hunting (men) & gathering (women) small bands of 20-30 humans. Hunter gatherer societies have low birth rates because their subsistence limits how many children can be born based upon how many resources are available to sustain their population which, in turn, stabilizes their population. NOMADIC (moving from
Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. Australopithecines first to thought to be bipedal. An Opposable Thumb is another reason hominids became bipedal-making it easy to grasp objects. Apes are not bipedal because their big toe is divergent making it useful for grasping; however, the human toe is aligned, which assists in propelling the body forward to facilitate balance. An ape’s pelvic girdle is also anatomically shaped in an way that is not conducive for walking.
In Laetoli, Tanzania, hominid footprints were found validating early bipedalism (walking upright on two feet). Archeologists know this because the toe is aligned with the other toes and there are 2 arches on the print, resembling what a human footprint looks like barefoot. These prints were preserved due to a volcano in the area that erupted and covered the footprints. The hominid that created these prints was an Australopithecus Afarensis.
The oldest known ancestor to modern day humans and is considered the missing link between apes and humans is Ardipithicus Ramidus. These fossils were found in Ethipoia as well. This ancestor had a small brain (only a little larger than a chimpanzee) and was bipedal (although, unlike Lucy, couldn’t walk or run on two legs for long distances; however, was a quadruped by climbing trees (like a chimpanzee.
First earliest known species of the genus Homo; that is, the first human species. This specie had a much larger brain than Australopithecus afarensis which helped explain how this specie created stone tools for hunting and daily life.
Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology, making hunting more systematic. First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ). Now they could cook their food which decreased food born diseases. This enabled them to move in search of food instead of relying on just one area.
A. Out of Africa Theory, also known as the Radiation Theory. Modern man evolved from one local population in Africa and migrated from there, spreading out all over the world. B. Multiregional Theory. Also known as Parallel Evolution Theory. Hominids evolved slowly from the migration of Homo Erectus into modern man from several specific regions. These populations spread their genes into the areas by breeding, causing the gene pool to become larger.
They didn’t go far from their homes, limiting their resources. They hunted and lived in small groups making communication imperative. Their weapons were used to impale animals; therefore, to kill them, they had to approach the animal and get very close. This was dangerous and probably caused injuries and even fatalities. Communication was key in hunting because they had to work as a team. They had the ability to use complex speech; however, their sentences were probably basic. Instead of painting on cave walls they painted their faces.
Homo sapien sapiens lived on top of hillsides so they can see from above for hunting. Their weapons were spears that they threw from afar with accuracy allowing them to hunt from a distance. They didn’t have as many people hunting because they didn’t need to which made communication not as important due to being more solitary. They were better at obtaining resources. They painted on cave walls demonstrating that they were thinking symbolically. Potentially saw Neanderthals as mates. They too buried their dead.
Since men did the hunting and females were responsible for the food gathering, most of the important contributions were probably made by women, such as how to plant rather than gather seeds, as well as how to process and produce the food. Without these contributions, the earliest societies would not have succeeded.
There was a shift now in birth rates. Agricultural communities had high birth rates because they needed more children in order to increase labor supply for farming. Also, the environment was conducive for more child bearing due to the absence of nomadic wandering from settling in one area and food supply.
Because the human jaw, teeth, and digestive tract cannot anatomically eat grain because it is rough so they technologically found ways to process the grain for human consumption.
Cities could form due to a sedentary lifestyle, meaning people could stay in one place, due to the production of food in one area and having the capacity to store it. This made is no longer necessary to travel for your food source. This, in turn, created specializations because people would specialize in making pottery to store the food and making the tools to farm with, and so forth. This then created wealth, which would lead to social classes, including poverty.
It Provided a constant source of water for human consumption and farming, especially rich soil deposits from flooding
The percent of our genes that match our closest living relative, the chimpanzee
Hunter gatherer societies
Closest relative to man is the chimpanzee
Out of Africa
Radiocarbon or Carbon 14
Homo sapien sapien
Homo sapien sapien
Both. I left PA because of the weather; however, I could leave AZ if I think it is too hot.
Both Push and Pull
Origins of Man and Early Societies By Dr. Jennifer Levin-Goldberg
Migration 1.Where did early man come from in an evolutionary perspective? 2. How did people all over the world get to where they are? 3. How did early man go from nomadic primitive life to a modern technological industry?
Down With Geico! <ul><li>Where did early man come from in an evolutionary perspective? </li></ul><ul><li>How did people all over the world get to where they are? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How did early man go from nomadic primitive life to a modern technological industry? </li></ul>Turn to your partner Mindset
Stages of Early Human Development 1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE 2. 1,500,000 BCE -- 250,000 BCE 3 . 250,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE Paleolithic Age : ( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE
Primates Human Evolution One theory is that humans evolved from primates. Humans branched off to be Anthropoids and apes as Prosimii. Our closest living relative is the chimpanzee. We share 98% of the same genes with the chimp.
The Paleolithic Age <ul><li>“ Paleolithic” --> “Old Stone” Age </li></ul><ul><li>2,500,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE </li></ul>Hunter/Gatherer Society <ul><li>Made tools from stone </li></ul>
Australopithecus Afarensis: Lucy The first, most complete Australopithecus afarenis skeleton found was located in Hadar, Ethiopia by Dr. Johanson. He found a knee joint, validating that the creature was bipedal; walking upright making the remains a hominid. Hadar, Ethiopia Dr. Johanson
Laetoli Footprints Found in Laetoli, Tanzania. The hominid that created it was Australopithecus Afarensis .
Ardipithecus Ramidus The oldest known ancestor to modern day humans and is considered the missing link between apes and humans. Known as Ardi.
Stage 1 HOMO HABILIS ( “Handy Man” ) <ul><li>His fossils were f ound in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by Dr. Leakey . </li></ul>First earliest known species of the genus Homo; that is, the first human species. First Homo specie to create and use stone tools for hunting and daily life.
The Paleolithic Age <ul><li>Humans during this period found shelter in caves. </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings left behind. </li></ul>Purpose??
The three themes found in cave art were animals, signs, and human representations. The most common were animals, in particular, the horse and the least depicted were human representations.
Stage 2 1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Man” ) Tools were larger and varied First hominid to migrate and leave Africa First to use fire BIPEDAL
Their skeletons are larger unlike Australopithecus afarensis and built more like our own. They were carnivores. Their brain size doubled, making their brains much larger. Scientists find a correlation between brain size and body size. According to the research, the larger the brain, the bigger the body.
The most famous Homo Erectus fossil was found in a cave in Zhoukoudian, China and became known as Peking Man.
Differing Human Migration Theories A. Out of Africa Theory, also known as the Radiation Theory . B. Multiregional Theory, also known as Parallel Evolution Theory
Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS: <ul><li>Neander Valley, Germany (1856) </li></ul><ul><li>First humans to bury their dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Made clothes from animal skins. </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves and valleys. </li></ul>
They didn’t go far from their homes. They hunted and lived in small groups. Their weapons were used to impale animals up close. Communication was key in hunting because they had to work as a team. They had the ability to use complex speech. Instead of painting on cave walls they painted their faces.
Homo sapien sapiens lived on top of hillsides. Hunted from a distance due to advanced weaponry. They were better at obtaining resources. They painted on cave walls demonstrating that they were thinking symbolically. They too buried their dead. Potentially saw Neanderthals as mates.
Homo sapien sapiens settlements Their migration pattern. How were they able to cross over though? The Bering Strait
The Last Ice Age 70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE A possible explanation for this was due to the increase of oxygen in the atmosphere which oxidized with the methane present in the atmosphere which kept the Earth warm. This is known as the Great Oxidation Event.
The Neolithic Age Neolithic “New Stone” Age <ul><li>10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual shift from: </li></ul>Nomadic lifestyle settled, stationery lifestyle; a.k.a.sedentary Hunting/Gathering agricultural production and domestication of animals.
<ul><li>The hunter-gatherer exploits the environment; the agriculturalist modifies it. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Is agriculture essential to the development of a civilization? Explain your response. </li></ul><ul><li>How did Homo sapiens go from nomadic cultures to an agricultural society? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact do you think agriculture had upon Homo sapiens’ society? </li></ul>Agricultural Revolution Mindset
The Agricultural Revolution <ul><li>8,000 BCE – 5,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>There are conflicting debates justifying how and why agriculture developed. </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Did all regions learn about agriculture independently? </li></ul><ul><li>Did different region learn about agriculture through cultural diffusion? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Did agriculture develop due to changes in the climate </li></ul><ul><li>Did agriculture develop due to population explosions? </li></ul>Middle East India Central America China Southeast Asia 8,000 BCE 7,000 BCE 6,500 BCE 6,000 BCE 5,000 BCE Now it’s your turn; what do you think? Agriculture first developed in the Fertile Crescent which is in the Middle East.
The Agricultural Revolution Why do some archaeologists believe that women were the first farmers?
<ul><li>Since men did the hunting and females were responsible for the food gathering, women learned how to plant seeds, as well as process and prepare the food. </li></ul>You Go Girl!
Early Settled Communities <ul><li>Growing crops on a regular basis made possible the support of larger populations. </li></ul><ul><li>More permanent, settled communities emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>The first towns were Jericho in Israel and the largest was in Catal Huyuk (modern day Turkey). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cities could form due to a sedentary lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>This, in turn, created specializations, </li></ul><ul><li>which resulted in wealth, </li></ul><ul><li>which would lead to social classes, including poverty. </li></ul>
What are the characteristics of a civilization??
Advanced Cities CIVILIZATION Specialized Workers Complex Institutions Record- Keeping Advanced Technology Which gave rise to social classes Government Military Education Legal system Art Religion
Challenges facing Agricultural Communities 1. Soil Erosion 2. Overpopulation 3. Epidemics 4.Competition over resources 5. Dependency upon weather 6. Safety/Security Issues Are these issues agricultural communities face today?
Why do you think so many civilizations arose in river valley's? <ul><li>Click to hear answer </li></ul>
Get in 3 equal groups <ul><li>I will ask each group a question by showing a clue on the Power Point. You and your group will discuss what you think the answer is. If you get it correct, your group earns 1 point. If your group gets it wrong, it is up for grabs. If you answer it incorrectly, you do not lose any points. </li></ul><ul><li>I will only accept the first answer your group says so make sure you are all in agreement on the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Good luck! </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is the difference between a refugee and an internally displaced person? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to immigrate? </li></ul><ul><li>What dies it mean to emigrate? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes people to become an immigrant? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes people to become an emigrant? </li></ul>Migration Mindset
Push and Pull Factors Push Migration Factors of Migration: Conditions that drive people to leave their homes. Examples: Land scarcity, political and/or religious persecution, civil strife or revolutions, unsafe, poverty, lack of services, lack of modernization and infrastructure, and lack of jobs.
Pull Factors of Migration: Conditions that attract people to a new area. Examples: religious and political freedom or ideologies, industry, jobs, available land, modernization, available services and infrastructure like education, health care, government services, safety. Turn to your partner
I will say a factor and you will have to identify which factor it is an example of according to a movement. If it is a Push factor , you will have to do 3 Jumping jacks. If it is a Pull factor , you will have to do 3 calf raises. If it is both a Push and Pull factor , you will have to do 3 squats. Here we go!
What were the push and/or pull factors of early man’s migration?
Internally Displaced Person (IDP) A person that is forced to flee their home from persecution, due to political, religious, military or other problem and remains in their country just in another place for safety. Still a push factor.
Refugee - someone that is forced to flee their home from persecution, due to political, religious, military or other problem and leaves their country for safety reasons. Turn to partner