0
PowerPoint Lecture Outlines                to accompany           Hole’s Human       Anatomy and Physiology               ...
Receptor              Warm Up           Sensory                                Neuron                                Effec...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?        v=GbxGB8Dkd3Q          The snake
Chapter 11              Nervous System IIMeninges  • membranes  surrounding CNS  • protect CNS  • three layers     • dura ...
Meninges of the Spinal Cord                              5
Ventricles• interconnected cavities• within cerebralhemispheres and brainstem• continuous with centralcanal of spinal cord...
Cerebrospinal Fluid• secreted by choroidplexus• circulates in ventricles,central canal of spinalcord, and subarachnoidspac...
Spinal Cord• slender column ofnervous tissuecontinuous with brain• extends downwardthrough vertebralcanal• begins at level...
Cross Section of Spinal Cord                               9
Functions of Spinal Cord   • center for spinal reflexes   • conduit for nerve impulses to and   from the brain            ...
Reflex Arcs              12
General Components of a Spinal           Reflex                                 13
Reflex Behavior• example is the knee-jerk reflex• simple monosynaptic reflex• helps maintain an upright posture           ...
Reflex Behavior• example is a withdrawal reflex• prevents or limits tissue damage                                     15
Reflex Arc• example crossed extensor reflex• crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex centerto produce an opposite e...
Tracts of the Spinal Cord• Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain• Descending tracts conduct motor impulse...
Ascending Tracts• major ascending spinalcord tracts   • fasciculus gracilis and   fasciculus cuneatus   • spinothalamic   ...
Descending Tracts• major descending spinal cordtracts   • corticospinal       • lateral and anterior   • reticulospinal   ...
Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord                                  20
Animations/video clips•   Patellar reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpw31bvoLpg&feature=relatedhttp://www.edumedia-sci...
Relfex arcs animations• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/an  imations/content/reflexarcs.html• http://msjensen.cehd.um...
Checking knee reflexes• http://www.youtube.com/watch?  v=QmNQdLkkJHM&feature=related• http://www.neuroexam.com/content.php...
Warm up (p 236 for help)     6              7                    8                    9                    10 (name it) 1 ...
Test questions 31-50: Label                      37       36                      38                      39              ...
BrainFunctions                        Major Parts   • interprets sensations         • cerebrum   • determines perception  ...
Brain        27
43   4744   484546   49     50          28
Structure of Cerebrum• corpus callosum    • connects cerebral    hemispheres• convolutions    • bumps or gyri• sulci    • ...
Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres • Frontal • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital • Insula                            30
Functions of the Cerebrum   • interpreting impulses   • initiating voluntary movements   • storing information as memory  ...
Functional Regions of Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter thatconstitutes the outermost portion of ...
Sensory Areas• Cutaneous Sensory          • Sensory Area for TasteArea                            • near bases of the cent...
Sensory Areas                34
Association Areas• regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas• widespread throughout the cerebral cortex•...
Association AreasFrontal Lobe Association Areas    Temporal Lobe Association Areas   • concentrating                   • i...
Motor Areas• Primary Motor Areas    • frontal lobes    • control voluntary muscles• Broca’s Area   • anterior to primary m...
Motor Areas              38
Functions of the Cerebral Lobes                                  39
Basal Nuclei• masses of gray matter• deep within cerebralhemispheres• caudate nucleus, putamen,globus pallidus• produce do...
Diencephalon• between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem• surrounds third ventricle• thalamus• hypothalamus• opt...
DiencephalonThalamus   • gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex   • receives all sensory impulses (except...
Diencephalon                      Limbic SystemConsists of   • portions of frontal lobe    Functions   • portions of tempo...
Brain StemThree Parts1. Midbrain2. Pons3. Medulla Oblongata                             44
Midbrain• between diencephalon andpons• contains bundles of fibersthat join lower parts ofbrainstem and spinal cordwith hi...
Pons• rounded bulge on underside ofbrainstem• between medulla oblongataand midbrain• helps regulate rate and depthof breat...
Medulla Oblongata• enlarged continuation ofspinal cord• conducts ascending anddescending impulses betweenbrain and spinal ...
Reticular Formation• complex network ofnerve fibers scatteredthroughout the brain stem• extends into thediencephalon• conn...
Cerebellum• inferior to occipital lobes• posterior to pons and medullaoblongata• two hemispheres• vermis connects hemisphe...
Major Parts of the Brain                           50
Warm up- Name cranial nerves and structures andlist the function of each cranial nerve on the back of paper.            1 ...
Peripheral Nervous System• Cranial nerves arising from the brain   • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal mu...
Nervous System Subdivisions                              53
Structure of a Peripheral Nerve                              54
Nerve Fiber Classification• Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into brain or spinalcord• Motor Nerves – conduct impulses to...
Nerve Fiber ClassificationGeneral somatic efferent fibers        General somatic afferent fibers   • carry motor impulses ...
Nerve Fiber ClassificationSpecial somatic efferent fibers   • carry motor impulses from brain to muscles   used in chewing...
Cranial Nerves                 58
Cranial Nerves I and IIOlfactory (I)            Optic (II)   • sensory               • sensory   • fibers transmit       •...
Cranial Nerves III and IVOculomotor (III)               Trochlear (IV)  • some sensory                  • some sensory    ...
Cranial Nerve VTrigeminal (V)    • mixed    • opthalmic division        • sensory from surface of eyes,        tear glands...
Cranial Nerves VI and VIIAbducens (VI)   • primarily motor   • motor impulses to   muscles that move   the eyes   • some s...
Cranial Nerves VIII and IXVestibulocochlear (VIII)                                    Glossopharyngeal (IX)    • sensory  ...
Cranial Nerve XVagus (X)   • mixed   • somatic motor to   muscles of speech   and swallowing   • autonomic motor to   visc...
Cranial Nerves XI and XIIAccessory (XI)                  Hypoglossal (XII)   • primarily motor               • primarily m...
Functions of Cranial Nerves                              66
Spinal Nerves• mixed nerves• 31 pairs     • 8 cervical          •(C1 to C8)     • 12 thoracic          •(T1 to T12)     • ...
Spinal NervesDorsal root (posterioror sensory root)    • axons of sensory    neurons in the    dorsal root    ganglionDors...
Dermatome• an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of aparticular spinal nerve innervate                            ...
Spinal NervesVentral root (anterior ormotor root)   • axons of motor   neurons whose cell   bodies are in spinal   cordSpi...
Cervical PlexusesNerve plexus – complex networks formed by anterior branchesof spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal ner...
Brachial Plexuses• C5-T1• lies deep within shoulders• musculocutaneous nerves    • supply muscles of anterior arms    and ...
Lumbosacral Plexuses• T12 – S5• extend from lumbarregion into pelvic cavity• obturator nerves    • supply motor impulses  ...
Plexuses           74
Cranial Nerve Assessment   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLzkgPkgkEoDetailed Cranial Assessmenthttp://www.youtube.com/wat...
Autonomic Nervous System• functions without conscious effort• controls visceral activities• regulates smooth muscle, cardi...
Autonomic Nerve Fibers• all are neurons aremotor (efferent)• preganglionic fibers   • axons of preganglionic   neurons   •...
Sympathetic Division• thoracolumbar divison –location of preganglionicneurons• preganglionic fibers leavespinal nerves thr...
Sympathetic Division• postganglionic fibersextend from sympatheticganglia to visceral organs• postganglionic fibersusually...
Sympathetic Division                       80
Parasympathetic Division• craniosacral division –   • preganglionic fibers of thelocation of preganglionic   head are incl...
Parasympathetic Division                           82
Autonomic NeurotransmittersCholinergic Fibers   • release acetylcholine   • preganglionic   sympathetic and   parasympathe...
Actions of Autonomic             Neurotransmitters                • depend on receptors in the membraneCholinergic recepto...
Actions of Autonomic             NeurotransmittersInsert figure 11.39                                 85
Control of Autonomic              Activity• Controlled largely by CNS• Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor andr...
Life-Span Changes• Brain cells begin to die before birth• Over average lifetime, brain shrinks 10%• Most cell death occurs...
Clinical Application               Cerebral Injuries and AbnormalitiesConcussion                          Cerebral Palsy  ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

A & p holes' nervous 2

1,957

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,957
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "A & p holes' nervous 2"

  1. 1. PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Modified by Mrs. Fiser Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 11Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1
  2. 2. Receptor Warm Up Sensory Neuron EffectorCentralCanal ( muscle orWhite gland)Matter 7 6 8GreyMatter Motor 9 NeuronInter- CellNeuron Body of Sensory 2Impulse
  3. 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GbxGB8Dkd3Q The snake
  4. 4. Chapter 11 Nervous System IIMeninges • membranes surrounding CNS • protect CNS • three layers • dura mater – outer, tough • arachnoid mater – thin, weblike • pia mater – inner, very thin 4
  5. 5. Meninges of the Spinal Cord 5
  6. 6. Ventricles• interconnected cavities• within cerebralhemispheres and brainstem• continuous with centralcanal of spinal cord• filled with cerebrospinalfluid (CSF)• lateral ventricles• third ventricle• fourth ventricle• cerebral aqueduct 6
  7. 7. Cerebrospinal Fluid• secreted by choroidplexus• circulates in ventricles,central canal of spinalcord, and subarachnoidspace• completely surroundsbrain and spinal cord• clear liquid• nutritive and protective• helps maintain stable ionconcentrations in CNS 7
  8. 8. Spinal Cord• slender column ofnervous tissuecontinuous with brain• extends downwardthrough vertebralcanal• begins at level offoramen magnumand terminates nearfirst and secondlumbar 8
  9. 9. Cross Section of Spinal Cord 9
  10. 10. Functions of Spinal Cord • center for spinal reflexes • conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain 10
  11. 11. Reflex Arcs 12
  12. 12. General Components of a Spinal Reflex 13
  13. 13. Reflex Behavior• example is the knee-jerk reflex• simple monosynaptic reflex• helps maintain an upright posture 14
  14. 14. Reflex Behavior• example is a withdrawal reflex• prevents or limits tissue damage 15
  15. 15. Reflex Arc• example crossed extensor reflex• crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex centerto produce an opposite effect 16
  16. 16. Tracts of the Spinal Cord• Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain• Descending tracts conduct motor impulses from the brain tomotor neurons reaching muscles and glands 17
  17. 17. Ascending Tracts• major ascending spinalcord tracts • fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus • spinothalamic • lateral and anterior • spinocerebellar • posterior and anterior 18
  18. 18. Descending Tracts• major descending spinal cordtracts • corticospinal • lateral and anterior • reticulospinal • lateral, anterior and medial • rubrospinal 19
  19. 19. Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord 20
  20. 20. Animations/video clips• Patellar reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpw31bvoLpg&feature=relatedhttp://www.edumedia-sciences.com/en/a496-patellar-reflexBiceps Reflex & Triceps Reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch? v=2sm4ynlzEi8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=activeAchilles Reflexhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEQ6BbLLucA&NR=1 21
  21. 21. Relfex arcs animations• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/an imations/content/reflexarcs.html• http://msjensen.cehd.umn.edu/1135/Links/ Animations/Flash/0016-swf_reflex_arc.swf
  22. 22. Checking knee reflexes• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=QmNQdLkkJHM&feature=related• http://www.neuroexam.com/content.php? p=31
  23. 23. Warm up (p 236 for help) 6 7 8 9 10 (name it) 1 11 2 3 12 4 5 24
  24. 24. Test questions 31-50: Label 37 36 38 39 40 31 41 32 33 42 34 35 25
  25. 25. BrainFunctions Major Parts • interprets sensations • cerebrum • determines perception • two hemispheres • stores memory • diencephalon • reasoning • brainstem • makes decisions • cerebellum • coordinates muscular movements • regulates visceral activities • determines personality 26
  26. 26. Brain 27
  27. 27. 43 4744 484546 49 50 28
  28. 28. Structure of Cerebrum• corpus callosum • connects cerebral hemispheres• convolutions • bumps or gyri• sulci • grooves• longitudinal fissure • separates hemispheres• transverse fissure • separates cerebrum from cerebellum 29
  29. 29. Lobes of Cerebral Hemispheres • Frontal • Parietal • Temporal • Occipital • Insula 30
  30. 30. Functions of the Cerebrum • interpreting impulses • initiating voluntary movements • storing information as memory • retrieving stored information • reasoning • seat of intelligence and personality 31
  31. 31. Functional Regions of Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex – thin layer of gray matter thatconstitutes the outermost portion of cerebrum; contains75% of all neurons in nervous system 32
  32. 32. Sensory Areas• Cutaneous Sensory • Sensory Area for TasteArea • near bases of the central • parietal lobe sulcus • interprets sensations on skin • Sensory Area for Smell• Visual Area • occipital lobe • interprets vision • arise from centers deep within• Auditory Area the cerebrum • temporal lobe • interprets hearing 33
  33. 33. Sensory Areas 34
  34. 34. Association Areas• regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas• widespread throughout the cerebral cortex• analyze and interpret sensory experiences• provide memory, reasoning, verbalization, judgment, emotions 35
  35. 35. Association AreasFrontal Lobe Association Areas Temporal Lobe Association Areas • concentrating • interpret complex sensory • planning experiences • complex problem solving • store memories of visual scenes, music, and complex patternsParietal Lobe Association Areas Occipital Lobe Association Areas • understanding speech • analyze and combine visual • choosing words to express images with other sensory thought experiences 36
  36. 36. Motor Areas• Primary Motor Areas • frontal lobes • control voluntary muscles• Broca’s Area • anterior to primary motor cortex • usually in left hemisphere • controls muscles needed for speech• Frontal Eye Field • above Broca’s area • controls voluntary movements of eyes and eyelids 37
  37. 37. Motor Areas 38
  38. 38. Functions of the Cerebral Lobes 39
  39. 39. Basal Nuclei• masses of gray matter• deep within cerebralhemispheres• caudate nucleus, putamen,globus pallidus• produce dopamine• control certain muscularactivities • primarily by inhibiting motor functions 40
  40. 40. Diencephalon• between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem• surrounds third ventricle• thalamus• hypothalamus• optic tracts• optic chiasma• infundibulum• posterior pituitary• mammillary bodies• pineal gland 41
  41. 41. DiencephalonThalamus • gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex • receives all sensory impulses (except smell) • channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral cortex for interpretationHypothalamus • maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities • links nervous and endocrine systems 42
  42. 42. Diencephalon Limbic SystemConsists of • portions of frontal lobe Functions • portions of temporal lobe • controls emotions • hypothalamus • produces feelings • thalamus • interprets sensory impulses • basal nuclei • other deep nuclei 43
  43. 43. Brain StemThree Parts1. Midbrain2. Pons3. Medulla Oblongata 44
  44. 44. Midbrain• between diencephalon andpons• contains bundles of fibersthat join lower parts ofbrainstem and spinal cordwith higher part of brain• cerebral aqueduct• cerebral peduncles –bundles of nerve fibers• corpora quadrigemina –centers for visual andauditory reflexes 45
  45. 45. Pons• rounded bulge on underside ofbrainstem• between medulla oblongataand midbrain• helps regulate rate and depthof breathing• relays nerve impulses to andfrom medulla oblongata andcerebellum 46
  46. 46. Medulla Oblongata• enlarged continuation ofspinal cord• conducts ascending anddescending impulses betweenbrain and spinal cord• contains cardiac, vasomotor,and respiratory controlcenters• contains various nonvitalreflex control centers(coughing, sneezing,swallowing, vomiting) 47
  47. 47. Reticular Formation• complex network ofnerve fibers scatteredthroughout the brain stem• extends into thediencephalon• connects to centers ofhypothalamus, basalnuclei, cerebellum, andcerebrum• filters incoming sensoryinformation• arouses cerebral cortexinto state of wakefulness 48
  48. 48. Cerebellum• inferior to occipital lobes• posterior to pons and medullaoblongata• two hemispheres• vermis connects hemispheres• cerebellar cortex – gray matter• arbor vitae – white matter• cerebellar peduncles – nerve fibertracts• dentate nucleus – largest nucleus incerebellum• integrates sensory informationconcerning position of body parts• coordinates skeletal muscle activity• maintains posture 49
  49. 49. Major Parts of the Brain 50
  50. 50. Warm up- Name cranial nerves and structures andlist the function of each cranial nerve on the back of paper. 1 7 2 8 3 9 10 11 4 12 5 13 14 6 15 51
  51. 51. Peripheral Nervous System• Cranial nerves arising from the brain • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera• Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord • Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles • Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera 52
  52. 52. Nervous System Subdivisions 53
  53. 53. Structure of a Peripheral Nerve 54
  54. 54. Nerve Fiber Classification• Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into brain or spinalcord• Motor Nerves – conduct impulses to muscles or glands• Mixed Nerves – contain both sensory nerve fibers andmotor nerve fibers; most nerves 55
  55. 55. Nerve Fiber ClassificationGeneral somatic efferent fibers General somatic afferent fibers • carry motor impulses from • carry sensory impulses to CNS to skeletal muscles CNS from skin and skeletal musclesGeneral visceral efferent fibers General visceral afferent fibers • carry motor impulses away from • carry sensory impulses to CNS CNS to smooth muscles and from blood vessels and internal glands organs 56
  56. 56. Nerve Fiber ClassificationSpecial somatic efferent fibers • carry motor impulses from brain to muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking, and forming facial expressionsSpecial visceral afferent fibers • carry sensory impulses to brain from olfactory and taste receptorsSpecial somatic afferent fibers • carry sensory impulses to brain from receptors of sight, hearing, and equilibrium 57
  57. 57. Cranial Nerves 58
  58. 58. Cranial Nerves I and IIOlfactory (I) Optic (II) • sensory • sensory • fibers transmit • fibers transmit impulses associated impulses associated with smell with vision 59
  59. 59. Cranial Nerves III and IVOculomotor (III) Trochlear (IV) • some sensory • some sensory • proprioreceptors • proprioreceptors • primarily motor • primarily motor • motor impulses to • motor impulses to muscles that muscles that move the • raise eyelids eyes • move the eyes • focus lens •adjust light entering eye 60
  60. 60. Cranial Nerve VTrigeminal (V) • mixed • opthalmic division • sensory from surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids • maxillary division • sensory from upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, palate, and skin of face • mandibular division • sensory from scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, and lower lip • motor to muscles of mastication and muscles in floor of mouth 61
  61. 61. Cranial Nerves VI and VIIAbducens (VI) • primarily motor • motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes • some sensory with proprioreceptorsFacial (VII) • mixed • sensory from taste receptors • motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands 62
  62. 62. Cranial Nerves VIII and IXVestibulocochlear (VIII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) • sensory • mixed • vestibular branch • sensory from pharynx, •sensory from tonsils, tongue, and carotid equilibrium receptors of arteries ear • motor to salivary glands • cochlear branch and muscles of pharynx •sensory from hearing receptors 63
  63. 63. Cranial Nerve XVagus (X) • mixed • somatic motor to muscles of speech and swallowing • autonomic motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen • sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen 64
  64. 64. Cranial Nerves XI and XIIAccessory (XI) Hypoglossal (XII) • primarily motor • primarily motor • cranial branch • motor to muscles of • motor to muscles of the tongue; some soft palate, pharynx, proprioreceptor and larynx • spinal branch •motor to muscles of neck, and back; some proprioreceptor 65
  65. 65. Functions of Cranial Nerves 66
  66. 66. Spinal Nerves• mixed nerves• 31 pairs • 8 cervical •(C1 to C8) • 12 thoracic •(T1 to T12) • 5 lumbar •(L1 to L5) • 5 sacral •(S1 to S5) • 1 coccygeal •(Co) 67
  67. 67. Spinal NervesDorsal root (posterioror sensory root) • axons of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglionDorsal root ganglion • cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from peripheral body parts 68
  68. 68. Dermatome• an area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of aparticular spinal nerve innervate 69
  69. 69. Spinal NervesVentral root (anterior ormotor root) • axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in spinal cordSpinal nerve • union of ventral root and dorsal root 70
  70. 70. Cervical PlexusesNerve plexus – complex networks formed by anterior branchesof spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted andrecombined Cervical Plexus • formed by anterior branches of C1-C4 • lies deep in the neck • supply muscles and skin of the neck • C3 – C5 contribute to phrenic nerves 71
  71. 71. Brachial Plexuses• C5-T1• lies deep within shoulders• musculocutaneous nerves • supply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms• ulnar and median nerves • supply muscles of forearms and hands • supply skin of hands•radial nerves • supply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands• axillary nerves • supply muscles and skin of anterior, lateral, and posterior arms 72
  72. 72. Lumbosacral Plexuses• T12 – S5• extend from lumbarregion into pelvic cavity• obturator nerves • supply motor impulses to adductors of thighs• femoral nerves • supply motor impulses to muscles of anterior thigh and sensory impulses from skin of thighs and legs• sciatic nerves • supply muscles and skin of thighs, legs, and feet 73
  73. 73. Plexuses 74
  74. 74. Cranial Nerve Assessment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eLzkgPkgkEoDetailed Cranial Assessmenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G6FZR64Cq9U&feature=related12 days of Christmas Cranial Nerve songhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xzQ5vnvL-o&feature=related 75
  75. 75. Autonomic Nervous System• functions without conscious effort• controls visceral activities• regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands• efferent fibers typically lead to ganglia outside CNSTwo Divisions • sympathetic – prepares body for fight or flight situations • parasympathetic – prepares body for resting and digesting activities 76
  76. 76. Autonomic Nerve Fibers• all are neurons aremotor (efferent)• preganglionic fibers • axons of preganglionic neurons • neuron cell bodies in CNS• postganglionic fibers • axons of postganglionic neurons • neuron cell bodies in ganglia 77
  77. 77. Sympathetic Division• thoracolumbar divison –location of preganglionicneurons• preganglionic fibers leavespinal nerves through whiterami and enterparavertebral ganglia• paraverterbral gangliaand fibers that connectthem make up thesympathetic trunk 78
  78. 78. Sympathetic Division• postganglionic fibersextend from sympatheticganglia to visceral organs• postganglionic fibersusually pass through grayrami and return to a spinalnerve before proceeding toan effector• Exception: preganglionicfibers to adrenal medulla donot synapse withpostganglionic neurons 79
  79. 79. Sympathetic Division 80
  80. 80. Parasympathetic Division• craniosacral division – • preganglionic fibers of thelocation of preganglionic head are included in nervesneurons III, VII, and IX• ganglia are near or • preganglionic fibers ofwithin various organs • terminal ganglia thorax and abdomen are parts of nerve X• short postganglionicfibers • continue to specific muscles or glands 81
  81. 81. Parasympathetic Division 82
  82. 82. Autonomic NeurotransmittersCholinergic Fibers • release acetylcholine • preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers • postganglionic parasympathetic fibers Adrenergic Fibers • release norepinephrine • most postganglionic sympathetic 83 fibers
  83. 83. Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters • depend on receptors in the membraneCholinergic receptors Adrenergic Receptors • bind to acetlycholine • bind to epinephrine • muscarinic and norepinephrine • excitatory • alpha and beta • slow • both elicit different • nicotinic responses on various • excitatory effectors • rapid 84
  84. 84. Actions of Autonomic NeurotransmittersInsert figure 11.39 85
  85. 85. Control of Autonomic Activity• Controlled largely by CNS• Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor andrespiratory activities• Hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as bodytemperature, hunger, thirst, and water and electrolytebalance• Limbic system and cerebral cortex control emotionalresponses 86
  86. 86. Life-Span Changes• Brain cells begin to die before birth• Over average lifetime, brain shrinks 10%• Most cell death occurs in temporal lobes• By age 90, frontal cortex has lost half its neurons• Number of dendritic branches decreases• Decreased levels of neurotransmitters• Fading memory• Slowed responses and reflexes• Increased risk of falling• Changes in sleep patterns that result in fewer sleeping hours 87
  87. 87. Clinical Application Cerebral Injuries and AbnormalitiesConcussion Cerebral Palsy • brain jarred against cranium • motor impairment at • loss of consciousness birth • temporary loss of memory • caused by blocked • mental cloudiness cerebral blood vessels • headache during development • recovery usually complete • seizures • learning disabilitiesCerebrovascular Accident • stroke • sudden interruption in blood flow • brain tissues die 88
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×