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Copy of common origin

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Transcript

  • 1. COMMON ORIGIN
    • All things have a common origin
    • Atomic models and the behavior of the atom
    • Atomic structure and the correlation of element’s physical and chemical properties .
  • 2. WHY STUDY CHEMISTRY? Chemistry is how the world works! ? What are some ways chemistry effects our lives ? 1- Health Care 2- Conservation of natural resources 3- environmental protection 5- everyday needs
  • 3. ALL THINGS HAVE A COMMON ORIGIN
    • The atom is the building block of all matter.
      • Basic structure of an element.
      • Atoms in all different forms make up elements
    • Element s make up all matter in
    • the universe
      • Most matter is composed of
      • different combinations of only
      • about 100 different elements
    • Molecules : 2 or more atoms
  • 4. COMMON ORIGIN CONT.
    • A quick run down of Atoms , Elements and Molecules .
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fND0ps4EtBg
    • Sub atomic particles
      • Proton, neutron, electron
    • What 5 Elements make up 97% of life?
      • Carbon,
      • Hydrogen,
      • Nitrogen,
      • Oxygen,
      • Phosphorus, and
      • Sulfur
  • 5. STATES OF MATTER
    • Gas
    • Liquid
    • Solid
  • 6.  
  • 7. MORE CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER
    • Elements
      • Can’t be broken down any smaller
    • Compounds
      • Composed of 2 or more elements
      • Law of Constant Composition
    • Solutions
    • 2 or more substances
      • Retain own chemical identity
      • Homogeneous
    • Pure Substance
    • Mixture
  • 8. PROPERTIES OF MATTER
    • Can measure it without changing the identity and composition
    • Change in physical appearance
    • Changes of State
    • Chemical Reactions
      • The way a substance may change, or react, to form another substance.
    • Physical Properties
    • Chemical Properties
  • 9. HOW TO MEASURE IN CHEMISTRY
    • Units of Measurement
  • 10. LENGTH AND MASS
    • Length
      • SI Unit: meter (m)
        • Slightly longer than a yard, which is 3 feet.
    • Mass
      • SI Unit: Kilogram (kg)
      • Equal to ~ 2.2 pounds (lb)
      • Not the same as weight
      • Mass = volume (cm 3 ) x density (g/cm 3 )
  • 11. METRIC SYSTEM PREFIXES …
  • 12. TEMPERATURE … FAHRENHEIT , CELSIUS , KELVIN
    • Measures the hotness or coldness of an object.
    • Physical property:
      • heat flow
    • For scientific use:
      • Freezing point 0˙C
      • Boiling point 100˙C
      • SI Unit Kelvin:
      • 0˙K = -273.15˙C
        • Absolute zero
    • K = ˚C + 273.15
  • 13. DERIVED SI UNITS
    • Volume
      • Cubic Centimeters (cm 3 )
        • (length cubed)
    • Calculate the volume of 65.0 g of the liquid methanol (wood alcohol) if its density is 0.791 g/mL
    • Density
      • Density = mass/volume
        • g/cm 3 or g/mL
        • 1 mL = 1 cm 3
    • Calculate the density of mercury if 1.00 X 10 2 g occupies a volume of 7.36 cm 3
    • What is the mass in grams of cube of goal (density = 19.32 g/cm 3 ) if the length of the cube is 2.00 cm?
  • 14. UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT
    • A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another.
    • Refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or “true,” value.
    • Illustrate
      • Good accuracy/good precision
      • Poor accuracy/good precision
      • Poor accuracy/poor precision
    • PRECISION
    • ACCURACY
  • 15. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
    • Definition: all digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one (± 0.0001 g)
      • How many Significant Figures …?
        • 2.2 g ???
        • 2.2405 g ???
      • What is the difference…?
        • 4.0 g ???
        • 4.00 g
    • To read significant figures you read the number from left to right, counting the digits starting with the first digit that is not zero!
  • 16. ZER000000’S IN SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
    • Zer0s between nonzero digits are always significant
        • 1005 kg
        • 1.03 kg
    • Zer0s at the beginning of a number are never significant; they merely indicate the position of a decimal point
        • 0.02 g
        • 0.0026 g
    • Zer0s at the end of a number are significant if the number contains a decimal point
        • 0.0200 g
        • 3.0 cm