OBJECTIVE 1 | Describe hindsight bias and explain how it can make research findings seem like mere common sense. “Anything seems commonplace, once explained.” Dr. Watson to Sherlock Holmes. Two phenomena – hindsight bias and judgmental overconfidence – illustrate why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense.
OBJECTIVE 2 | Describe how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments.
OBJECTIVE 3 | Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking.
OBJECTIVE 4 | Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research.
If we were to observe that depressed people talk about their past, present, and future in a gloomy manner, we may theorize that low-self-esteem contributes to depression.
OBJECTIVE 5 | Identify the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in studying behavior and mental processes.
OBJECTIVE 6 | Identify the advantages and disadvantages of surveys in studying behavior and mental processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.
OBJECTIVE 7 | Identify the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation in studying behavior and mental processes.
OBJECTIVE 8 | Describe positive and negative correlations and explain how correlational measures can aid the process of prediction.
OBJECTIVE 9 | Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships.
OBJECTIVE 10 | Describe how people form illusory correlations.
OBJECTIVE 11 | Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random events.
OBJECTIVE 12 | Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect.
OBJECTIVE 14 | Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable.
OBJECTIVE 13 | Explain why random assignment and double-blind procedure build confidence in research findings.
Sometime research participants out of enthusiasm or personal beliefs can affect the out come of an experiment. To control for such affects, a double-blind procedure is used, in which the participants and the experimenter’s assistants are not aware of which participants got real treatment and who got placebo.
OBJECTIVE 15 | Explain the importance of statistical principles, and give an example of their use in daily life.
OBJECTIVE 16 | Explain how graphs can misrepresent data.
OBJECTIVE 17 | Describe three measures of central tendency and tell which is most affected by extreme scores.
OBJECTIVE 18 | Explain two measures of variation.
OBJECTIVE 19 | Identify three principles for making generalizations from samples.
OBJECTIVE 20 | Explain how psychologists decide whether differences are meaningful.
OBJECTIVE 21 | Explain the value of simplified laboratory conditions in discovering general principles of behavior.
OBJECTIVE 22 | Discuss whether psychological research can be generalized across cultures and genders.
OBJECTIVE 23 | Explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation with both animals and humans.
OBJECTIVE 24 | Describe how personal values can influence psychologists’ research and its application, and discuss psychology’s potential to manipulate people.
Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1
Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know.
Anagram BARGE GRABE ENTRY ETYRN WATER WREAT How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams? People said it would take about 10 seconds, yet on average they took about 3 minutes (Goranson, 1978).
How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions?
The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do!
The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).
Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.
When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. r = 0.37 + Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00)
Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship.
Scatterplots No relationship (0.00) Perfect negative correlation (-1.00) The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation, while the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables.
Data Data showing height and temperament in people.
Scatterplot The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people. There is a moderate positive correlation of +0.63.