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  1. 1. Behaviorism<br />
  2. 2. Behavioral Perspectives<br />Behaviorism - “is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior”.<br />Behavioral theorists view personality “as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations”.<br />They focus on personality development, and how children’s response tendencies are shaped by classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.<br />
  3. 3. John Watson<br />
  4. 4. The Father of Behaviorism<br />1908-1912 presented ideas of behaviorism<br />Very contriversial—Little Albert Experiment<br />Little Albert Experiment<br />
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning<br />
  6. 6. Behavioral Perspectives, continued<br />Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning is “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus” (see Figure 2.8).<br />Classical conditioning may explain how people acquire particular emotional responses such as anxiety or phobias.<br />
  7. 7. Ivan Pavlov<br />you tube Ivan Pavlov Experiment<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Figure 2.8The process of classical conditioning. The sequence of events in classical conditioning is outlined here As we encounter new examples of classical conditioning through the book, you will see diagrams like that shown in the fourth panel, which summarizes the process.<br />
  10. 10. B.F. Skinner<br />
  11. 11. Behavioral Perspectives, continued<br />Skinner’sOperant Conditioning is “a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences” (see Figure 2.11).<br />Favorable consequences, called “reinforcers”, tend to cause organisms to repeat the behaviors that precede them, and<br />Unfavorable consequences, called “punishers”, tend to discourage behaviors.<br />
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning<br />Operant Conditioning YouTube Video<br />
  13. 13. Figure 2.11Positive and negative reinforcement in operant conditioning Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by a favorable outcome, so that the response is strengthened. In negative reinforcement, the removal (symbolized here by the “No” sign) of an aversive stimulus serves as a reinforcer. Negative reinforcement produces the same result as positive reinforcement: The person’s tendency to emit the reinforced response is strengthened (the response becomes more frequent).<br />
  14. 14. Positive Reinforcement <br />Positive Reinforcement Video<br />
  15. 15. Negative Reinforcement<br />Negative Reinforcement Video<br />
  16. 16. Albert Bandura<br />
  17. 17. Behavioral Perspectives, continued<br />Bandura’s Observational Learning refers to learning which “occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models”.<br />This behavioral theory is unique in that it involves cognition because it requires that we:<br />pay attention to others’ behavior<br />understand the consequences that follow others’ behavior, and<br />store this information in memory.<br />
  18. 18. Bandura’s theory, continued<br />Bandura stressed the importance of self-efficacy – “one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes”.<br />High self-efficacy is associated with confidence whereas low self-efficacy creates doubt in one’s abilities.<br />Bandura believed that self-efficacy is one of the most important personality traits because it is tied to success in many endeavors and resistance to stress. <br />
  19. 19. Evaluating the Behavioral Perspectives <br />Behavioral theory has been credited for suggesting that both personality and situational factors work together to shape behavior.<br />However, this perspective has also been criticized on the following grounds:<br />Recently, behaviorism has given too much credence to the presence of cognitive influences.<br />It relies too heavily on animal models. <br />