Instructional objectives


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This is a brief presentation on how to write effective instructional objectives.

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  • 1. Analyze 2. Remembering 3. Remembering 4. Understanding 5. Analyze 6. Evaluating 7. Evaluating 8. Create 9. Understand 10. Apply 1.. Create 12. Apply
  • Instructional objectives

    1. 1. By Dr. Jennifer Levin-Goldberg ©
    3. 3. 1. What exactly is an objective and how does it differ froma goal?2. What does an instructional objective need to include inorder to be effective?3. Take a moment to write two objectives you recentlywrote and then put it aside….we’ll revisit it later
    4. 4. GoalThis is the overallend result you wantthe students toaccomplish after theinstruction.ObjectiveThese are theexplicit andmeasureableperformances thestudents mustaccomplish in orderto reach the goal.
    5. 5. OK..NOW LET’S GET STICKYGoalsWhat thestudent isintended tomaster/performby the end ofthecourse/lesson.ObjectivesThe specific,measurable,observablebehaviors thestudent willperform to reachthe goal.LearnerOutcomesThe expected behaviors/skillsthe student should be able toperform at the end of thecourse/unit.These are more bored and tendto not state specifically how thestudent will perform the skill,just that they are expected toperform it.The difference between goals and learner outcomes are stillDebated. Some allege they are one and the same!
    6. 6. WHY THE CHANGES?????
    7. 7. 1. Knowledge is a product ofthinking, not a category ofthinking in itself. So it waschanged to Remembering.2. The taxonomy changed fromnouns to actionable verbs.3. Comprehension changed toUnderstanding.4. Synthesis changed to Creatingbecause creative thinking is amore complex skill than criticalthinking (synthesis) andtherefore, not only did the wordchange but where it is located onthe taxonomy.5. Older Bloom was moreapplicable toward youngeraudiences (elementary) but theNew Blooms accommodates amore comprehensive audience.
    8. 8. THINK OF THE TAXONOMY MORELIKE A LADDERRememberingUnderstandingApplyingAnalyzingEvaluatingCreating
    9. 9. CreatingEvaluatingAnalyzingApplyingUnderstandingRemembering
    10. 10. Recalling or restating factsidentify, describe, name, label,recognize, reproduce, follow, define,list, locate, name, find, retrieve,repeat, re/state, duplicate, memorize
    11. 11. Ability to create own meaning from new learningExamples:classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate,recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
    12. 12. Using the new knowledge in a familiar or differentcontext.Examples:choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret,operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write
    13. 13. Breaking the new knowledge down into discrete partsand identifying how the parts relate to the whole.Examples:Differentiating, attributing, organizing, appraise,compare, contrast, criticize, discriminate, distinguish,examine, experiment, question, test.
    14. 14. Making judgments and critiquingExamples:Critique, appraise, argue, defend, judge, select,support, value, evaluate
    15. 15. Putting pieces together to form something new.Examples:Generating, producing, planning, assemble, construct,create, design, develop, formulate, write.
    16. 16. I will give you several examples and youcognitive domains it exemplifies and be pWhy you made your choices.
    17. 17. 1. What events led to the Civil War?2. What is the definition an ionic bond?3. Who wrote War and Peace?4. What is an example of a primary source document?5. What is the relationship between sine and cosine?6. What changes to “Obama Care” would you make? Why?7. Do you believe the Civil War was fought more for Political or Economic reasons? Defend your position.8. Design a re/solution to the Israeli/Palestinian Conflict.9. Explain why energy plays a role in living systems.10.What would happen if we mix ammonia and bleach together?11.By developing your own plan of action, how would you resolve the obesity problem in America?12.What other instance does Shakespeare portray good v evil in Othello?
    18. 18. Create your own questionsexemplifying each of thecognitive taxonomies applicableto your own class(es).
    19. 19. NOW…THERE ARE THREE DOMAINS TOLEARNING EACH WITH THEIR OWNTAXONOMIESI know……………………………………more things to learn………
    20. 20. LEARNING DOMAINSCognitiveMental skillsThis is the knowledgeportion.This is what we just wentover thus far withBlooms taxonomy.Critical thinking andcognitive processesprogress in the levels ofcomplexity the furtheryou go up.AffectiveEmotions, motivation,and attitudes.Some researchersallege these stagesare not sequential likethe cognitive domainwhile others disagree.PsychomotorPhysical skills,coordination, and grossand fine motor skills.These are sequentiallike the cognitivedomain.There are severalproposed taxonomiesfor this domain;however, thispresentation will focuson Daves (1975).
    21. 21. InternalizingOrganizingValuingRespondingReceivingHierarchical Classification of theAffective Domain
    22. 22. InternalizingOrganizingValuingRespondingReceiving
    23. 23. ReceivingStimuliListening toothers withrespect;listening tonewknowledge.Examples:replies, selects,names,follows,describes,identify, pointsto, asks, andchoosesRespondingto StimuliActiveparticipation;willingness torespond andsatisfaction inresponding(motivation).Examples:Answers, aids,assists, complies,conforms,presents, read,write, labels,helps, performs,practicesValuingThe worth orvalue oneassigns to thestimuli. Eventhough theyare internalized,they are overtlyidentifiable.Willing to beinvolved.Examples:Differentiates,demonstrates,completes,justifies, reads,proposes, shares,selects, initiates,followsOrganizingWilling to supportand be anadvocate.Prioritizing values,comparing andcontrastingvalues;managingconflict andcreatingresolutions basedupon these valuesand the prioritiesascribe to each.Examples:Compare,contrast,organize, adhere,resolve, prepares,relate,InternalizingA value systemestablished thatcontrols behavior;it is consistent andpervasive. Workwell with othersandindependently,self-advocacypracticed. Willingto changebehavior for goodand revisejudgment whennew insight comesinto play.Examples:Influences, acts,discriminates,proposes, questions,revises, re/solvesNon-sequentialClassification ofThe AffectiveDomain
    24. 24. WHICH DO YOU PREFER???
    25. 25. I will be showing you short clips fromvarious videos; you tell me whichOf the affective domains it representsand why.
    26. 26. VIDEO 1Click onto the following link and tell me what affective domain trait each ofthe characters are exhibiting.
    27. 27. VIDEO 2• Click onto the following link and tell me what affective domain trait each ofthe characters are exhibiting.•
    28. 28. VIDEO 3Click onto the following link and tell me what affective domain trait each ofthe characters are exhibiting.
    29. 29. Naturalization-mastering skill to automaticity.Examples: design, develop, createArticulation- combining, producing, and performingseveral skills consistently.Examples: adapt, construct, generate, create, modify,teach, solve, combine, coordinatePrecision- performing a skill independently withoutassistance.Examples: demonstrate, master, perfect, complete,control, showManipulating- performing by memory or followinginstructions.Examples: act, execute, produce, perform,implementImitation- mimicking and observing behavior.Examples: copy, follow, mimic, reproduce,replicate, trace
    30. 30. NaturalizationArticulationPrecisionManipulatingImitating
    31. 31. NaturalizationArticulationPrecisionManipulatingImitating
    32. 32. You will be placed into groups. Within your groups, you will have tocreate an example for each of the psychomotor domains.
    34. 34. 1. Are specific! Leave little room for interpretation or ambiguity.Examples of poor objectives:The student will appreciate the crescendos in Rachmaninov’s Concerto No. 2.The student will know what metamorphosis is.The student will understand quadratic equations.The student will see the significance of the Cold War.
    35. 35. 2. Include the three cardinal characteristics forarticulating the objective.a. Performance- what exactly will they be able to do inobservable terms. It is measureable! Example:Differentiate between the American and FrenchRevolutionsb. Condition- the condition under which they will beasked to perform the task. Example: Create a powerpoint presentation or using presentation softwaresystemsc. Criteria- how well they will be performing the task (ifpossible). Example: In 15 to 20 slidesThe student will differentiate between the Americanand French revolutions by creating a 15 to 20 slide
    36. 36. Another way to look at this is via the A,B,C, D’sA= Audience (Student will be able to)B= Behavior: What they are expected specifically to doand how to demonstrate itC= Condition: Condition in which the task will beperformed.D= Degree: How well they will be expected to performthe task.
    37. 37. • S= Specific• M= Measureable• A= Attainable/Achievable. Can the students actually performthe objective within the skill sets and time frame assigned?• R= Relevant. Is the objective relevant to the lesson, its overallgoal or end result, the age group, and prerequisite knowledge?• T= Time boundS.M.A.R.T Objectives
    38. 38. EXAMPLES OF INSTRUCTIONALOBJECTIVESCognitive DomainThe student will create awebsite discussing thehistory of the Israeli andPalestinian Conflict andproffer propose their ownre/solution following thecriteria outlined in afurnished rubric.Affective DomainThe student will decide andverbally defend theirposition on what they deemthe most important humanright issue in a 3 to 5minute speech followingthe guidelines of afurnished rubric.Psychomotor DomainThe student will be able togive a well articulated andeffectively delivered 8 to 10minute speech demonstratingeye contact with theaudience, clear and non-montonous voice tone,appropriate use of bodylanguage, relaxed disposition,succinct word choice, and anaccurate informative message.
    39. 39. Create one cognitive, affective, and psychomotor instra class you are teaching utilizing the A,B,C, D’s and guidebeen furnished.
    40. 40. • Please click onto the following link:•