. orally and in writing. orally and in writing.Integrate new Integrate new Integrate new Integrate newinformation and prior information and prior information and prior information and priorknowledge to create knowledge to create knowledge to create knowledge to createunderstanding. understanding. understanding. understanding.Use graphic Use graphic organizers Select appropriate Create graphicorganizers to show to show relationships graphic organizers to organizers to showrelationships (e.g., (e.g., compare and show relationships relationships (e.g.,compare and contrast, contrast, cause and (e.g., compare and compare and contrast,cause and effect) effect) between ideas contrast, cause and cause and effect)between ideas or or events. effect) between ideas between ideas orevents. or events. events.Identify author’s Identify author’s Evaluate arguments Evaluate arguments andargument made in text argument made in text and specific claims in specific claims in text,. and supporting text, including validity including validity of evidence. of reasoning, reasoning, relevance relevance and and sufficiency of sufficiency of evidence. evidence. 20
  • 21. B.Comprehension (continued) After Reading (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionCompare information Integrate information Synthesize thoughts, Synthesize informationfrom two sources. from two or more ideas and concepts from multiple sources sources to form new both orally and in in order to draw understanding. writing from multiple conclusions, make sources. predictions, and form interpretations.Respond to literal Respond to literal and Generate and respond Generate and respondquestions about the inferential questions to questions about the to questions about themeaning of the text. about the meaning of text both orally and in text both orally and in the text. writing. writing.Cite textual evidence to Cite several pieces of Cite several pieces of Cite strong andsupport conclusions. textual evidence to textual evidence to thorough textual support what the text support what the text evidence to support says literally and says literally or inferential analysis of inferentially. inferentially, as well as the text. reader’s own reactions and conclusions.Determine a theme or Determine a theme or Determine a theme or Determine two or morecentral idea of a text central idea of a text central idea of a text themes or central ideasand how it is conveyed and analyze its and analyze in detail its of a text and analyzethrough particular development over the development over the their development overdetails. course of the text. course of the text, the course of the text, including how it including how they emerges and is shaped interact and build on and refined by specific one another to produce details. a complex account.Identify basic literary Analyze how literary Analyze complex Analyze complexelements in a narrative. elements interact interactions of literary interactions of literary within a narrative (e.g., elements (e. g., how elements (e.g., how how setting shapes the particular lines of complex characters characters or plot). dialogue or incidents in develop over the a story or drama propel course of a text, the action, reveal interact with other aspects of a character, characters, and or provoke a decision). advance the plot or develop the theme). 21
  • 22. B.Comprehension (continued) After Reading (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core Instruction Identify the structure Analyze the structure Analyze the structureAnalyze the structureof texts and how of texts, including how of texts, including how of texts, including howsentences and specific sentences and specific sentences and specific sentences,paragraphs relate to paragraphs relate to paragraphs relate to paragraphs andeach other. each other. each other and the sections of the text whole. relate to each other and the whole.Identify author’s point Determine how point Assess how point of Assess how point ofof view or purpose of a of view or purpose view or purpose shapes view or purpose shapestext. shapes the content of a the content and style of the content and style of text. a text. a text. 22
  • 23. C. Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary instruction should be done explicitly, in context, and over time to allow multiple exposures and reinforcement of essential skills. This section identifies student outcomes in the area of vocabulary expansion. In many cases, students are expected to continue learning more sophisticated applications of these skills as they progress to grade level. Schools and districts are responsible for providing resources and materials for students to accomplish these outcomes. Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionDefine, understand, and Identify, understand, Analyze and use word Analyze and use worduse word structure, and use word structure, structure, analogy, and structure, analogy, andanalogy, and cueing analogy, and cueing cueing systems (i.e., cueing systems (i.e.,systems (i.e., syntax, systems (i.e., syntax, syntax, semantics, syntax, semantics,semantics, semantics, graphophonics) to graphophonics) tographophonics) to graphophonics) to understand meanings of understand meanings ofunderstand meanings of understand meanings of new words and to new words and tonew words and to new words and to comprehend texts. comprehend texts.comprehend texts. comprehend texts.Acquire, understand, Acquire and accurately Acquire and accurately Acquire and accuratelyand use survival or use general academic use general academic use grade-appropriatefunctional words and and domain-specific and domain-specific academic and domain-phrases (e.g., caution, vocabulary and phrases. vocabulary and phrases. specific vocabulary andtoxic). phrases.Use context (e.g., the Use context (e.g., the Use context (e.g., the Use context (e.g., theoverall meaning of a overall meaning of a overall meaning of a overall meaning of asentence or paragraph; sentence or paragraph; sentence or paragraph; sentence or paragraph; aa word’s position or a word’s position or a word’s position or word’s position orfunction in a sentence) function in a sentence) function in a sentence) function in a sentence)clues to help determine clues to help determine clues to help determine clues to help determinethe meaning of a word the meaning of a word the meaning of a word the meaning of a word oror phrase. or phrase. or phrase. phrase. 23
  • 24. C.Vocabulary Expansion (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionDefine, understand, and Use knowledge of basic Use the knowledge of Use common, gradeidentify basic root root (base) word, common root (base) appropriate Greek or Latin(base) words, and prefixes and suffixes to forms, suffixes, and affixes and roots as clueshighest frequency determine the meaning prefixes to determine to determine the meaningsprefixes, and suffixes of unknown words and the meaning of of unknown words.to determine the phrases. unknown words andmeaning of unknown phrases.words (i.e., port = tocarry, as in import,export, transport).Generate and use word Generate and use word Generate and use word Generate and use wordrelationships, including relationships, including relationships, including relationships, includingantonyms, synonyms, antonyms, synonyms, antonyms, synonyms, antonyms, synonyms,and multiple meaning multiple meaning multiple meaning multiple meaning words,words to determine words, and homonyms words, and derivations and analogies (i.e. red:meaning and build to determine meaning to determine meaning color as dog: ___) toword consciousness. and build word and build word determine meaning. consciousness. consciousness.Understand, interpret, Understand, interpret, Understand, interpret, Understand, interpret, andand use figurative and use figurative and use figurative use figurative languagelanguage within text, language within text, language within text, within text, includingincluding including similes, including similes, similes, metaphors,onomatopoeia. metaphors, metaphors, and personification, irony, personification, and personification, and sarcasm, and hyperbole. symbolism, allusion. connotations.Understand and use the Understand and use the Understand and use the Understand and use thetext structures of word text structures of word text structures of word text structures of wordreference material, reference material, reference material, reference material,including guide words, including guide words, including parts of including parts of speech.pronunciation guides, pronunciation guides, speech.and synonyms/ and synonyms/antonyms. antonyms.Distinguish among Distinguish among Distinguish among Distinguish amongconnotations (implied connotations (implied connotations (implied connotations (impliedmeaning) of words with meaning) of words with meaning) of words with meaning) of words withsimilar denotations similar denotations similar denotations similar denotations(definitions). (definitions). (definitions). (definitions). 24
  • 25. C. Vocabulary Expansion (continued) Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionConsult reference Consult reference Consult reference Consult referencematerials (e.g., materials (e.g., materials (e.g., materials (e.g.,dictionaries, glossaries, dictionaries, glossaries, dictionaries, glossaries, dictionaries, glossaries,thesauruses), both print thesauruses), both print thesauruses), both print thesauruses), both printand digital, to locate and digital, to locate and digital, to locate and digital, to locaterelevant words with relevant words with relevant words with relevant words with highhigh utility (both high utility (both high utility (both utility (both contentcontent specific and content specific and content specific and specific and words withwords with nuanced words with nuanced words with nuanced nuanced meanings acrossmeanings across meanings across meanings across disciplines) in order todisciplines) in order to disciplines) in order to disciplines) in order to determine pronunciation,determine determine determine best definition, orpronunciation, best pronunciation, best pronunciation, best alternate word choices fordefinition, or alternate definition, or alternate definition, or alternate the context.word choices for the word choices for the word choices for thecontext. context. context. 25
  • 26. D. Word Recognition, Analysis and FluencyInstruction in phonics and word identification should be done explicitly and in context. Thissection identifies student outcomes in the areas of word recognition, analysis and fluency.Schools and districts are responsible for providing resources and materials for students toaccomplish these outcomes. Intervention III Intervention II Intervention I Core InstructionAcquire, understand, Read unfamiliar,and use word structure complex and multi-and phonics knowledge syllabic words using(including all letter- advanced phonetic andsound correspondences, structural analysis inconsonants, blends, and appropriate text.vowel/syllable patterns)to decode wordsthrough explicitinstruction andindependent reading,including compoundand multi-syllabicwords.Fluently read high-frequency words in These students shouldcontext. (Students need possess the skills andto acquire a sight-word strategies needed forvocabulary of 300-500 word recognition,words. This is best analysis and fluency.accomplished throughreading books at theindependent level.Read aloud appropriate Read aloud appropriate Read aloud appropriatetext (independent text (independent text (independentreading level) with reading level) with reading level) withfluency (appropriate fluency (appropriate fluency (appropriateaccuracy, pace and accuracy, pace and accuracy, pace andexpression) that aids expression) that aids expression) that aidscomprehension. comprehension. comprehension.Use context and other Use context and other Use context and othercues to confirm or self- cues to confirm or self- cues to confirm or self-correct word correct word correct wordrecognition and recognition and recognition andunderstanding, understanding, understanding,rereading as necessary. rereading as necessary. rereading as necessary. 26
  • 27. Bibliography and ReferencesAfflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment K-12. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Allington, R.L. (2006). What really matters for struggling readers: designing research-based programs. 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.Allington, R. L. (2009). What really matters in response to intervention: Research-based designs. Boston: Pearson Learning, Inc.Atwell, N. (2007). The reading zone: How to help kids become skilled, passionate, habitual, critical readers. New York: Scholastic, Inc.Biancarosa, G., & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next: A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.Burke, J. (2006). 50 Essential lessons: Tools and techniques for teaching English language arts. New York, NY: FirstHand.Brown-Chidsey, R. & Steege, M. (2010) Response to intervention, second edition: Principles and strategies for effective practice. New York: Gilford Publications.Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of reading development. New York: McGraw-Hill.Deschler, D., Paliscar, A., Biancarosa, G., Nair, M. (2007). Informed choices for struggling adolescent readers: A research-based guide to instructional programs and practices. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.Fielding, L., Kerr, N., Rosier, P. (2007) Annual growth for all students, catch up growth for those who are behind. Kennewick, WA: The New Foundation Press, Inc.Fuchs, D. & Vaughn, S. (2008). Response to intervention: A framework for reading educators. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.Gallagher, K. (2003). Reading reasons. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishing.Gallagher, K. (2004). Deeper reading: Comprehending challenging texts, 4-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Gallagher, K. (2006). Teaching adolescent writers. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Gallagher, K. (2009). Readicide: How schools are killing reading and what you can do about it. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. 27
  • 28. Ladson-Billings, G. 1994. The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Graves, M. F. (2004). Theories and constructs that have made a significant difference in adolescent literacy—but have the potential to produce still more positive benefits. In Jetton, T. & Dole, J.A. (Eds.) Adolescent Literacy Research and Practice. (pp. 433-451). New York: Guilford Press.Graves, M. F., & Graves, B. B. (2002). Scaffolding reading experiences: Designs for student success, 2nd Ed. (2003). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Engaging adolescents in reading. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Guthrie, J.T, & Wigfield, A. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. In M.L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & Barr, (Eds.), Handbook of reading research. (Vol. 3. pp. 403- 422). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Harris, T.L. & Hodges, R. E. (1995). The literacy dictionary: The vocabulary of reading and writing. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance understanding and engagement. (2nd ed). Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.Hinchman, K., ed. (2008). Best practices in adolescent literacy instruction. New York, NY: Gilford Publications.Johnson, E., ed. (2007). RTI: A practitioner’s guide to implementing response to intervention. New York: SAGE Publications.Kamil, M., Pearson, P. D., Moje, E., Afflerbach, P. (2011). Handbook of reading research – Volume IV. New York, NY: Routledge Publishing.Kelly, M. (2007). Comprehension shouldn’t be silent: From strategy instruction to student independence. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.McKenna, M., & Stahl, K. (2008). Assessment for reading instruction (Solving problems in the teaching of literacy series, 2nd ed). New York: Gilford Publications.Moore, D. & Hinchman, K. (2005). Teaching adolescents who struggle with reading: Practical strategies. (2nd ed). New York: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.Pearson, P.D., & Gallagher, M.C. (1983). The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317-344.Rasinski, T. (2000). Speed does matter in reading. The Reading Teacher, 54 (2), 146-151.Rasinski, T. (2006). Reading fluency instruction: Moving beyond accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. The Reading Teacher, 59 (7), 704-706. 28
  • 29. Robb, L. (2009). Middle school readers: Helping them read widely, helping them read well. New York: Heinemann.Taylor, R., & Collins, V.D. (2003). Literacy leadership for grades 5-12. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Vacca, R. (2006, February). They can because they think they can: Instruction that lifts struggling readers’ sense of self-efficacy prepares them to face even difficult texts. Educational Leadership, 63 (5), 56-59.VanDerHeyden, A. et al. (2010). Essentials of response to intervention. New York: Wiley, Johns & Sons, Inc.Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.) Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Wilhelm, J. (1997). You gotta BE the book: Teaching engaged and reflective reading with adolescents. New York: Teachers College Press. 29
  • 30. GlossaryThe glossary is meant to provide readers of the Model Plan for Adolescent Reading Intervention andDevelopment with a common vocabulary in order to assist with the reading and interpretation of thedocument. It is not meant to be all inclusive. In some cases, readers may wish to do further inquiry ofterms and concepts.21st century literacy—the skills, strategies, dispositions, and social practices required by newtechnologies to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate information in a variety of forms with a focuson creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration.all—all includes each and every eligible child from birth through grade 12 that has access to andexpectation of getting a free appropriate public education (FAPE).accelerated literacy growth—to increase the speed of literacy development at a rate faster than on-gradelevel readers.active reading—constructing meaning from text by transforming and integrating textual information intoprior knowledge and experience (Harris & Hodges, 1995, p.4).benchmark—description of student growth, progress, and achievement of grade level or programexpectations for like peers.core (universal)—primary instruction for all students, where students demonstrate understanding of awide range of knowledge and skills necessary for literacy development as determined by district and statestandards.context—information from the immediate text around a word that helps a reader to identify the word’smeaning (e.g., picture, graphic, syntax, punctuation, synonym, antonym, or contrast clues).culturally responsive—a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, andpolitically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes (Billings, 1994).curriculum—instructional content, practices, and resources.critical thinking—making meaning of what is read and transferring that knowledge to other academiclearning.differentiated instruction—a varied and individualized instructional approach responsive to students’instructional and skill needs.discourse—written and spoken ideas in school settings that follow certain forms and expressions inindividual disciplines that promote critical thinking.domain-specific vocabulary—words that have specific meaning and context to academic core contentsuch as in the fields of science, social studies, etc.double dose (second scoop)—at least twice as much time on literacy instruction than what is allotted forreaders at and above grade level.educator—trained or licensed professional that delivers academic instruction. 30
  • 31. engagement—the emotional involvement of the reader in the process of responding to the content ofreading, as occurs in a total absorption in text (Harris & Hodges, p. 73).entrance criteria—the clear criteria for entrance into each of the tiered interventions based on multipledata points.equitable—diverse and flexible access for all students to achieve learning targets through various waysand through respectful processes.evidence-based practices—means that a particular program or collection of instructional practices has arecord of success. That is, there is reliable, trustworthy, and valid evidence to suggest that when theprogram is used with a particular group of children, the children can be expected to make adequate gainsin reading achievement (IRA, 2002, p.2).exit criteria—the clearly defined criteria for exit from or movement between each of the tieredinterventions based on multiple data points.fix-up strategies—techniques effective readers use to clarify confusion as they read. Strategies includebut are not limited to: making connections, asking questions, re-reading, adjusting rate, paying attentionto text features, making and revising predictions, and drawing conclusions.frustration reading level—a readability or grade level of material that is too difficult to be readsuccessfully by a student, even with normal classroom instruction and support. Note: Although suggestedcriteria for determining a student’s frustration reading level vary, less than 90 percent accuracy in wordidentification and less than 50 percent comprehension are often used as standards (Harris & Hodges, p.88).gradual release of responsibility—the responsibility of task completion and skill acquisition shiftsgradually over time from teacher modeling, to collaboration with teacher, to collaboration with peers, toindividual.independent reading level—the readability…of material that is easy for a student to read with few word-identification problems and high comprehension. Note: Although suggested criteria vary, better than 99percent word-identification accuracy and better than 90 percent comprehension are often used asstandards in judging if a reader is reading at this level (Harris & Hodges, p. 115).intervention—academic or behavioral support above and beyond core instruction.intrinsic motivation—desire to engage in learning based on internal drive, enjoyment, or personal gainrather than an external reward.instructional reading level—the reading ability…of material that is challenging, but not frustrating for thestudent to read successfully with normal classroom instruction and support. Note: Although suggestedcriteria vary, better than 95 percent word-identification accuracy and better than 75 percentcomprehension are often used as standards in judging whether a student is reading at this level (Harris &Hodges, p. 118).learner—someone who acquires new skills, knowledge, behavior, or information through goal orientedinstruction. 31
  • 32. literacy—the ability to read, write, speak, listen, view, visually represent, and think in order tocommunicate and contribute to society.metacognition—self-awareness, analysis, and reflection of one’s own thinking and learning.multiple data measures— multiple data points including norm and criterion referenced tests to determinenext steps for literacy intervention (see triangulation).paraphrase—restatement of what is read using your own words to describe the content and context byusing prior knowledge.retelling—recounting literal elements with little or no elaboration.RtI (Response to Intervention)—Response to intervention integrates assessment and intervention within amulti-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and to reduce behavior problems. WithRTI, schools identify students at risk for poor learning outcomes, monitor student progress, provideevidence-based interventions and adjust the intensity and nature of those interventions depending on astudent’s responsiveness, and identify students with learning disabilities. (From the National Center onResponse to Intervention, www.rt14success.org).self-efficacy—a belief that one is able to perform at the level necessary to achieve certain goals.scaffolding—temporary learning supports to help students master a task and increase cognitiveunderstanding.scope and sequence—a curriculum plan, usually in chart form, in which a range of instructionalobjectives, skills, etc., is organized according to the successive levels at which they are taught (Harris &Hodges, p. 227).stamina—enduring strength or energy especially as it relates to attending to the demands of literacy tasks.summary—restating the gist of what is read by identifying main idea and sufficient supporting details.text complexity—difficulty of reading and comprehending a text combined with consideration of thereader, task, text structures, multiple meaning words, and general readability.tiered intervention plans—a multi-tiered framework designed to meet the literacy needs of all students.Focused on strategic screening, progress monitoring, evidence based instruction by a licensed readingteacher, and flexible movement, tiered intervention plans can be an educational process to benefit allstudents.triangulation (multiple data measures)—the process of using multiple data points including norm andcriterion referenced tests to determine next steps for literacy intervention.word consciousness—awareness of meaning and context for word choices along with a deliberate effortto build understanding of words and meanings. 32
  • 33. Appendix A – Planning TemplateLevel of Intervention Class Size Assessments Instructional MaterialsClassroom Grouping Screening Assessments CurriculumIntervention OptionsIntervention Level I Class Size Diagnostic Assessments Curriculum SpecificationsIntervention Level II Class Size Progress Monitoring Curriculum Specifications AssessmentsIntervention Level III Class Size Other Assessment Tools Curriculum Specifications 33

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