A & p holes' nervous 2
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A & p holes' nervous 2 A & p holes' nervous 2 Presentation Transcript

  • PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Modified by Mrs. Fiser Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 11Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1
  • Receptor Warm Up Sensory Neuron EffectorCentralCanal ( muscle orWhite gland)Matter 7 6 8GreyMatter Motor 9 NeuronInter- CellNeuron Body of Sensory 2Impulse
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GbxGB8Dkd3Q The snake
  • Chapter 11 Nervous System IIMeninges • membranes surrounding CNS • protect CNS • three layers • dura mater – outer, tough • arachnoid mater – thin, weblike • pia mater – inner, very thin 4
  • Meninges of the Spinal Cord 5
  • Ventricles• interconnected cavities• within cerebralhemispheres and brainstem• continuous with centralcanal of spinal cord• filled with cerebrospinalfluid (CSF)• lateral ventricles• third ventricle• fourth ventricle• cerebral aqueduct 6
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid• secreted by choroidplexus• circulates in ventricles,central canal of spinalcord, and subarachnoidspace• completely surroundsbrain and spinal cord• clear liquid• nutritive and protective• helps maintain stable ionconcentrations in CNS 7
  • Spinal Cord• slender column ofnervous tissuecontinuous with brain• extends downwardthrough vertebralcanal• begins at level offoramen magnumand terminates nearfirst and secondlumbar 8
  • Cross Section of Spinal Cord 9
  • Functions of Spinal Cord • center for spinal reflexes • conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain 10
  • Reflex Arcs 12
  • General Components of a Spinal Reflex 13
  • Reflex Behavior• example is the knee-jerk reflex• simple monosynaptic reflex• helps maintain an upright posture 14
  • Reflex Behavior• example is a withdrawal reflex• prevents or limits tissue damage 15
  • Reflex Arc• example crossed extensor reflex• crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex centerto produce an opposite effect 16
  • Tracts of the Spinal Cord• Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain• Descending tracts conduct motor impulses from the brain tomotor neurons reaching muscles and glands 17
  • Ascending Tracts• major ascending spinalcord tracts • fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus • spinothalamic • lateral and anterior • spinocerebellar • posterior and anterior 18
  • Descending Tracts• major descending spinal cordtracts • corticospinal • lateral and anterior • reticulospinal • lateral, anterior and medial • rubrospinal 19
  • Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord 20
  • Animations/video clips• Patellar reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpw31bvoLpg&feature=relatedhttp://www.edumedia-sciences.com/en/a496-patellar-reflexBiceps Reflex & Triceps Reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=2sm4ynlzEi8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=activeAchilles Reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEQ6BbLLucA&NR=1 21
  • Relfex arcs animations• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/an imations/content/reflexarcs.html• http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/1135/Links/ Animations/Flash/0016-swf_reflex_arc.swf
  • Checking knee reflexes• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=QmNQdLkkJHM&feature=related• http://www.neuroexam.com/content.php? p=31
  • Warm up (p 236 for help) 6 7 8 9 10 (name it) 1 11 2 3 12 4 5 24
  • Test questions 31-50: Label 37 36 38 39 40 31 41 32 33 42 34 35 25
  • BrainFunctions Major Parts • interprets sensations • cerebrum • determines perception • two hemispheres • stores memory • diencephalon • reasoning • brainstem • makes decisions • cerebellum • coordinates muscular movements • regulates visceral activities • determines personality 26
  • Brain 27
  • 43 4744 484546 49 50 28
  • Structure of Cerebrum• corpus callosum • connects cerebral hemispheres• convolutions • bumps or gyri• sulci • grooves• longitudinal fissure • separates hemispheres• transverse fissure • separates cerebrum from cerebellum 29
  • Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres • Frontal • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital • Insula 30
  • Functions of the Cerebrum • interpreting impulses • initiating voluntary movements • storing information as memory • retrieving stored information • reasoning • seat of intelligence and personality 31
  • Functional Regions of Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter thatconstitutes the outermost portion of cerebrum; contains75% of all neurons in nervous system 32
  • Sensory Areas• Cutaneous Sensory • Sensory Area for TasteArea • near bases of the central • parietal lobe sulcus • interprets sensations on skin • Sensory Area for Smell• Visual Area • occipital lobe • interprets vision • arise from centers deep within• Auditory Area the cerebrum • temporal lobe • interprets hearing 33
  • Sensory Areas 34
  • Association Areas• regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas• widespread throughout the cerebral cortex• analyze and interpret sensory experiences• provide memory, reasoning, verbalization, judgment, emotions 35
  • Association AreasFrontal Lobe Association Areas Temporal Lobe Association Areas • concentrating • interpret complex sensory • planning experiences • complex problem solving • store memories of visual scenes, music, and complex patternsParietal Lobe Association Areas Occipital Lobe Association Areas • understanding speech • analyze and combine visual • choosing words to express images with other sensory thought experiences 36
  • Motor Areas• Primary Motor Areas • frontal lobes • control voluntary muscles• Broca’s Area • anterior to primary motor cortex • usually in left hemisphere • controls muscles needed for speech• Frontal Eye Field • above Broca’s area • controls voluntary movements of eyes and eyelids 37
  • Motor Areas 38
  • Functions of the Cerebral Lobes 39
  • Basal Nuclei• masses of gray matter• deep within cerebralhemispheres• caudate nucleus, putamen,globus pallidus• produce dopamine• control certain muscularactivities • primarily by inhibiting motor functions 40
  • Diencephalon• between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem• surrounds third ventricle• thalamus• hypothalamus• optic tracts• optic chiasma• infundibulum• posterior pituitary• mammillary bodies• pineal gland 41
  • DiencephalonThalamus • gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex • receives all sensory impulses (except smell) • channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral cortex for interpretationHypothalamus • maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities • links nervous and endocrine systems 42
  • Diencephalon Limbic SystemConsists of • portions of frontal lobe Functions • portions of temporal lobe • controls emotions • hypothalamus • produces feelings • thalamus • interprets sensory impulses • basal nuclei • other deep nuclei 43
  • Brain StemThree Parts1. Midbrain2. Pons3. Medulla Oblongata 44
  • Midbrain• between diencephalon andpons• contains bundles of fibersthat join lower parts ofbrainstem and spinal cordwith higher part of brain• cerebral aqueduct• cerebral peduncles –bundles of nerve fibers• corpora quadrigemina –centers for visual andauditory reflexes 45
  • Pons• rounded bulge on underside ofbrainstem• between medulla oblongataand midbrain• helps regulate rate and depthof breathing• relays nerve impulses to andfrom medulla oblongata andcerebellum 46
  • Medulla Oblongata• enlarged continuation ofspinal cord• conducts ascending anddescending impulses betweenbrain and spinal cord• contains cardiac, vasomotor,and respiratory controlcenters• contains various nonvitalreflex control centers(coughing, sneezing,swallowing, vomiting) 47
  • Reticular Formation• complex network ofnerve fibers scatteredthroughout the brain stem• extends into thediencephalon• connects to centers ofhypothalamus, basalnuclei, cerebellum, andcerebrum• filters incoming sensoryinformation• arouses cerebral cortexinto state of wakefulness 48
  • Cerebellum• inferior to occipital lobes• posterior to pons and medullaoblongata• two hemispheres• vermis connects hemispheres• cerebellar cortex – gray matter• arbor vitae – white matter• cerebellar peduncles – nerve fibertracts• dentate nucleus – largest nucleus incerebellum• integrates sensory informationconcerning position of body parts• coordinates skeletal muscle activity• maintains posture 49
  • Major Parts of the Brain 50
  • Warm up- Name cranial nerves and structures andlist the function of each cranial nerve on the back of paper. 1 7 2 8 3 9 10 11 4 12 5 13 14 6 15 51
  • Peripheral Nervous System• Cranial nerves arising from the brain • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera• Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera 52
  • Nervous System Subdivisions 53
  • Structure of a Peripheral Nerve 54
  • Nerve Fiber Classification• Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into brain or spinalcord• Motor Nerves – conduct impulses to muscles or glands• Mixed Nerves – contain both sensory nerve fibers andmotor nerve fibers; most nerves 55
  • Nerve Fiber ClassificationGeneral somatic efferent fibers General somatic afferent fibers • carry motor impulses from • carry sensory impulses to CNS to skeletal muscles CNS from skin and skeletal musclesGeneral visceral efferent fibers General visceral afferent fibers • carry motor impulses away from • carry sensory impulses to CNS CNS to smooth muscles and from blood vessels and internal glands organs 56
  • Nerve Fiber ClassificationSpecial somatic efferent fibers • carry motor impulses from brain to muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressionsSpecial visceral afferent fibers • carry sensory impulses to brain from olfactory and taste receptorsSpecial somatic afferent fibers • carry sensory impulses to brain from receptors of sight, hearing, and equilibrium 57
  • Cranial Nerves 58
  • Cranial Nerves I and IIOlfactory (I) Optic (II) • sensory • sensory • fibers transmit • fibers transmit impulses associated impulses associated with smell with vision 59
  • Cranial Nerves III and IVOculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV) • some sensory • some sensory • proprioreceptors • proprioreceptors • primarily motor • primarily motor • motor impulses to • motor impulses to muscles that muscles that move the • raise eyelids eyes • move the eyes • focus lens •adjust light entering eye 60
  • Cranial Nerve VTrigeminal (V) • mixed • opthalmic division • sensory from surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids • maxillary division • sensory from upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, palate, and skin of face • mandibular division • sensory from scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, and lower lip • motor to muscles of mastication and muscles in floor of mouth 61
  • Cranial Nerves VI and VIIAbducens (VI) • primarily motor • motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes • some sensory with proprioreceptorsFacial (VII) • mixed • sensory from taste receptors • motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands 62
  • Cranial Nerves VIII and IXVestibulocochlear (VIII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) • sensory • mixed • vestibular branch • sensory from pharynx, •sensory from tonsils, tongue, and carotid equilibrium receptors of arteries ear • motor to salivary glands • cochlear branch and muscles of pharynx •sensory from hearing receptors 63
  • Cranial Nerve XVagus (X) • mixed • somatic motor to muscles of speech and swallowing • autonomic motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen • sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen 64
  • Cranial Nerves XI and XIIAccessory (XI) Hypoglossal (XII) • primarily motor • primarily motor • cranial branch • motor to muscles of • motor to muscles of the tongue; some soft palate, pharynx, proprioreceptor and larynx • spinal branch •motor to muscles of neck, and back; some proprioreceptor 65
  • Functions of Cranial Nerves 66
  • Spinal Nerves• mixed nerves• 31 pairs • 8 cervical •(C1 to C8) • 12 thoracic •(T1 to T12) • 5 lumbar •(L1 to L5) • 5 sacral •(S1 to S5) • 1 coccygeal •(Co) 67
  • Spinal NervesDorsal root (posterioror sensory root) • axons of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglionDorsal root ganglion • cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from peripheral body parts 68
  • Dermatome• an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of aparticular spinal nerve innervate 69
  • Spinal NervesVentral root (anterior ormotor root) • axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in spinal cordSpinal nerve • union of ventral root and dorsal root 70
  • Cervical PlexusesNerve plexus – complex networks formed by anterior branchesof spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted andrecombined Cervical Plexus • formed by anterior branches of C1-C4 • lies deep in the neck • supply muscles and skin of the neck • C3 – C5 contribute to phrenic nerves 71
  • Brachial Plexuses• C5-T1• lies deep within shoulders• musculocutaneous nerves • supply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms• ulnar and median nerves • supply muscles of forearms and hands • supply skin of hands•radial nerves • supply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands• axillary nerves • supply muscles and skin of anterior, lateral, and posterior arms 72
  • Lumbosacral Plexuses• T12 – S5• extend from lumbarregion into pelvic cavity• obturator nerves • supply motor impulses to adductors of thighs• femoral nerves • supply motor impulses to muscles of anterior thigh and sensory impulses from skin of thighs and legs• sciatic nerves • supply muscles and skin of thighs, legs, and feet 73
  • Plexuses 74
  • Cranial Nerve Assessment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLzkgPkgkEoDetailed Cranial Assessmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6FZR64Cq9U&feature=related12 days of Christmas Cranial Nerve songhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xzQ5vnvL-o&feature=related 75
  • Autonomic Nervous System• functions without conscious effort• controls visceral activities• regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands• efferent fibers typically lead to ganglia outside CNSTwo Divisions • sympathetic – prepares body for fight or flight situations • parasympathetic – prepares body for resting and digesting activities 76
  • Autonomic Nerve Fibers• all are neurons aremotor (efferent)• preganglionic fibers • axons of preganglionic neurons • neuron cell bodies in CNS• postganglionic fibers • axons of postganglionic neurons • neuron cell bodies in ganglia 77
  • Sympathetic Division• thoracolumbar divison –location of preganglionicneurons• preganglionic fibers leavespinal nerves through whiterami and enterparavertebral ganglia• paraverterbral gangliaand fibers that connectthem make up thesympathetic trunk 78
  • Sympathetic Division• postganglionic fibersextend from sympatheticganglia to visceral organs• postganglionic fibersusually pass through grayrami and return to a spinalnerve before proceeding toan effector• Exception: preganglionicfibers to adrenal medulla donot synapse withpostganglionic neurons 79
  • Sympathetic Division 80
  • Parasympathetic Division• craniosacral division – • preganglionic fibers of thelocation of preganglionic head are included in nervesneurons III, VII, and IX• ganglia are near or • preganglionic fibers ofwithin various organs • terminal ganglia thorax and abdomen are parts of nerve X• short postganglionicfibers • continue to specific muscles or glands 81
  • Parasympathetic Division 82
  • Autonomic NeurotransmittersCholinergic Fibers • release acetylcholine • preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers • postganglionic parasympathetic fibers Adrenergic Fibers • release norepinephrine • most postganglionic sympathetic 83 fibers
  • Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters • depend on receptors in the membraneCholinergic receptors Adrenergic Receptors • bind to acetlycholine • bind to epinephrine • muscarinic and norepinephrine • excitatory • alpha and beta • slow • both elicit different • nicotinic responses on various • excitatory effectors • rapid 84
  • Actions of Autonomic NeurotransmittersInsert figure 11.39 85
  • Control of Autonomic Activity• Controlled largely by CNS• Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor andrespiratory activities• Hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as bodytemperature, hunger, thirst, and water and electrolytebalance• Limbic system and cerebral cortex control emotionalresponses 86
  • Life-Span Changes• Brain cells begin to die before birth• Over average lifetime, brain shrinks 10%• Most cell death occurs in temporal lobes• By age 90, frontal cortex has lost half its neurons• Number of dendritic branches decreases• Decreased levels of neurotransmitters• Fading memory• Slowed responses and reflexes• Increased risk of falling• Changes in sleep patterns that result in fewer sleeping hours 87
  • Clinical Application Cerebral Injuries and AbnormalitiesConcussion Cerebral Palsy • brain jarred against cranium • motor impairment at • loss of consciousness birth • temporary loss of memory • caused by blocked • mental cloudiness cerebral blood vessels • headache during development • recovery usually complete • seizures • learning disabilitiesCerebrovascular Accident • stroke • sudden interruption in blood flow • brain tissues die 88