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EDU 723 Contemporary Issues in Education Franciscan University By – Jennifer Behr “ Education is the passport to the futur...
<ul><li>Trends help us identify areas in education that do or soon will have an impact on society. </li></ul><ul><li>We ca...
<ul><li>The 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll highlights what Americans say about public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The fol...
<ul><li>Recruiting and Retaining Great Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest Problem Facing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Prepa...
<ul><li>My  Trends Analysis Report  will include –  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An analysis of each of the three previously ...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three out of four Americans support r...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Delta Poll –  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two of three Americans would like a c...
<ul><li>Americans are concerned their public schools are having difficulty getting good teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Teaching is a highly-respected profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is being added to specific areas that will impa...
<ul><li>Recruitment  - preparing our teachers in different ways – alternative routes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pr...
<ul><li>Recruitment  – appealing to Generation Y teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>utilization of technology in the recr...
<ul><li>Retention  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supportive school leadership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>In terms of  Recruitment …… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber utilizes technology and on-line sources to recr...
<ul><li>In terms of  Retention …… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has implemented programs that appeal to employees...
<ul><li>In terms of  Recruitment   …….we need to continue the process. If we stop, we will fail to reach the teachers we n...
<ul><li>In terms of  Retention ……issues and concerns from employees need to take center stage. If PA Cyber falls behind in...
<ul><li>Recruitment  –  PA Cyber is in a unique position that allows for easy recruitment on-line and directly throughout ...
<ul><li>Course of Action –  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to make recruitment and retention a priority. Our sch...
<ul><li>Timeline –  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great teachers are few and far between.  In order to recruit and retain such...
<ul><li>Question?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What do you think the biggest problems that the public schools in your communit...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44% of Americans indicated school fun...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American’s perception of the nation’s...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>79% of parents assigned grades of A o...
<ul><li>School funding needs to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools and education needs to be more positively p...
<ul><li>Many public schools are suffering due to lack of funding, especially urban and rural school districts. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>The potential for funding to be cut for PA Cyber is increasing as more and more school districts fight for the lim...
<ul><li>If funding is cut, PA Cyber will face many struggles and programs may need to be cut. </li></ul><ul><li>If the com...
<ul><li>PA Cyber has strong support within the community and is gaining momentum with each passing year. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Course of Action –  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to  address any and all concerns brought about by Ame...
<ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no time to waste when it comes to addressing the biggest issues fa...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consider a high school grad...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College graduates are considered most...
<ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding educations practices and condit...
<ul><li>We need to make sure our students are making it to their high school graduation – and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>We...
<ul><li>Education in general needs to make some dramatic changes to incorporate the needs of today’s students. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>PA Cyber needs to remain cutting edge in all program areas. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber must incorporate methods an...
<ul><li>If PA Cyber does not remain cutting edge in all areas of its programming, the chance for the competition to take o...
<ul><li>PA Cyber has the opportunity to prove to the community, state, and the country that they truly are the school of t...
<ul><li>Course of Action –  the future is not ceasing to emerge, which means PA Cyber needs to act now in preparing our st...
<ul><li>Whatever we do, we need to always try and be sure that the action we take, regarding these and other trends, is no...
<ul><li>Highlights of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll.  What Americans said about the public schools , as retrieved f...
<ul><li>“ Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a pr...
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  1. 1. EDU 723 Contemporary Issues in Education Franciscan University By – Jennifer Behr “ Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.” ~ Malcolm X
  2. 2. <ul><li>Trends help us identify areas in education that do or soon will have an impact on society. </li></ul><ul><li>We can spot trends through our intuition, things we hear or read about, evidence that becomes more clear, or through a systematic analysis of what is mentioned in the media. </li></ul><ul><li>This project will identify some of those trends and take you through an analysis of each one, and their impact on education. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll highlights what Americans say about public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The following areas are addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching as a career </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiting and retaining great teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Layoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Quality teaching </li></ul><ul><li>School choice, charters, and vouchers </li></ul><ul><li>Digital learning and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest problem facing education </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing students for the future </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Recruiting and Retaining Great Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest Problem Facing Education </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing Students for the Future </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>My Trends Analysis Report will include – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An analysis of each of the three previously mentioned trends. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of each trend on education in general. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of each trend on PA Cyber specifically. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential threats for PA Cyber. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential opportunities for PA Cyber. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for PA Cyber, including a course of action and a timeline for implementing that course of action. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three out of four Americans support recruiting high-achieving high school students to become teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The same percentage also would encourage the brightest person they know to become a teacher. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About half felt that becoming a math or science teacher was just as important as becoming a scientist. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, two of three Americans believe teaching comes more from a natural, innate talent rather than from college training on how to teach. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>“ The dream begins with a teacher who believes in you, who tugs and pushes and leads you to the next plateau, sometimes poking you with a sharp stick called ‘truth.’ “ ~ Dan Rather
  7. 7. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Delta Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two of three Americans would like a child of theirs to become a public school teacher. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost three of four Americans have trust and confidence in public school teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three of four American believe teachers should have flexibility to teach in the ways they think best rather than being required to follow a specific curriculum. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Americans are concerned their public schools are having difficulty getting good teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans say they hear more bad stories than good stories about teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Teaching is a highly-respected profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is being added to specific areas that will impact our future, including teaching math and science. </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools are gaining ground, but there is clearly work to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should be able to use their own devices to teach students. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Recruitment - preparing our teachers in different ways – alternative routes. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>programs developed in response to labor market needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coursework which allows participants to enroll in an abbreviated program before becoming a teacher, then completing coursework while teaching full-time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>programs can be successful in recruiting and attracting a new pool of teachers, including male teachers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Recruitment – appealing to Generation Y teachers. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>utilization of technology in the recruitment process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>school website </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>application process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supportive school leadership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parental engagement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adequate resources for public education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supportive and trustworthy colleagues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opportunities for growth within the school </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continuing education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>In terms of Recruitment …… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber utilizes technology and on-line sources to recruit teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber utilizes more traditional approaches to recruitment, including contact with local colleges and job fairs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber relies on employees and the community to spread the word about employment opportunities and the fact that we are a great place to work – voted two years in a row as one of the Best Places to Work. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>In terms of Retention …… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has implemented programs that appeal to employees, including the Wellness Program, continuing education programs, co-teaching and mentoring programs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has a unique working environment that is inviting, fun, relaxed, and personal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has an approachable administration that creates bonds with its employees. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>In terms of Recruitment …….we need to continue the process. If we stop, we will fail to reach the teachers we need to. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to continue to be cutting edge, creating opportunities for prospective teachers to view our accomplishments and buy-into our mission. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to utilize technology and on-line sources in the recruitment process, yet still maintain contact with local colleges through job fairs and classroom meetings. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to continue to utilize word-of-mouth and employee recommendation in the recruitment process. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In terms of Retention ……issues and concerns from employees need to take center stage. If PA Cyber falls behind in these areas, retention of great teachers will surely falter. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to address employee concerns, especially related to salary and equity in compensation for comparable positions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to continue to focus on areas employees are drawn to and provide new and continuing opportunities for success. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Recruitment – PA Cyber is in a unique position that allows for easy recruitment on-line and directly throughout the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Retention – PA Cyber has created a specialized learning and working environment that provides success and on-going opportunities for all of its employees. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Course of Action – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to make recruitment and retention a priority. Our school was designed on technology and we need to continue efforts to provide cutting edge opportunities for recruiting new employees and retaining the ones we have. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We need to maintain favorable communication within the community and continue to earn our place in the educational community. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Timeline – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great teachers are few and far between. In order to recruit and retain such teachers, PA Cyber needs to utilize current measures in place in these areas, as well as remain up-to-date on outside sources that are effective tools in recruiting effective teachers and retaining them. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As new measures or techniques become available, PA Cyber needs to move forward in the areas of recruitment and retention. There are measures in place currently, but this trend needs to be on-going, and revisited on a regular basis, through regular administrative and/or Board meetings. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Question? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What do you think the biggest problems that the public schools in your community must deal with?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additionally, Americans were asked to assign grades, from A to Fail, in response to questions concerning their local schools, the nation’s schools, and the school their oldest child attends. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans were also asked to grade Barack Obama, and give their perception on his support of public schools. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>“ The main failure of education is that it has not prepared people to comprehend matters concerning human destiny.” ~ Norman Cousins
  21. 21. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44% of Americans indicated school funding, or lack thereof, is the biggest problem facing education. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also included were overcrowded schools, lack of discipline, and lack of parental support. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Together, though, these only totaled 11%. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of A’s and B’s Americans gave local schools is at an all-time high of 51%. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of Americans giving their local schools an A is the highest on record at 14%. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American’s perception of the nation’s schools continues to decline – only 17% assigned a grade of A or B. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of D’s and Fails is increasing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHY such a disparity? Americans said they overwhelmingly based their responses about their local schools and immediate community on their personal knowledge of the schools. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some believed they assigned low grades for the nation’s schools based on negative media information. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>79% of parents assigned grades of A or B to the school their oldest child attends. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>69% of Americans gave teachers grades of an A or B – up 19% from a percentage of only 50% back in 1984. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>54% of Americans also scored principals and other administrators with an A or B. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President Barrack Obama’s performance has improved according to Americans as 41% of Americans gave him a score of A or B in his support of public schools. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>School funding needs to be addressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools and education needs to be more positively portrayed in the media. </li></ul><ul><li>There needs to be a national awareness type movement in our country in an attempt to unite Americans in support of our educational system. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Many public schools are suffering due to lack of funding, especially urban and rural school districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the challenges, public schools around the country are gaining ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless the media coverage of our nation’s schools is turned around, it is likely American’s will continue to view our education system as a failing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Schools need to be creative with their funding. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The potential for funding to be cut for PA Cyber is increasing as more and more school districts fight for the limited funds they have. </li></ul><ul><li>The community and media play an intricate role in the overall perception of schools, making their role in the public’s perception of PA Cyber very important. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>If funding is cut, PA Cyber will face many struggles and programs may need to be cut. </li></ul><ul><li>If the community believes the role of PA Cyber in education is faltering, they could potentially play a role in its demise. </li></ul><ul><li>If the media chooses to present PA Cyber in a negative light, the strengths of PA Cyber could be placed in jeopardy. </li></ul><ul><li>If families/students are unhappy with the education they are receiving at PA Cyber, they could impact future enrollment. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>PA Cyber has strong support within the community and is gaining momentum with each passing year. </li></ul><ul><li>Family and student support appears to be strong as PA Cyber’s enrollment continues to grow and families continue to recommend the program to other families. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has the potential to continue to be the largest, best, most effective Cyber Charter School in the country. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Course of Action – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to address any and all concerns brought about by Americans in the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll. Each and every area needs to be explored, compared to their current educational environment, and then they need to directly curtail anything which may negatively impact their school. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to keep its focus on hiring qualified educators which will support a successful learning environment for its students. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no time to waste when it comes to addressing the biggest issues facing education today. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to have an immediate plan of action that will keep our school cutting edge and at the same time go above and beyond to meet the needs of our families and students. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consider a high school graduate more ready for the world than a high school dropout. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two of every three respondents know someone who has earned a GED, certifying their high school-level academic knowledge and skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three out of every four consider the GED a path to greater readiness for the future. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>“ If we open a quarrel between past and present, we shall find that we have lost the future.” ~ Winston Churchill
  32. 32. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College graduates are considered most ready for the world of work …… BUT not all Americans believe that a college degree is sufficient for readiness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents with school-aged children are hopeful about the education futures of their children ……. BUT less hopeful that their children will land a good job one day. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Findings of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding educations practices and conditions that might promote readiness, most parents agree that ….. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schools are safe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>education is relevant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teachers encourage students to do what they do best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teachers recognize and praise students for good schoolwork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT ….. Parents believe they’re more generous with praise and recognition than their children’s teachers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>We need to make sure our students are making it to their high school graduation – and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to go beyond the college diploma when it comes to preparing our students for the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to create a secure present and future for our students in terms of successful opportunities for them once they make it out into the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to continue to promote relevant educational opportunities in and out of the classroom and always provide learning that will help students succeed in the future. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Education in general needs to make some dramatic changes to incorporate the needs of today’s students. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Schools need to make graduation for all students a priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities beyond the classroom need to be made readily available to all students – made universal among schools, districts, communities, and states. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>PA Cyber needs to remain cutting edge in all program areas. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber must incorporate methods and opportunities for students to grow and learn outside of the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber needs to play its role in helping to create and maintain a working future for our students. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>If PA Cyber does not remain cutting edge in all areas of its programming, the chance for the competition to take over will be high. </li></ul><ul><li>As a Cyber Charter School, PA Cyber is more under the microscope than a typical public school, making it even more necessary for them to raise the bar for students and have students graduate and become productive members of society. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>PA Cyber has the opportunity to prove to the community, state, and the country that they truly are the school of the future. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber has the opportunity to take their students into the future which is being demonstrated currently with the development of the STEM Program. </li></ul><ul><li>PA Cyber’s cutting edge technology and programming will continue to create new opportunities for their school and its students. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Course of Action – the future is not ceasing to emerge, which means PA Cyber needs to act now in preparing our students for the future. We need to have in place programs and opportunities, in and out of the classroom, for our students to prepare for the unknown which lies ahead in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline – This trend is upon us now and PA Cyber is and should continue to work on preparing our students for the future. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Whatever we do, we need to always try and be sure that the action we take, regarding these and other trends, is not just a one-shot deal. </li></ul><ul><li>In a world moving at rocket speed, the quest to redefine our schools and refresh our thinking is an ongoing process. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Highlights of the 2011 Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll. What Americans said about the public schools , as retrieved from http://www.pdkintl.org/poll/docs/pdkpoll43_2011.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Grossman, P., & Loeb, S. (2010). Learning from multiple routes. Educational Leadership . </li></ul><ul><li>Behrstock-Sherratt, E., & Coggshall, J. (2010). Realizing the promise of generation y. Educational Leadership , </li></ul><ul><li>Marx, G. (2006). Sixteen trends: their profound impact on our future . Alexandria, VA: Educational Research Service. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>“ Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for everyone and greater strength for our nation.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) Thirty-fifth President of the USA </li></ul>
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