Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, kingdom of Prussia He was a German Philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. He followed his father’s footsteps, the reason why he pursued a secular education. He enrolled in University of Bonn as a law student and after a year he transferred in University of Berlin, where he become interested in Philosophical views. He joined the Hegelion’s group.
After earning his Doctorate degree at University of Jena, he become editor of the Rheinische Zeitung . He married Jenny Von WestPhalen , then they moved to paris . During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and set down his views in a series of writings known as the economic and philosophical manuscripts . Then he met Engels, and they work for a series of books. Then he was exiled again and settled in brussels, with his family until 1848.
In Brussels Marx and Engels produced two most important works the german ideology and the communist manifesto. The revolution spread . Marx and Engels left Brussels ang headed to cologne. He returned to Paris. Then moved to london in 1849, where his family reduced to poverty . He continued writing and formulating theories. He turned his attention to economics. He spent 60 hours per week in british museum, and produced “capital” in 1867.
Marx wife died in 1881, his daughter because of starvation a year later, and marx himself died on march 14, 1883. end
Janine Grace Abelgas &Jena Marie Balicat01Psy04
In Capital: Critique of Political Economy (1867), karl marx proposes that the motivating force of capitalism is in the exploitation of labour, whose unpaid work is the ultimate source of profit andsurplus value. The employer can claim right to the profits (new output value), because he or she owns the productive (means of production), which are legally protected by the State throughproperty rights . In producing capital (money) rather than commodities (goods and services), the workers continually reproduce the economic conditions by which they labour. Capital proposes an explanation of the "laws of motion" of the capitalist economic system, from its origins to its future, by describing the dynamics of the accumulation of capital, the growth of wage labour , the transformation of the workplace, the concentration of capital, commercial competition, the banking system, thedecline of the profit rate , land-rents, et cetera. back
Base and superstructure are two concepts in Karl Marx’s view of human society. The base is the basic way a society organizes the production of goods. It includes employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labor, and property relations, which people enter into to produce the necessities and amenities of life. The superstructure of a society includes it’s culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and norms. The base determines the superstructure, however the superstructure does often influence the base. back
The Communist Manifesto (Das Kommunistische Manifest), originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party ( German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl marxandFreidrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the worlds most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by theCommunist League, it laid out the Leagues purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class (historical and present) and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communisms potential future forms. The book contains Marx and Engels theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism. back
Socialism /ˈ soʊʃəlɪzəm/ is an economic system characterised by social ownership and cooperative management of the means of production, and a political philosophy advocating such a system. "Social ownership" may refer to cooperative enterprises, common ownership, direct public ownership or autonomous state enterprises. There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them. They differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, the degree to which they rely on markets versus planning, how management is to be organised within economic enterprises, and the role of the state in constructing socialism. back
Communism (from Latin communis - common, universal) is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order. This movement, in its Marxist-Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by communist parties) and the "western world" (countries with capitalist economies). back
He defined class by the ownership of property. Such ownership vests a person with the power to exclude others from the property and to use it for personal purposes. In relation to property there are three great classes of society: the bourgeoisie (who own the means of production such as machinery and factory buildings, and whose source of income is profit), landowners (whose income is rent), and the proletariat (who own their labor and sell it for a wage). Class conflict back
As Marx saw the development of class conflict, the struggle between classes was initially confined to individual factories. Eventually, given the maturing of capitalism, the growing disparity between life conditions of bourgeoisie and proletariat, and the increasing homogenization within each class, individual struggles become generalized to coalitions across factories. Increasingly class conflict is manifested at the societal level. Class consciousness is increased, common interests and policies are organized, and the use of and struggle for political power occurs. Classes become political forces. Next back
Overall, there are six elements in Marxs view of class conflict: (1) classes are authority relationships based on property ownership, (2) a class defines groupings of individuals with shared life situations, thus interests, (3) classes are naturally antagonistic by virtue of their interests, (4) imminent within modern society is the growth of two antagonistic classes and their struggle, which eventually absorbs all social relations, (5) Political organization and power is an instrumentality of class struggle, and reigning ideas are its reflection, (6) structural change is a consequence of the class struggle. back
Karl Marxs famous "The German Ideology" opens with a full-front offensive on the Hegelian tradition on 19th century idealist German philosophers. The Hegelian philosophers focused on consciousness and abstract ideas, holding that they have independent existence which shapes social reality (hence the term "idealist philosophy"). According to this view, a change in social reality can be brought about through a change in the manner this reality is perceived. In "The German Ideology" Marx offers an opposite analysis, manifested in his materialist approach that sees different ideas and perceptions as the result of material social, economical and historical conditions. In other words, for Marx in "The German Ideology" it is reality which creates the mind, and not the other way around. back
In the humanist conceptionof communism, influenced bythe philosophy of LudwigFeuerbach and based on acontrast between thealienated nature of laborunder capitalism and acommunist society in whichhuman beings freelydeveloped Manuscripts, Marxoutlined a their nature incooperative production.BackThe first manuscript
THEORY OF ALIENATIONEntfremdung (estrangement) isKarl Marx’s theory of alienation,which describes the separation ofthings that naturally belongtogether; and the placement ofantagonism between things that areproperly in harmony.Nextback
Alienation (Entfremdung) is the systemic result of living in a socially stratified society, because being a mechanistic part of a social class alienates a person from his and her humanity. The theoretic basis of alienation within the Capitalist mode of dis that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine his or her life and destiny, when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of himself as the director of his actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define his relationship with other people; and to own the things and use the value of the goods and services, produced with his labour. Although the worker is an autonomous, self-realised human being, as an economic entity, he or she is directed to goals and diverted to activities that are dictated by the bourgeoisie, who own the means of production , in order to extract from the worker the maximal amount of surplus value, in the course of business competition among industrialists. back
Surplus value is a concept used famously by Karl Marx in his critique of political economy. Although Marx did not himself invent the term, he developed the concept. It refers roughly to the new value created by workers in excess of their own labour-cost, a value which Marx said was appropriated by the capitalist as gross profit, and which is the basis of capital accumulation. back
bourgeoisieAs such, in the Westernworld, since the late 18thcentury, the bourgeoisiedescribes a social class"characterized by theirownership of capital, andtheir related culture";hence, the personal termsbourgeois (masculine) andbourgeoise (feminine)culturally identify the manor woman who is a memberof the wealthiest socialclass in capitalistsocieties.back
Jenny Von WestPhalenJenny von Westphalen,1830sJohanna Bertha JulieJenny von Westphalen(February 12, 1814 –December 2, 1881) wasthe wife of thephilosopher Karl Marx. They became engaged in1836 and married in1843. They had sevenchildren.back
Rheinische ZeitungThe Rheinische Zeitung("Rhenish Newspaper") was a19th-century Germannewspaper, edited mostfamously by Karl Marx. Thepaper was launched inJanuary 1842 and terminatedby Prussian state censorshipin March 1843. The paperwas eventually succeeded bya daily newspaper launchedby Karl Marx on behalf of theCommunist League in June1848, called the NeueRheinische Zeitung ("NewRhenish Newspaper").back