Rituals in Religion <ul><li>The performance of rituals is an integral part of all religions.   </li></ul><ul><li>What are ...
Rituals in Religion <ul><li>They almost always involve the use of symbolic objects, words, and actions.   </li></ul><ul><l...
Rituals in Religion   <ul><li>Most religious rituals are performed in special places and under special conditions, such as...
Rituals in Religion <ul><li>For instance, the &quot;partaking of the host&quot; in the Catholic mass is a symbolic partici...
Rituals in Religion
Rituals in Religion
Rituals in Religion
Non-Religious Rituals <ul><li>Not all rituals are religious.   </li></ul><ul><li>Brushing your teeth every morning in the ...
Non-Religious Rituals <ul><li>Political ideologies and movements often have rituals that can be profoundly important for p...
Non- Religions Rituals <ul><li>Even in democratic nations that are more international in their focus, there are often symb...
 
 
 
Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>Religions fulfill psychological needs.   </li></ul><ul><li>They hel...
They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown. 
Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>Religions fulfill psychological needs.   </li></ul><ul><li>They hel...
Formal North American wedding (religious ritual is central to this rite of passage)
Bali
Thai
Hindu
What are some other typical “rites of passage”? Please list…
Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>We also get psychological relief from &quot;divinely given&quot; mo...
Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>By reinforcing group norms, they help bring about social homogeneit...
 
Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>For instance, the most sacred text of Islam, the  Koran , not only ...
Quiz… <ul><li>  A _____________ is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings.   <...
Quiz… <ul><li>2. Which of the following statements is not true about rituals?   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)  They are always ...
Quiz… <ul><li>3. Extreme nationalism could be seen as ______________ .   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)  a ritual object  </li><...
Quiz… <ul><li>4. Which of the following things are normally characteristic of religions?   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a)  They ...
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Lecture 2 rituals in religion

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  • Wed- discuss body ritual of nacirema
  • Transcript of "Lecture 2 rituals in religion"

    1. 1. Rituals in Religion <ul><li>The performance of rituals is an integral part of all religions.  </li></ul><ul><li>What are Rituals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rituals are stylized and usually repetitive acts that take place at a set time and location .  </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Rituals in Religion <ul><li>They almost always involve the use of symbolic objects, words, and actions.  </li></ul><ul><li>For example, going to church on Sunday is a common religious ritual for Christians around the world.  </li></ul><ul><li>It usually requires the wearing of somewhat different clothing and interacting with others in a particular manner in a sacred location.  </li></ul><ul><li>At the heart of this experience is a sequence of traditional ritual acts that symbolically represent aspects of the life, teachings, and death of Jesus. </li></ul>Symbolic objects used in Christian rituals
    3. 3. Rituals in Religion <ul><li>Most religious rituals are performed in special places and under special conditions, such as in a dedicated temple or at a sacred spot.  </li></ul><ul><li>This is an intentional separation between the secular and the sacred.  </li></ul><ul><li>By being removed from the ordinary world, the sacred acts are enhanced for the believers.  </li></ul><ul><li>The separation makes the rituals more effective.  </li></ul><ul><li>Only allowing initiated people to participate in religious rituals also can have the same effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious ritual reinforces the basic tenets of religion.  </li></ul>Maya Temple in Guatemala built on a high pyramid base to make it a sacred location
    4. 4. Rituals in Religion <ul><li>For instance, the &quot;partaking of the host&quot; in the Catholic mass is a symbolic participation in the &quot;last supper&quot; of Jesus and, by extension, an affirmation of the acceptance of his teachings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals are often charged with high emotions.  </li></ul><ul><li>The exalted feelings people experience during rituals provide positive reinforcement for continuing them.  </li></ul><ul><li>When rituals make people &quot;feel good&quot;, they reinforce the belief that their religion is the &quot;correct&quot; one. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Rituals in Religion
    6. 6. Rituals in Religion
    7. 7. Rituals in Religion
    8. 8. Non-Religious Rituals <ul><li>Not all rituals are religious.  </li></ul><ul><li>Brushing your teeth every morning in the same place and in the same way is a non-religious ritual.  </li></ul><ul><li>Like religious rituals, it also can make you &quot;feel good&quot;, which reinforces your continuance of the practice.  </li></ul><ul><li>However, it rarely involves a belief in supernatural beings or forces. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Non-Religious Rituals <ul><li>Political ideologies and movements often have rituals that can be profoundly important for people, especially when they become the focus of nationalism.  </li></ul><ul><li>Communism and extreme nationalist movements over the last century essentially became secular religions in some countries.  </li></ul><ul><li>They had their rituals, essentially sacred objects, and beliefs that provided meaning and order for millions of people.  </li></ul>
    10. 10. Non- Religions Rituals <ul><li>Even in democratic nations that are more international in their focus, there are often symbolic political objects and rituals connected with them.  </li></ul><ul><li>An example in the United States is the pledge of allegiance to the American flag in schools and at public meetings.  </li></ul><ul><li>The flag takes on a powerful meaning for which people have given up their lives despite the fact that it is only a piece of cloth with different portions dyed red, white, or blue. </li></ul>
    11. 14. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>Religions fulfill psychological needs.  </li></ul><ul><li>They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown.  </li></ul><ul><li>They help us confront and explain death.  </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural powers and beings may be appealed to or manipulated by people in times of crisis, as for example in praying to win a battle or survive a fierce storm.  </li></ul><ul><li>Religions help ease the stress during personal life crises such as birth, marriage, serious illness, and death.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a coincidence that in most societies the &quot;rites of passage&quot; that are performed to help people adjust to these often highly emotional transitions are strongly religious.   </li></ul>
    12. 15. They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown. 
    13. 16. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>Religions fulfill psychological needs.  </li></ul><ul><li>They help relieve our fears and anxieties about the unknown.  </li></ul><ul><li>They help us confront and explain death.  </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural powers and beings may be appealed to or manipulated by people in times of crisis, as for example in praying to win a battle or survive a fierce storm.  </li></ul><ul><li>Religions help ease the stress during personal life crises such as birth, marriage, serious illness, and death.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a coincidence that in most societies the &quot;rites of passage&quot; that are performed to help people adjust to these often highly emotional transitions are strongly religious.  </li></ul>
    14. 17. Formal North American wedding (religious ritual is central to this rite of passage)
    15. 18. Bali
    16. 19. Thai
    17. 20. Hindu
    18. 21. What are some other typical “rites of passage”? Please list…
    19. 22. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>We also get psychological relief from &quot;divinely given&quot; moral codes.  </li></ul><ul><li>They lift some of the burden of decision making from our shoulders in difficult situations because they tell us what is right and wrong.  </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what to do without having to think deeply about it provides tremendous psychological relief. </li></ul><ul><li>Religions also fulfill social needs.  They can be powerful, dynamic forces in society.  </li></ul>
    20. 23. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>By reinforcing group norms, they help bring about social homogeneity.  </li></ul><ul><li>They can provide a basis for common purpose and values that can help maintain social solidarity.  </li></ul><ul><li>A uniformity of beliefs helps bind people together and reinforces group identity.   </li></ul><ul><li>In most societies, religions play an important role in social control by defining what is right and wrong behavior.  </li></ul><ul><li>If individuals do the right things in life, they may earn the approval of the gods.  </li></ul><ul><li>If they do the wrong things, they may suffer supernatural retribution.  </li></ul>
    21. 25. Psychological and Social Functions of Religion <ul><li>For instance, the most sacred text of Islam, the Koran , not only provides detailed lists of specific kinds of crimes and appropriate earthly punishments, but it also gives descriptions of how to do mundane tasks such as eating specific kinds of food. </li></ul><ul><li>The sacred texts of religions usually set precedents for proper behavior in common situations.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Judeo-Christian Bible stories of Adam and Eve, Cane and Able, Noah, Job, Moses, Solomon, and even Jesus provide examples of how virtuous people should lead their lives.  </li></ul><ul><li>It does not matter whether the sacred stories or myths of a religion actually occurred in every detail--they are still illustrative of correct thought and behavior. </li></ul>
    22. 26. Quiz… <ul><li>  A _____________ is a system of beliefs usually involving the worship of supernatural forces or beings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) rite of passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) all of the above </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. Quiz… <ul><li>2. Which of the following statements is not true about rituals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They are always religious in nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) They are stylized and usually repetitive acts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) They usually take place at a set time and location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They are an integral part of all religions. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 28. Quiz… <ul><li>3. Extreme nationalism could be seen as ______________ . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) a ritual object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) an expression of a belief in supernatural forces or beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) a non-secular religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) a secular religion </li></ul></ul>
    25. 29. Quiz… <ul><li>4. Which of the following things are normally characteristic of religions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They allow us to be free in deciding what to do in difficult life situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) In most societies, religions do not play an important role in social control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Sacred texts of religions usually set precedents for proper behavior in common situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They usually undermine the norms of a society. </li></ul></ul>

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