Jennifer Buchanan O’Neill Vice President and Managing Assistant General Counsel, Product Development Fundamentals of Open ...
Notices and Disclaimers <ul><li>Copyright © 2010 Jennifer Buchanan O’Neill.  All rights reserved. Apache is a trademark of...
Agenda <ul><li>The meaning of “open source” </li></ul><ul><li>Key issues common to most open source licenses </li></ul><ul...
What Is Open Source Code? <ul><li>“ Source code” is human-readable instructions for the software program </li></ul><ul><li...
The Urban Legends of Open Source <ul><li>Open source code is  not  public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Open source is  not  fr...
The Urban Legends of Open Source (cont.) <ul><li>Open source licenses are  enforceable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First major a...
Key Issues in Open Source Licensing <ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement to make source code publicly available </li></ul></ul></ul...
Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Commercially Friendly Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (B...
Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Weak Copyleft Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclipse Public License </li></ul></ul><ul...
Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Copyleft Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) </li>...
Questions? <ul><li>About CA </li></ul><ul><li>CA (NASDAQ: CA), the world's leading independent IT management software comp...
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Fundamentals of Open Source Licensing

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The meaning of “open source”; key issues common to most open source licenses; overview of the major open source licenses and and their impact in a corporate environment; potential risks associated with noncompliance

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  • CA (NASDAQ: CA), the world&apos;s leading independent IT management software company, helps customers optimize IT for better business results. CA&apos;s Enterprise IT Management solutions for mainframe and distributed computing enable Lean IT—empowering organizations to more effectively govern, manage and secure their IT operations.    Founded in 1976, CA today is a global company with headquarters in the United States and 150 offices in more than 45 countries. CA serves more than 99% of Fortune 1000® companies, as well as government entities, educational institutions and thousands of other companies in diverse industries worldwide.
  • Jennifer Buchanan O’Neill is Vice President and Managing Assistant General Counsel at CA, Inc., where she leads the Product Development practice group and provides legal counsel on inbound and outbound technology licensing, product development and marketing, mergers and acquisitions, product-related litigation, and regulatory compliance. Ms. O’Neill previously served as Senior Counsel of Intellectual Property and Strategic Sourcing for CIGNA and as in-house counsel for a number of divisions of IBM Corporation.  Prior to her employment by IBM, she served as Deputy Assistant General Counsel of Finance and Operations for the United States Environmental Protection Agency, where her duties included negotiating the agency’s cooperative research and development agreements, copyright and publication contracts, and other licensing arrangements.  Ms. O’Neill clerked at the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and the Fourth Judicial Circuit of Virginia.  She has a strong interest in open source licensing and has worked closely with that community in the establishment of best practices for the contribution, licensing and maintenance of code. She graduated from Duke Law School in 1993 and received a B.A. in political science and philosophy from Grove City College in 1990.
  • Fundamentals of Open Source Licensing

    1. 1. Jennifer Buchanan O’Neill Vice President and Managing Assistant General Counsel, Product Development Fundamentals of Open Source Licensing May 7, 2010 AIPLA Spring Meeting
    2. 2. Notices and Disclaimers <ul><li>Copyright © 2010 Jennifer Buchanan O’Neill. All rights reserved. Apache is a trademark of The Apache Software Foundation. All trademarks, trade names, service marks and logos referenced herein belong to their respective companies. </li></ul><ul><li>The statements and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and are not necessarily those of CA, Inc. (“CA”). </li></ul><ul><li>To the extent permitted by applicable law, the content of this presentation is provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind. In no event will the author or CA be liable for any loss or damage, direct or indirect, arising from or related to the use of this information, including, without limitation, lost profits, lost investment, business interruption, goodwill or lost data, even if expressly advised in advance of the possibility of such damages.   Neither the content herein nor any software product referenced serves as a substitute for your compliance with any laws (including but not limited to any act, statute, regulation, rule, directive, standard, policy, administrative order, executive order, and so on (collectively, “Laws”)  referenced herein or otherwise. You should consult with competent legal counsel regarding any such Laws. </li></ul>CA CONFIDENTIAL -- PREPARED IN ANTICIPATION OF LITIGATION
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>The meaning of “open source” </li></ul><ul><li>Key issues common to most open source licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of the major open source licenses and and their impact in a corporate environment </li></ul><ul><li>Potential risks associated with noncompliance </li></ul>CA CONFIDENTIAL -- PREPARED IN ANTICIPATION OF LITIGATION
    4. 4. What Is Open Source Code? <ul><li>“ Source code” is human-readable instructions for the software program </li></ul><ul><li>Source code is compiled or converted, creating “object code” that the computer can read and execute </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial software is generally licensed in object code form under a proprietary license </li></ul><ul><li>“ Open source” software is licensed in source code form, at no charge, under terms freely available to the public </li></ul><ul><li>The end-user of open source code can modify it and distribute those modifications </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Urban Legends of Open Source <ul><li>Open source code is not public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Open source is not freeware </li></ul><ul><li>Open source is not shareware </li></ul><ul><li>Open source may still be subject to regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Open source may be licensed by companies for use with their proprietary products and services </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Urban Legends of Open Source (cont.) <ul><li>Open source licenses are enforceable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First major appellate case addressing open source: Jacobsen v. Katzer , 535 F.3d 1373 (Fed Cir. 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of conditions may constitute copyright infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of covenants may constitute breach of contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential remedies include statutory or actual monetary damages, specific performance, injunctive relief </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Key Issues in Open Source Licensing <ul><ul><ul><li>Requirement to make source code publicly available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to redistribute modifications under terms of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to redistribute product containing open source code under terms of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedigree of code contributed to open source community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice and attribution requirements (e.g., user documentation, source code files, marketing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of copyright and patent licenses granted by contributors to end-users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Patent retaliation ” clauses, whereby an end-user loses all patent licenses granted if it institutes litigation against anyone alleging that the software infringes its patent rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Commercially Friendly Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) License </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT License </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache Software License 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be redistributed under commercial license </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications can be protected by company </li></ul><ul><li>Notice and attribution requirements typically aren’t burdensome </li></ul>
    9. 9. Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Weak Copyleft Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eclipse Public License </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Public License </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla Public License </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software incorporating unmodified open source code can be distributed under commercial license (original code remains under open source license) </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications must be made available under open source license </li></ul>
    10. 10. Common Open Source Licenses <ul><li>Copyleft Licenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU General Public License (GPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software “based on” open source code must be distributed under open source license </li></ul><ul><li>Possible safe harbor in LGPL for “dynamic linking” </li></ul><ul><li>Affero GPL even covers software used to run public server </li></ul>
    11. 11. Questions? <ul><li>About CA </li></ul><ul><li>CA (NASDAQ: CA), the world's leading independent IT management software company, helps customers optimize IT for better business results. CA's Enterprise IT Management solutions for mainframe and distributed computing enable Lean IT—empowering organizations to more effectively govern, manage and secure their IT operations. Founded in 1976, CA today is a global company with headquarters in the United States and 150 offices in more than 45 countries. CA serves more than 99% of Fortune 1000® companies, as well as government entities, educational institutions and thousands of other companies in diverse industries worldwide. </li></ul>
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