Fire control 2013 bmcc

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  • 1. Fire Control
  • 2. Overall Objectives Improve Size-up abilities Identify and understand priorities and needs at fires. Capturing the cues and clues in the situation and comprehending them. Identify reasons for Transfer of command
  • 3. Specific Objectives 1. Describe initial factors to consider when suppressing structure fires. 2. Summarize considerations prior to entering a burning building. 3. Explain the gas cooling technique. 4. Describe direct attack, indirect attack, and combination attack. 5. Discuss deploying master stream devices. 6. Describe elevated master streams. Firefighter I
  • 4. Specific Objectives 7. Describe actions and hazards associated with suppressing Class C fires. 8. List electrical hazards and guidelines for electrical emergencies. 9. Discuss responsibilities of companies in structural fires. 10. Explain actions taken in attacking fires in upper levels of structures. 11. Explain actions taken in attacking fires belowground in structures. 12. Discuss structure fires in properties protected by fixed systems. Firefighter I
  • 5. Specific Objectives 13. Explain actions taken when attacking a vehicle fire. 14. Explain actions taken when attacking trash container fires. 15. Summarize influences on wildland fire behavior: fuel, weather, and topography. 16. Describe parts of a wildland fire. 17. List wildland protective clothing and equipment. 18. Describe methods used to attack wildland fires 19. List ten standard fire fighting orders when fighting wildland fires. Firefighter I
  • 6. Coordination When Suppressing Structure Fires Fire attack on burning structure must be coordinated When fighting any fire, firefighters should always work as a team under direction of a supervisor Firefighter I
  • 7. Actions to Take Advancing hoseline teams should carry equipment needed to perform a variety of tasks Certain equipment carried by teams advancing hoselines Person at nozzle has responsibilities before entering building/area (Continued) Firefighter I
  • 8. Actions to Take When structure/major contents are involved in fire, firefighters should wait at entrance, staying low, out of doorway until fire officer gives order to advance Before entry, extinguish fires showing in exterior overhangs/around entry or egress points Firefighter I
  • 9. Actions to Take Whenever possible, approach and attack fire from unburned side to keep it from spreading throughout structure Once fire is contained, determine area of origin, protect evidence before overhaul and extinguishment Firefighter I
  • 10. Actions to Take Breathing apparatus must be worn during overhaul, extinguishment Valuables found during overhaul should be turned in to supervisor Firefighter I
  • 11. Pre-Entry Considerations Conduct quick size-up Maintain high level of situation awareness Read fire behavior indicators Understand crew’s tactical assignment Identify potential emergency escape routes Assess forcible entry requirements Identify hazards Verify that radios are working, on right channel, being received Firefighter I
  • 12. Opening Doors If door to fire area must be opened, all members should stay low and to one side of doorway Check door for heat before opening Firefighter I
  • 13. Gas Cooling Not a fire extinguishment method; way of reducing hazard presented by hot gas layer Effective when faced with shielded fire Firefighter I
  • 14. Hot Gas Layer Hot gas layer accumulating in upper levels of compartment presents problems Cooling hot gas layer mitigates hazards by slowing transfer of heat to other combustibles Limits the possibility of a Flashover Firefighter I
  • 15. Cooling Hot Gas Layer Apply short pulses of water fog onto it Repeat technique as necessary while hose team advances under gas layer toward fire Penciling – Short pulses of water in a straight stream at Courtesy of Dick Giles. the ceiling level. Firefighter I
  • 16. Direct Attack  Most efficient use of water on free-burning fires made by direct attack  Usually from straight or solid stream  Techniques  Water should not be applied long enough to upset thermal layering Firefighter I
  • 17. What attack mode here?
  • 18. Indirect Attack Used when firefighters unable to enter burning building/ compartment Can be made from outside compartment through window or other small opening Firefighter I
  • 19. Indirect Attack Not ideal method of attack where building occupants may still be inside May be only method of attack until temperatures reduced Procedures for making indirect attack Firefighter I
  • 20. Attack Mode?
  • 21. Combination Attack Uses heat-absorbing technique of cooling hot gas layer followed by heatreducing direct attack on materials burning near floor level Firefighter I
  • 22. Master Streams Usually deployed in situations where fire is beyond effectiveness of handlines or there is need for fire streams in areas that are unsafe for firefighters Main uses for master stream Firefighter I
  • 23. Positioning Master Stream Must be properly positioned to apply effective master stream on fire Master stream can be adjusted up, down and left, right Once line in operation, must be shut down if device is to be moved http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w91F9zubvG8 Firefighter I
  • 24. Positioning Master Stream  Stream should be aimed so it enters structure at upward angle, deflects off ceiling or other overhead objects  Desirable to place master stream device in location that allows stream to cover most surface area of building Firefighter I
  • 25. Supplying Master Streams Master stream devices can have high friction loss in supply hose Because master stream devices used primarily in defensive fire fighting, desirable to shut down handlines to keep from reducing water supply available for master streams Always follow SOPs in operation of master streams, handlines Firefighter I
  • 26. Staffing Master Stream Devices Usually takes minimum of two firefighters to deploy master stream device, supply water to it Once portable master stream device in place, can be operated by one firefighter Some situations may be too dangerous to have firefighters stationed at master stream device Firefighter I
  • 27. DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done if a master stream device starts to move? Firefighter I
  • 28. Elevated Master Stream Devices 1. Used to apply water to upper stories of multistory buildings, either in direct attack or to supply handlines 2. Delivered by aerial devices Firefighter I
  • 29. Categories of Aerial Apparatus 15– 29 1. Aerial Ladder 2. Aerial Ladder Platform 3. Telescoping Platform 4. Articulating Platform 5. Combination telescoping & Articulating Platform 6. Water Towers Firefighter I
  • 30. Quints Have waterways pre-plumbed to pumps Only external support — Water supply Main ladder can be used for rescuing people from exterior windows, ledges, and rooftops within reach of main ladder Firefighter I
  • 31. Aerial Ladders Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mikal, NOFD Photo Unit. Apparatus equipped with hydraulically operated extension ladders Firefighter I
  • 32. Aerial Ladders In North America, usually 50-135 feet (1541 m), but in Europe sometimes as much as 300 feet (100 m) Newer aerial ladders equipped with built-in waterways that supply master stream nozzle Firefighter I
  • 33. Aerial Ladders Master stream nozzles of both types of apparatus can be operated by firefighters at ladder tip/on ground Can be used for rescuing people from exterior windows, ledges, rooftops within reach Firefighter I
  • 34. Aerial Platforms Available in two configurations   Firefighter I Aerial ladder platforms Articulating aerial platforms
  • 35. Aerial Platforms All equipped with built-in waterways, some with narrow escape ladders Can be used for rescuing people Engines equipped with hydraulically operated booms that are dedicated to applying water Most range from 50-130 feet (15-40 m) in length Firefighter I
  • 36. Water Towers Some have narrow escape ladders attached to boom Not designed for rescue operations Firefighter I
  • 37. Class C Fires Involve energized electrical equipment Major safety hazard — Firefighters fail to recognize danger and take appropriate steps for protection Once electrical power turned off, may self-extinguish or fall into Class A or B Firefighter I
  • 38. DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some examples of potential Class C fires? Firefighter I
  • 39. Class C Fires In many commercial and high rise buildings, electrical power necessary to operate essential systems; not to be shut off until ordered When handling fires in delicate electronic/computer equipment, clean extinguishing agents should be used Multipurpose dry-chemical agents effective, but some chemically reactive with components Firefighter I
  • 40. Class C Fires Using water inappropriate because of shock hazard Fire suppression techniques needed for fires involving transmission lines and equipment, underground lines, commercial high-voltage installations Departmental operating procedures Firefighter I
  • 41. Class C Fires: Transmission Lines and Equipment Relatively small number of electrical emergencies involve fires in electrical substations, transmission lines, associated equipment Firefighter I
  • 42. Class C Fires: Transmission Lines and Equipment Electrical power lines sometimes break, start fires in grass/other vegetation Fires in electrical transformers common Firefighter I
  • 43. Class C Fires: Underground Transmission Lines Consist of conduits, vaults below grade Most serious hazards presented are explosions caused by fuses blowing or short-circuit arcing that ignites accumulated gases Electrical utility vault Firefighter I
  • 44. Class C Fires: Commercial High-Voltage Installations Many commercial/industrial complexes have electrical equipment requiring 600+ volts High-voltage signs may be on doors Some transformers use flammable coolants that are hazardous Water should not be used because of potential damage to electrical equipment uninvolved in fire Because of toxic chemicals, smoke is additional hazard Firefighters should only enter for rescue Firefighter I
  • 45. Controlling Electrical Power Advantageous for electrical power to remain on for lighting, fire pumps, other essential systems Decision made by IC and Incident Safety Officer When power turned off, should be turned off at main panel by power utility employee Firefighter I
  • 46. Controlling Electrical Power Always follow departmental SOP Removing meter may not completely stop flow of electricity because of emergency power capabilities Considerations for clandestine drug labs, indoor marijuana-growing operations Firefighter I
  • 47. Electrical Shock Consequences of electrical shock Factors most affecting seriousness of electrical shock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NaEfU47QY_k Firefighter I
  • 48. Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies  Firefighter I Establish exclusion zone equal to one span all directions from downed power lines
  • 49. Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies Be aware other wires may have been weakened by short circuit, may fall at any time Wear full protective clothing, use only tested and approved tools with insulated handles Guard against electrical shocks, burns, eye injuries from electrical arcs Wait for utility workers to cut power lines Firefighter I
  • 50. Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies Use lockout/tagout devices when working on electrical equipment Be very careful when raising/lowering ladders near power lines (Continued) Firefighter I
  • 51. Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies Do not touch any vehicle/apparatus in contact with electrical wires Jump clear of apparatus that may be energized by contact with power lines Do not use solid, straight streams on fires in energized electrical equipment Firefighter I
  • 52. Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies Use fog streams with at least 100 psi (700 kPa) nozzle pressure Be aware wire mesh or steel rail fences can be energized by wires outside field of view Where wires are down, heed any tingling sensation felt in feet, back away Avoid ground gradient hazards by maintaining large safety zone around downed electrical wires Firefighter I
  • 53. Company-Level Fire Tactics Standard tactical priorities — Life safety, incident stabilization, property conservation Order of priorities same, but actions taken on fireground may/may not be performed in that order Firefighter I
  • 54. Responsibilities — First Due Engine Company     If smoke/fire visible, may be departmental SOP to stop, lay supply line from hydrant or end of driveway into scene Company officer will conduct rapid initial size-up Assessment determines further actions taken by first-due engine company If by taking immediate action company can save 1+ lives, will do so even if not enough firefighters on scene to form rapid intervention crew (RIC) Firefighter I
  • 55. Size-up Definition
  • 56. Arrival & Size-up What are the issues or items to convey to Dispatch?    Type of building/occupancy involved Specific condition found (smoke, fire, victims) Initial attack mode       Transitional Offensive Defensive Designate ALPHA side Initiate Command Any Additional resources needed
  • 57. Size-up Critical Needs:  360 walk-around for structures and good recon for larger natural cover fires.
  • 58. Responsibilities — First Due Engine Company If no obvious, immediate life-safety concerns, and fire threatening to extend to another nearby structure, officer may order lines pulled to apply water to exposure Officer may call for more resources Given a small interior fire, company officer usually assumes Command of incident Once location of fire known, first-due engine company will position initial attack hoseline to cover priorities Firefighter I
  • 59. Prioritize incoming information Smoke Construction Speed of the Incident Realistic assessment of savable lives Resources enroute Color, volume, velocity, and density Light weight vs noncomb, multiple story Progression of fire & risk to personnel GO or No GO Quality & quanity of resources.
  • 60. Smoke Where is the seat of the Fire? What is the smoke telling us? What SOG would we follow? Attic Fires
  • 61. Construction
  • 62. Speed of the Fire Where is the fire? Time of the building? What’s going wrong in the picture?
  • 63. Savable Lives?
  • 64. Resources
  • 65. 6 Problems at Fires Fire    Offensive Defensive Transitional Smoke   Ventilate (vertical, horizontal) Positive pressure Poss. Victim(s)   Search Assess situation of viable victims Confirmed Victim(s)    Rescue Hold in place Direct them Access   Forcible entry Alternate route Exposures    Protect Pressurize Nothing
  • 66. Responsibilities — Second Due Engine Company    Must make sure adequate water supply established to the fireground, May finish hose lay, lay additional line, connect to hydrant Proceeds according to priorities Firefighter I
  • 67. Responsibilities — Fireground Support Company    Firefighter I Responsible for performing tasks in order dictated by situation Functions may be performed by engine personnel when support companies not available May assist in making fire attack
  • 68. Responsibilities — Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)  Consists of 2+ members wearing appropriate PPE, radio; equipped with special rescue tools, equipment necessary to effect rescue of other emergency personnel Firefighter I
  • 69. Responsibilities — Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC) May be assigned other emergency scene duties; must be prepared to drop those immediately if needed Exact number determined by IC How many is enough? Firefighter I
  • 70. Responsibilities — Chief Officer/ Incident Commander   Firefighter I Upon arriving at scene, chief officer may choose to assume Command from original IC, take responsibility for all onscene operations If original IC has incident well organized, progress toward incident stabilization being made, chief officer may assume another role
  • 71. Transfer of Command  Command can be transferred to a person with a higher level of expertise or authority  Command can be transferred face-to-face or over the radio  Preferably command can be transferred only to someone who is on-scene  The person relinquishing command should provide any needed information to the assuming command.
  • 72. Transition of Command When does this happen or when should it happen?    Complexity of Incident Current IC requests transfer Incident stabilization/mitigation is compromised by current strategy & tactics   Coaching Suggestions
  • 73. 5 Common Command Mistakes 1. Failing to process the meaning of the cues /clues 2. Misunderstanding the speed of the incident 3. Over-estimating abilities of their crews 4. Taking heroic actions without conducting a risk- benefit assessment 5. Focusing on the wrong things or trying to process to much information
  • 74. Best Practices Size-up must be on-going Stay focused on big picture Never miss commo from at-risk companies Control your distractions and interruptions Establish strong command presence    Keep track of your people Control your emotions Clear and concise orders Develop good habits and routines Pre-load your experiences
  • 75. Incident Action Plan Does every incident have an Incident Action Plan? YES!   IC’s head or Written Scene Mitigation  Personnel safety Environmental issues Forward planning
  • 76. Attacking Fires in Upper Levels  Fire attack typically initiated from floor below fire floor  Crews should check floors above main fire floor for fire extension, victims  Staging usually established two floors below fire floor  Personnel must exercise caution in streets around outside perimeter of high-rise building Firefighter I
  • 77. Fires Belowground in Structures Can expose firefighters to extremely hostile conditions May be possible to control fire without entering basement Firefighter I
  • 78. Fires Belowground in Structures If cellar nozzle unavailable, firefighters may have to enter burning basement Good ventilation techniques extremely important Heavy objects on floor above fire floor can increase chance of floor collapse http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVGQwLeeJx0 Firefighter I
  • 79. Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems Firefighters should be familiar with systems in buildings protected by their department Supporting systems critical during fire Types of systems Dangers involved with fires in occupancies with fixed systems Firefighter I
  • 80. Preincident Plans Often contain SOPs used at these occupancies Include detailed descriptions of construction features, contents, protection systems, surrounding properties May specify procedures for each company Contain building map Must be updated regularly Firefighter I
  • 81. Sprinklered Buildings Support company personnel often used to manage system’s operation Must always follow departmental SOPs regarding actions taken Some possible actions Firefighter I
  • 82. Car Fires
  • 83. Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles Among most common types of fires to which firefighters called  Dictate firefighters wear full PPE, SCBA  Courtesy of Bob Esposito Firefighter I
  • 84. Hazards  Interior components on vehicle mainly plastic, which burns rapidly at high temperatures and emits toxic gases  Gas-filled components  Flammable Liquids  Air Bags  Hybrid vehicles incorporate high-voltage cables, components  Do not assume any vehicle is without extraordinary hazards
  • 85. Attacking Vehicle Fires Fires under the Hood      Direct water into wheel wells & Front grill. Chock Wheels Check for occupants Engine Compartment access Extinguishment Flammable Liquids   Fire Exinguisher Class B Foam
  • 86. Attacking Vehicle Fires Fires in passenger area    Direct water on fire with straight stream, sweeping motion. Start at 50’ from vehicle. Advance on vehicle and observe under the vehicle for leaking flammable liquids Semi-fog pattern for final knock down.
  • 87. Attacking Vehicle Fires Trunk Fires Alternate fuel fires Rear of Vehicles  Trailers   RV’s  LPG CNG Ethanol Hybrids  Semi-Trucks  Nickel metal hydride batteries High-voltage –Orange cables
  • 88. Trash Container Fires Possibility of exposure to toxic products of combustion ever-present  May include hazardous materials or plastics  Full PPE, SCBA should be worn when attacking any trash container fire  Firefighter I
  • 89. Attacking Trash Container Fires Size of attack line depends on size of fire and proximity to exposures  Fires in small piles of trash, garbage cans, small containers can often be extinguished with booster line  Firefighter I
  • 90. Attacking Trash Container Fires Larger piles, larger containers, fires close to exposures should be attacked with at least 1½-inch (38 mm) line Master streams may be needed to keep trash container fires from spreading Once fire has been controlled, may be possible to use standard overhaul techniques to complete extinguishment May be advantageous to attack fire using Class A foam Firefighter I
  • 91. Confined Spaces Below grade or otherwise without natural/forced ventilation Atmospheric hazards Physical hazards Firefighter I
  • 92. Confined Spaces Where to find information on fire Hazard mitigation plans Because of hazards, command post and staging area must be established outside hot zone Firefighter I
  • 93. Fire Attack Fires may also be attacked indirectly with penetrating nozzles, cellar nozzles, distributor nozzles Effective air-management system should be part of IAP Firefighter I
  • 94. DISCUSSION QUESTION When is it safe for firefighters to enter these confined spaces? Firefighter I
  • 95. Natural Cover Fires
  • 96. Parts of Wildland Fire Firefighter I
  • 97. Parts of Wildland Fire Firefighter I
  • 98. Wildland Fires Include those in weeds, grass, field crops, brush, forests, similar vegetation Have characteristics not comparable to fires in buildings Main influences on wildland fire behavior Firefighter I
  • 99. Wildland Fire Impacts Fuels    Grassy Brush Timber Topography   Steep hills Canyons Weather     Wind Relative Humidity Temperature Cold fronts/T-storms
  • 100. Wildland Fires — Fuel Classified by grouping those with similar burning characteristics together Factors affecting burning characteristics of fuels Firefighter I
  • 101. Wildland Fires — Fuel Firefighter I
  • 102. Wildland Fires — Topography Steepness of slope affects both rate, direction of wildland fire’s spread Fires will usually spread faster uphill than down; steeper the slope, faster fire spreads http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U5eCA-TTJWI Firefighter I
  • 103. Wildland Fires — Weather Wind Temperature Relative humidity Precipitation Firefighter I
  • 104. Methods of Extinguishment
  • 105. Attacking Wildland Fires Methods revolve around perimeter control Control line may be at burning edge, next to it, or a distance away Objective is to establish control line that completely encircles fire Firefighter I
  • 106. Wildland Fire Approaches Direct attack is action taken directly against flames at edge or closely parallel Indirect attack used at varying distances from advancing fire Because wildland fire constantly changing, attack methods may change Firefighter I
  • 107. Direct Attack Containing and extinguishing the fire at its burning edge. Advantages   Quick containment Used most often on small fires Disadvantages  Working in smoke and heat. Close to the fire
  • 108. Indirect Attack Most often used for large Fires. Building fireline along natural breaks Used when not enough resources to mount direct attack When topography is to rough that make direct attack dangerous or impossible.
  • 109. Priorities of Attack IC must assess & evaluate priorities for saving lives and property before determining attack mode. Safety  Hazards Contain perimeter first Control Fire Mop-up Standards
  • 110. Size-up Fire Behavior Size of fire Fuels & topography involved Structures threatened Resource needs Attack mode *make sure to recon fire if significant size Assign resources – flanks, divisions, anchor points Establish escape routes and safety zones
  • 111. Cont. Make sure every unit gets a briefing     Escape Routes and Safety Zones Assignment Supervisor Current Situation Use Proper Span of Control    Divisions Groups Task Forces Remember other functions  Safety, Logistics, Information, etc….
  • 112. Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting Wildland Fires Keep informed on fire weather conditions, forecasts  Know what fire doing at all times  Base all actions on current, expected behavior of fire  Firefighter I
  • 113. Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting Wildland Fires Identify escape routes and safety zones, make them known Post lookouts when possible danger Be alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively Firefighter I
  • 114. Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting Wildland Fires Maintain prompt communications with your forces, your supervisor, adjoining forces Give clear instructions, ensure they are understood Firefighter I
  • 115. Standard Fire Fighting Orders When Fighting Wildland Fires Maintain control of forces at all times Fight fire aggressively, providing for safety first Firefighter I
  • 116. Summary Attacking fires early in their development is an important aspect of a successful fire fighting operation. Likewise, selecting and applying the most effective fire attack strategy and tactics are also important. Failing to do any of these things can result in a fire growing out of control, an increase in fire damage and loss, and possibly in firefighter injuries. Firefighter I
  • 117. Summary Firefighters need to know how to use the fire fighting tools and techniques adopted by their departments. They need to know how to safely and effectively attack and extinguish structure fires, vehicle fires, refuse fires, and wildland fires. Firefighter I
  • 118. Review Questions 1. What initial actions should firefighters take when suppressing a structural fire? 2. What are the differences among a direct attack, an indirect attack, and a combination attack? Firefighter I
  • 119. Review Questions 3. When are master streams usually deployed? 4. What are three guidelines for electrical emergencies? 5. What are the parts of a wildland fire? Firefighter I