OBJECTIVE 1 | Describe the interplay between attention and perception.
OBJECTIVE 2 | Explain how illusions help us understand some of the ways we organize stimuli into meaningful perceptions.
OBJECTIVE 3 | Describe Gestalt psychology's contribution to our understanding of perception.
OBJECTIVE 4 | Explain the figure-ground relationship and identify principles of perceptual grouping in form perception.
OBJECTIVE 5 | Explain the importance of depth perception, and discuss the contribution of visual cliff research to our understanding of this ability.
OBJECTIVE 6 | Describe two binocular cues for perceiving depth, and explain how they help the brain to compute distance.
OBJECTIVE 7 | Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several monocular cues for perceiving depth.
OBJECTIVE 8 | State the basic assumption we make in our perceptions of motion, and explain how these perceptions can be deceiving.
OBJECTIVE 9 | Explain the importance of perceptual constancy.
OBJECTIVE 10 | Describe the shape and size constancy, and explain how our expectations about perceived size and distance to some visual illusions.
OBJECTIVE 11 | Discuss lightness constancy and its similarity to color constancy.
OBJECTIVE 12 | Describe the contribution of restored-vision and sensory deprivation research in our understanding of the nature-nurture interplay in our perceptions.
OBJECTIVE 13 | Explain how the research on distorting goggles increases our understanding of the adaptability of perception.
OBJECTIVE 14 | Define perceptual set, and explain how it influences what we do or do not perceive. Right half the class should close their eyes and the left half of the class should see the saxophonist for about 20 seconds. Then the left half of the class should close the eyes and the right half should see the woman’s face. All of them should then write their responses while watching the middle picture. Responses are compared to show perceptual set.
All what we perceive not only comes from the environment but also from our minds. Schemas or concepts develop through experience.
Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered an eye in their paintings.
OBJECTIVE 15 | Explain why the same stimulus can evoke different perceptions in different contexts.
OBJECTIVE 16 | Describe the role human factors psychologists play in creating user-friendly machines and work settings.
OBJECTIVE 17 | Identify the three most testable forms of ESP, and explain why most research psychologists remain, skeptical of ESP.
Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst. Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game.
Perceptual Illusions Illusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is as important as studying other perceptual phenomena. Line AB is longer than line BC.
Tall Arch In this picture, the vertical dimension of the arch looks longer than the horizontal dimension. However, both are equal. Rick Friedman/ Black Star
3-D Illusion It takes a great deal of effort to perceive this figure in two dimensions. Reprinted with kind permission of Elsevier Science-NL. Adapted from Hoffman, D. & Richards, W. Parts of recognition. Cognition, 63, 29-78
Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ. Try looking at your two index fingers when pointing them towards each other half an inch apart and about 5 inches directly in front of your eyes. You will see a “finger sausage” as shown in the inset.
Interposition: Objects that occlude (block) other objects tend to be perceived as closer.
Rene Magritte, The Blank Signature, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington. Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Photo by Richard Carafelli.
Monocular Cues Relative Clarity: Because light from distant objects passes through more light than closer objects, we perceive hazy objects to be farther away than those objects that appear sharp and clear.
The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues.
From Shepard, 1990 Alan Choisnet/ The Image Bank
Size-Distance Relationship Both girls in the room are of similar height. However, we perceive them to be of different heights as they stand in the two corners of the room. Both photos from S. Schwartzenberg/ The Exploratorium
Ames Room The Ames room is designed to demonstrate the size-distance illusion.
Lightness Constancy The color and brightness of square A and B are the same. Courtesy Edward Adelson
After cataract surgery, blind adults were able to regain sight. These individuals could differentiate figure and ground relationships, yet they had difficulty distinguishing a circle and a triangle (Von Senden, 1932).
After blind adults regained sight, they were able to recognize distinct features, but were unable to recognize faces. Normal observers also show difficulty in facial recognition when the lower half of the pictures are changed.
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures.
From Shepard, 1990.
Perceptual Set (a) Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b) Flying saucers or clouds? Other examples of perceptual set. Frank Searle, photo Adams/ Corbis-Sygma Dick Ruhl
Schemas Children's schemas represent reality as well as their abilities to represent what they see. Schemas are concepts that organize and interpret unfamiliar information. Courtesy of Anna Elizabeth Voskuil
Features on a Face Students recognized a caricature of Arnold Schwarzenegger faster than his actual photo. Face schemas are accentuated by specific features on the face. Kieran Lee/ FaceLab, Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia
Eye & Mouth Eyes and mouth play a dominant role in face recognition. Courtesy of Christopher Tyler
Context Effects Is the “magician cabinet” on the floor or hanging from the ceiling? Context can radically alter perception.
Cultural Context To an East African, the woman sitting is balancing a metal box on her head, while the family is sitting under a tree. Context instilled by culture also alters perception.
Perception Revisited Is perception innate or acquired?
In an experiment with 28,000 individuals, Wiseman attempted to prove whether or not one can psychically influence or predict a coin toss. People were able to correctly influence or predict a coin toss 49.8% of the time.