Early Childhood Development: AMulticultural Perspective, Fifth EditionJeffery Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.A...
2Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
3Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
4Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
5Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
6Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
7Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
8Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
9Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc....
10Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
11Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
12Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
13Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
14Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
15Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
16Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
17Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
18Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
19Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
20Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
21Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
22Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
23Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
24Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
25Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
26Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
27Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
28Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
29Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
30Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
31Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
32Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc...
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CHDEV 51 Chapter 2

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CHDEV 51 Chapter 2

  1. 1. Early Childhood Development: AMulticultural Perspective, Fifth EditionJeffery Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.CHAPTER 2Historical Perspectives andResearch in Early ChildhoodDevelopment
  2. 2. 2Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Understanding the Roots of CommonBeliefs and Practices ConcerningYoung Children
  3. 3. 3Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.How have our perspectives andtreatment of children changesover history?
  4. 4. 4Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Middle Ages to 1600:birth to age 7  infants have little valueafter age 7‘little adults’ expected to act like adultsRenaissance to 1800:children seen as distinctly different from adultsborn ‘bad’ – needed to have ‘devil beat out of them’harsh training – focus on ‘breaking the will’ ofchildrenEARLY WESTERN(EUROPEAN) PERSPECTIVES
  5. 5. 5Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.19thand 20thcenturies in Europe and U.S.:new emphasis on socialization (training)Industrial Revolution public schools / child care / exploitation1900 – 1950:growing concern for children’s needsprediction made of period of ‘helping’ to comeRECENT WESTERNPERSPECTIVES
  6. 6. 6Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Since 1970s:Increasing family stressors compromisechildren’s well-being:↑ exposure to violence↑ child abuse and neglect cases↓ family servicesMany children’s needs are still not metin modern America.
  7. 7. 7Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.The ways that children have beenthought of and treated haschanged dramatically throughouthistory.CRITICAL CONCEPT #1
  8. 8. 8Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.CRITICAL CONCEPT #2Although we believe children aretreated more compassionatelynow than in times past, manychildren are still in great need inAmerica.
  9. 9. 9Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONAs we understand past views ofchildren, we can better: Reflect on where our own ideas andpractices come from Learn from the past:- borrow useful ideas- question traditional practices- replace outdated beliefs andpractices Advocate for children’s rights and needs
  10. 10. 10Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.How do people from non-Westerncultures see children differently?Not much historical information availablein child development textsUse historical cultural beliefs andpractices to deduce non-Western viewsof children and socialization practices
  11. 11. 11Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.African- strong kinship and family bonds in family life- strong mother-child relationships- high concern and caring toward childrenNative American- close familial and tribal ties- interdependence and respect for all life- children highly cherished and protected- clear division of labor and sense of socialresponsibility- collective child-rearing- individual differences respected and nurtured
  12. 12. 12Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Asian (Chinese and Japanese)- influenced by Confucius – focus oninterpersonal harmony- children are inherently good- education through observation, imitation,question-asking- infancy is a special period- strong parent-child bonds are importantPuerto Rican- historically close-knit and mutually supportivefamilies- compadrazgo and hijos de crianza- como de la familia
  13. 13. 13Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Slavery and oppression stronglyinfluenced childhood experienceMany non-dominant cultural groups areaffected and families:- become collective with resources and childcare- use firm and directive parenting forprotection- are either respectful or resistant todominant Western values
  14. 14. 14Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.The beliefs about children and theway they are treated in non-Western cultures are a result oftheir own particular culturalhistories – many of which includeslavery and oppression.CRITICAL CONCEPT #3
  15. 15. 15Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONWe should accept and appreciatedifferences stemming fromhistorical oppression such asparenting that is:- directive- protective- focused on obedience- firm
  16. 16. 16Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Research on Young Children
  17. 17. 17Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.How have we learned what we knowabout young children?Earliest research was done to describe‘normal’ development and its causes.‘normal’ = acceptable by societyLocke and Rousseau wrote about:- effect of environment on development- origins of ‘goodness’ and ‘sinfulness’↓obeying Church teachings and society’s customs
  18. 18. 18Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.EARLIEST RESEARCHERSObserved children to describe normaldevelopment (emphasized current cultural‘norms’)Earliest = biographies and diaries with own children- Pestalozzi and DarwinQuestionnaires with larger groups- G. Stanley HallCharts developed to show milestones of growth- Gesell and Shirley
  19. 19. 19Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.NORMATIVE CHARTSDefinition:Graphic representation of the stages ormilestones children pass through as theydevelopLimited by:Only white middle-class children studiedQuantitative methods used
  20. 20. 20Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.WAYS WE STUDY CHILDREN NOWIndividuals or groupsCorrelational (descriptive) researchstudies relationships among characteristics orbehaviors (factors)Experimental researchstudies causes of characteristics or behaviorsby treating one group differently than anotherand testing both groups to see if the treatmentmade a difference
  21. 21. 21Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.SETTINGS FOR STUDYINGCHILDRENLaboratory settingdesigned to control and elicit certain kinds ofbehavior as needed for experimentalresearchNaturalistic settinglooks at children in their everyday settings fordescriptive researchMOST COMMON TYPE USED TODAY
  22. 22. 22Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Cross-sectional studies2 or more groups of children of different agesare examined at the same time to determinehow they are differentLongitudinal studiesone group of children is examined over a longperiod of time to determine how they aredifferent at different agesWAYS TO STUDY CHANGEOVER TIME
  23. 23. 23Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.LIMITATIONS OF QUANTITATIVERESEARCHCultural characteristics are notrepresented if the group studiedonly included children from thedominant culture.Results cannot be applied toindividual children because theyidentify typical or averageinformation about development.
  24. 24. 24Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.PROBLEMS WITH RESEARCHFindings can be difficult to interpret accuratelybecause of:Biases that were built into the study(assumptions made that may not be true)Confusion between correlation andcausation:Related variables do not necessarilycause one another !!!!
  25. 25. 25Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.We have gained a lot of importantinformation about young childrenfrom primarily quantitativeresearch; however, flaws andbiases exist in many researchfindings.CRITICAL CONCEPT #4
  26. 26. 26Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.PRACTICAL APPLICATION We need to understand researchmethods so we can criticallyevaluate the results We must be cautious in how weinterpret research findings Study findings ≠ truth Study findings = ‘good guess’
  27. 27. 27Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.How are qualitative and ethnographicresearch used to help us understandchildren?
  28. 28. 28Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.QUALITATIVE STUDIESResults are ‘thick descriptions’ of children’sdevelopment that capture all aspects oftheir lives.Rich and detailed narratives illustratechildren’s development.Purpose is to describe individual behavioror development within a particularcontext.Patterns or trends in behavior can beidentified.
  29. 29. 29Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDYDefinition:A type of qualitative research thatuses methods from anthropology tostudy development within a particulargroupCaptures the rich complexity of theindividual, culture, and contextGives us the most complete picture ofdevelopment within a particular culture
  30. 30. 30Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.Qualitative research methods havebeen developed that provide moreaccurate information about youngchildren that is less biased andmore useful.A combination of these methods canbe used to answer pressingquestions about children’sdevelopment.CRITICAL CONCEPT #5
  31. 31. 31Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONAction research in the classroomQuantitative observations can include:Developmental checklistsEvent samplingTime samplingQualitative observations may use:Anecdotal recordsCase studies
  32. 32. 32Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective,Fifth editionJeffrey Trawick-Smith© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.We can ask ourselves frequently:“How can I use these methods todiscover what children in my careneed most to enhance theirdevelopment?”PRACTICAL APPLICATION

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