LiterateEnvironmentAnalysisJennifer ScottWalden UniversityProfessor Donna BialahEDUC -6707-6, The beginningReader, Prek-3
As Tompkins (2010) states, “Thegoals of literacy instruction is toensure that all students achieve theirfull potential” (pg.5).
Creating a literacy environment Utilizing a balanced literacy approach, students are presented with the opportunity to be successful literacy learners. Students interests and academic levels are assessed to determine appropriate literacy learning activities and texts. Texts are selected by taking into consideration the literacy matrix and the diverse needs of students. The interactive, critical and responsive perspectives within the Framework for Literacy Instruction is utilized to facilitate literacy learning. Researched based practices are implemented to create an optimal literacy environment. Gaining feedback from colleagues from my professional learning community and parents will ensure student literacy success.
As Tompkins (2010) suggests,teachers use assessments to supportinstruction and it is an ongoing partof both teaching and learning.
Getting to Know Literacy Learners Analysis of research based practice Utilizing non-cognitive and cognitive assessments within the classroom provides valuable insight into my students academic skills, interests, and cultural backgrounds. This valuable information is used to guide my instruction and adjust my lessons activities to provide a optimal literacy learning environment. These assessments allow me to differentiate my instruction to provide small guided level reading groups and literacy activities to facilitate student literacy learning.
Non-cognitive and cognitive assessments utilizedCognitive Assessments Running Records Spelling inventory Word recognition list Reading inventoryNon-cognitive Assessments Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (Johns, J. L. & Lenski, S. D., 1994) Parent/Teacher Survey Informal interview
Getting to knowliteracy learners Research to support non- cognitive and cognitive assessmentsAs Afflerbach (2007) mentions, weneed high quality assessments thatfocus on the process and products ofstudent reading. Assessment shouldallow teachers to better understandtheir students and adjust instructionfor student learning.
Selecting TextAs Douglas Hartman suggests, teachers need toselect text based on the needs of students andstrike a balance between narrative andinformational text. (Laureate Education, Inc.,2010).
Selecting Text Using a Literacy MatrixUtilizing a literacy matrix , as mentioned by Dr.Douglas Hartman can allow an educator toselect text for narrative and informationalreading while defining the linguistic andsemiotic attributes of a story (LaureateEducation, Inc., 2010).
Selecting Text Analysis of selecting text Analyzing and select text according to the literacy matrix tool Choosing text that ensure a balance in literacy instruction: narrative, informative and digital. Using non-cognitive and cognitive assessments to match students reading levels and interests to text. Text factors are considered when selecting text.
Selecting Text Research to support selecting text As Tompkins (2010) mentions, teacher select books that students can read at their instructional level to support students reading and their use of reading strategies. In the article, “Reading adventures online: Five ways to introduce the new literacies of the Internet through children’s literature,” it suggests that online text provide opportunities for students to build their understanding of story structures and introduce new ways to develop online navigation skills (International Reading Association, 2006). As Marzano (2010) mentions, the best teachers find texts that make their subject interesting with big ideas and clear performance goals.
Literacy Lesson: Interactive perspective As suggested by Dr. Janice Almasi, theinteractive perspective is teaching students tobe strategic processors and thinkers (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010).
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective Framework for Literacy InstructionInteractive perspectiveReading and writing accurately, fluently, and with comprehension.Being strategic and metacognitive readers and writers.LearnersUse a variety of informal and formal assessments to determine areas ofstrength and need in literacy development.TextDetermine texts of the appropriate types and levels of difficulty to meetliteracy goals and objectives for students.Instructional PracticesUse instructional methods that address the cognitive and affective needs ofstudents and the demands of the particular text.Promote students’ independent use of reading strategies and skills.
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective, Lesson Foundations Lesson FoundationsPre-assessment (including cognitive and noncognitive measures): The cognitive assessments utilized-running records, word recognition and spelling inventory. The non-cognitive assessments utilized -Elementary Reading Attitude Survey, parent survey and teacher observation.Curricular Focus, Theme, or Subject Area: The curricular focus is related to the science common corestandards. The theme is animal’s needs and environment.State/District Standards: English Language Arts Standards RI.K. 10 Actively engage in group readingactivities with purpose and understanding, RI. K. 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questionsabout key details in a text. RI. K. 4. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions aboutunknown words in a text.
Learning Objectives: Students will use pre-reading strategies to identify and list prior knowledge aboutnight animals. They will identify and recall high frequency words within the text. Students will read withpurpose and monitor comprehension by responding to questions. Then, students will write multiplesentences about animals within the text.Adaptations for ELLs, Students with Special Needs, and/or Struggling Readers: Vocabulary picture cardswill be used to clarify unfamiliar vocabulary within text.Perspective(s) addressed in this lesson (Interactive, Critical, and/or Response): Interactive, Critical andResponseTexts: Non-fiction text Night Animals by Terry Patterson from www.readingk-2.comOther Materials/Technology/Equipment/Resources: Vocabulary cards, chart paper, pens, response journalsGrouping structures (one-on-one, small group, whole class): Small group guided reading instruction.
Lesson Sequence Lesson Sequence Learning Activities Assessment OpportunitiesIntroduction/Anticipatory Set The teacher will be able to access prior knowledgeTeacher and students will brainstorm and list prior knowledge about of animals through teacher observation. Thisanimals on a graphic organizer called a circle map in black ink. Then, information will be beneficial to determine ifthe teacher will frontload targeted vocabulary (active, shines, dark, students have an understanding of text contentnight, day) with picture cards and high frequency words (some, these, and high frequency words. Anecdotal notes will bewhen, most, them, find) that are found in text to assist in fluency and taken as teacher observes students within thecomprehension. Next, through a picture walk students will make learning activities.predictions about the story and highlight key concepts. The teacher willread the title and discuss cover illustrations and the language patternswithin the story. Prediction questions will be asked: What do you thinkanimals do at night? What are the different places they might live?Finally, the students will review reading strategies by referencingpreviously taught strategies listed on a poster entitled What goodreaders do.
Building/Applying knowledge and skillsBuilding/Applying Knowledge and Skills The teacher will assess student’sFor the first read of the text through a small group guided reading fluency, word attack and use ofexperience students will read the text simultaneously using one to one reading strategies as students read thecorrespondence. The teacher will pause and ask inference questions text. Through anecdotal records, theabout the text: What makes night animals special? What do these teacher can re-teach and adjust theanimals do during the day? Where do night animals live? While they following lessons to meet the needs ofare reading, students will monitor their reading for understanding of students within the group.text. They will clarify and identify difficulties with text by restating,re-reading and reading on to check for understanding. Teacher willprovide support to students with monitoring strategies and decodingthrough prompt/praise support as needed.
Synthesis/ClosureSynthesis/Closure Teacher will assess studentsAfter reading the story, the students will discuss and connect prior understanding of text and use of readingknowledge to new knowledge. The teacher will ask students to strategies through teacher observationretell the animals that were in the story, where they live and how and anecdotal notes. If needed, teacherthey live. The new information learned about night animals will be will assess student’s reading level andwritten on the circle map with a blue pen to denote the new make adjustments if needed for futureknowledge gained through reading the text. Clarification will be lessons.made regarding monitoring text and student’s understanding ofdifficult vocabulary within the text. Students will review the textand highlight with a yellow crayon the high frequency words andtargeted vocabulary.
Extension/Enrichment/Transfer of Generalization of knowledgeExtension/Enrichment/Transfer of Generalization of Knowledge:Students will extend their knowledge gained through reading the text aboutanimals in their response journals. Students will write multiple sentences about oneanimal that was within the text and draw a picture. The responses can be sharedin the small group during independent reading time in the author’s chair.
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective Analysis Implementation of the components of the reading process fostered the literacy development of students: Phonemic awareness, word identification, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension. Five stages of the reading process is considered for literacy instruction: activating prior knowledge, reading, responding, exploring and applying. Five types of reading are utilized for quality literacy instruction: independent reading, buddy reading, guided reading, shared reading and reading aloud to students. Students utilize their metacognitive skills to reflect and have control over their reading and understanding of text.
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective Research that supports the Interactive PerspectiveAs Tomkins (2010) mentions, both reading and writing are a process thatbegin during pre-reading as students activate their background knowledgeand preview the text, and it continues as students read, respond, discoverand apply their reading.As Johns and Lenski state (2004),”Our goal as teachers is to instruct students,both directly and indirectly, about which strategies are appropriate for areading task, how to use the strategy, and how to determine theeffectiveness of the strategy”(pg. 299).As Dr. Janice Almasi suggests, the ultimate goal of the interactiveperspective is to teach students how to be literate learners who can navigatethe textual world independently (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010).
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives Dr. Janice Almasi suggests, students need to connect with text in life changing ways and learning occurs when students are given opportunities to share their feelings andemotions about text they have read (Laureate Education, Inc., 2010).
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives Framework for Literacy InstructionCritical PerspectiveJudging, evaluating, and thinking critically about textLearnersFind out about ideas, issues, and problems that matter to students.Understanding the learner as a unique individualTextsSelect texts that provide opportunities for students to judge,evaluate, and think critically.Instructional PracticesProvide opportunities fro students to read, react, and formulate apersonal response to text.
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives Lesson Foundation Lesson Foundations Pre-assessment (including cognitive and noncognitive measures): The cognitive assessments utilized- running records, word recognition and expressive vocabulary test. The non-cognitive assessments utilized - Elementary Reading Attitude Survey, parent survey and teacher observation. Curricular Focus, Theme, or Subject Area: The curricular focus is related to social studies. The theme of this lesson is about respecting people as individuals and self-esteem. State/District Standards: English Language Arts Standards RI.K. 10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding, RI. K. 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. W.K.1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose an opinion piece in which they tell a reader a topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book.
Learning Objectives: Students will activate their prior knowledge to identify and list describingwords about positive feelings about themselves. They will recall key vocabulary and identifycharacters actions within a text related to the theme of feelings and actions. Then, students willchoose a vocabulary word that describes something positive about themselves as individualsand write multiple sentences and illustrate.Adaptations for ELLs, Students with Special Needs, and/or Struggling Readers: Vocabularypicture cards will be used to clarify unfamiliar vocabulary within text.Perspective(s) addressed in this lesson (Interactive, Critical, and/or Response): Critical andResponse.Texts: Narrative text called I’m Gonna Like me Letting off a little self-esteem, by Jamie LeeCurtis & Laura Cornell. The text falls in the critical and response perspective on the frameworkfor literacy instruction.Other Materials/Technology/Equipment/Resources: Vocabulary cards, chart paper, pens,response journalsGrouping structures (one-on-one, small group, whole class): Small group interactive reading
Lesson Sequence Learning Activities Assessment OpportunitiesIntroduction/Anticipatory Set The teacher will be able to accessTeacher and students will brainstorm and list prior prior knowledge about vocabularyknowledge about positive words to describe themselves related to caring and self-esteem(I am…) on a graphic organizer called a circle map in through teacher observation. Thisblack ink. Then, the teacher will frontload targeted information will be beneficial tovocabulary (brave, sharing, strong, friend, safe) with determine if students have anpicture cards that are found in text to assist in understanding of text content andcomprehension. Next, students will make predictions the stories message.about the story as the teacher reads the title anddiscuss the cover illustrations of the story. Predictionquestions will be asked: What makes the characters onthe cover different? What are some things that are thesame about the characters? What do you think theyare going to like about themselves?
Building/Applying Knowledge and SkillsBuilding/Applying Knowledge and Skills The teacher will assess studentsThrough the interactive procedure the teacher will read aloud the understanding of concepts within the lessontext with student involvement. While reading the story to the by utilizing observations of student’sstudents, the teacher will pause and ask inference questions about interaction during the reading of the text.the text: What are some things that the characters like about Anecdotal notes will be made to determinethemselves? What are some of the words they are using to describe if students connected to intended lessonthemselves? What good things are the girl and boy doing in the story objectives.for friends and family? How do the characters feel about themselvesat the end of story? Why do they feel happy?? While the teacher isreading and pausing to discuss the text, she will monitor theirunderstanding of text. The teacher will clarify and identifydifficulties with comprehension by restating, re-reading and readingon to check for understanding.
Synthesis/ClosureSynthesis/Closure Teacher will assess studentsAfter reading the story, the students will discuss and understanding of the lessons conceptsconnect prior knowledge to new knowledge. The through teacher observation andteacher will ask students to retell the feeling words anecdotal notes.that were used within the text and discuss what thecharacters did in the story to show that they werehappy to be themselves. Then, on the circle mapnew information learned about feelings will beadded in blue ink to denote new learned informationabout the topic.
Extension/Enrichment Transfer of Generalization of KnowledgeExtension/Enrichment/Transfer of Generalizationof Knowledge:Students will extend their knowledge gainedthrough reading the text about positive feelingsabout being self-confident about who they areas individuals in their response journals.Students will write multiple sentences aboutthemselves using the frame I am… and draw apicture to match the writing. The responses canbe shared in the small group duringindependent reading time in the author’s chair.
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives Analysis of Critical and Response Perspectives Chose quality text that evoke emotional discussion and responses about stories topics. Carefully plan literacy lessons that implement the critical and response perspectives to give students an opportunity to think deeply about text. Afford the opportunity for students to think critically about their place in the world as responsible members of society through responding to text.
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives ResearchAs Tompkins (2010)suggests, teachers use grand conversationsto have students share their personal responses and tell whatthey liked about the text. Students make connections betweenthe text and their own lives or to other literature they haveread.As Dr. Janice Alamsi suggests, when students are allowed torespond to text they will understand, and grow as readers andas a person (laureate Education, Inc., 2010).
Feedback from colleagues and Family Members of Students Questions What insights did you gain about literacy and literacy instruction from viewing this presentation? How might the information presented changed your literacy practices and/or your literacy interactions with your students? In what ways can I support you in the literacy development of your students or children? How might you support me in my work with students or your children? What questions do you have?
ReferencesAfflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment, k-12. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Castek, J., Bevans-Mangelson, J. & Goldstone, B. (2006). Reading adventures online: Five ways to introduce the new literacies through children’s literature. The Reading Teacher, 59(7).Johns, J.L. & Lenski, S.D. (1994). Improving reading: A handbook of strategies. Dubuque, IO: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). Selecting and analyzing text. In The beginning reader,prek-3. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). Critical perspective. In The beginning reader, prek-3. Retrieved fromhttps://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). Perspectives on literacy. In The beginning reader, prek-3. retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). Response perspective. In The beginning reader, prek-3. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/Marzano, R. J. (Ed). (2010). On excellence in teaching. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree press.Tompkins, G. E. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.