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Digital Imaging of
Photographs
Jenn Riley
IU Digital Library Program
September 19, 2003
What we’ll cover
 Introduction
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
What we’ll cover
 Introduction
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
Digitization in context
 Can be one of the easier parts of
digital projects but still requires careful
planning
 If it’s...
Types of photographic materials
 Reflective
 Prints
 Transparent (film)
 Negative
 Positive
 All come in various siz...
What we’ll cover
 Introduction
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
Technical overview
 Analog to digital conversion
 Resolution
 Bit depth
 Color
 Compression
Analog to digital conversion
 Image is converted to
a series of pixels laid
out in a grid
 Each pixel has a
specific col...
Resolution (1)
 Often referred to as “dpi” or “ppi”
 RATIO of number of pixels captured
per inch of original photo size
...
Resolution (2)
 “Spatial resolution” refers to pixel
dimensions of image, e.g., 3000 x
2400 pixels
 Flatbed and film sca...
Resolution (3)
 Optical vs. interpolated
 Optical is the number of sensors in the scanning
array – what the scanner actu...
Bit depth (1)
 Refers to number of bits (binary digits,
places for zeroes and ones) devoted
to storing color information ...
Bit depth (2)
1 bit (black & white) 2 bit (4 colors)
4 bit (16 colors) 8 bit (256 colors)
Color
 RGB
 Scanners generally have sensors for Red,
Green, and Blue
 Each of these “channels” is stored separately in
...
Compression
 Makes files smaller for storage
 Files must be decompressed for
viewing – this takes time
 Lossless
 Loss...
Technical questions?
 Analog to digital conversion
 Resolution
 Bit depth
 Color
What we’ll cover
 Introduction
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
Best practices for capture
 General considerations
 Resolution
 Color
 Image processing
 File formats
General considerations
 Determine purpose
 Capture once, use many times
 Create “master” image when scanning
 Create “...
Determining resolution (1)
 Charts can be good starting points
 Western States handout
 Other standards/best practices ...
Determining resolution (2)
 Higher is not
always better
 Scan at highest
resolution
necessary to
achieve your stated
pur...
Resolution comparison
600dpi vs. 300dpi
Color
 Match current photo or match original scene
 Final master images should be 8 bits per
channel (8-bit grayscale, 2...
Histograms
good (dark image)
Image processing
 Color balance, cropping, etc., can be done when
creating derivatives
 Generally avoided for master ima...
File formats
 Master
 TIFF (uncompressed)
 Derivative
 JPEG (web)
 Zoomable formats (specialized uses)
JPEG compression
 Lossy-compressed every time they are saved
 No standard scale
 Photoshop: 0 to 12 (low to maximum)
 ...
Best practice questions?
 General considerations
 Resolution
 Color
 Image processing
 File formats
What we’ll cover
 Introduction
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
Digital imaging workflow
 Planning phase
 Production phase
 Post-production phase
Planning phase
 Define purpose of imaging project
 Define master image specifications
 Select scanning equipment
 Deve...
Choosing equipment
 Scanner
 Resolution
 Dynamic range
 photographic prints: 1.4 – 2.0
 negative films: 2.8
 commerc...
Quality review
 A consistent quality review process is
*absolutely* essential
 Objective
 pixel dimensions
 resolution...
Subjective image review
TEST!
 Don’t blindly follow any specific
recommendation – make sure it works
for you
 Drawings, engravings, maps, printe...
Metadata and documentation
 Essential!
 For fixing quality problems
 For long-term maintenance of files
 NISO draft st...
Production phase
 Train employees in digitization and
handling procedures
 Ongoing digitization
 Ongoing quality review...
Color management (1)
 ISO 3664 describes standard graphic viewing
conditions
 All devices should be characterized with I...
Color management (2)
 Embed ICC
profiles in
master images
 Set up
Photoshop to
use that profile
and to warn you
when pro...
Post-production phase
 Store master images safely
 Create derivatives
 Review process for areas of
improvement
Workflow questions?
 Planning phase
 Production phase
 Post-production phase
Other questions?
 Technical overview
 Best practices for capture
 Workflow considerations
 Other?
More information
 These presentation slides:
<http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/workshops/bbfall2003.htm>
 Digital imaging sta...
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Digital Imaging of Photographs

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Riley, Jenn. "Digital Imaging of Photographs." Digital Library Program Brown Bag Presentation, September 19, 2003.

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  • don’t believe everything the scanner specs say
  • Hoh001.000.1152
  • Give handout here
  • 4x5 neg from Hohenberger collection: Old sign-placarded cabin on road near Medora
  • these have been resized for effect, but you get the idea
  • adjustments in scanning software can be manual or automatic
  • use histogram for evaluating images, and when making manual color adjustments
  • gif not appropriate for photographic materials
  • dynamic range is density measured logarithmically on scale from 0 to 4. you can also measure your materials with a densitometer
  • re-characterize frequently
  • Transcript of "Digital Imaging of Photographs"

    1. 1. Digital Imaging of Photographs Jenn Riley IU Digital Library Program September 19, 2003
    2. 2. What we’ll cover  Introduction  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations
    3. 3. What we’ll cover  Introduction  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations
    4. 4. Digitization in context  Can be one of the easier parts of digital projects but still requires careful planning  If it’s done poorly your whole project will suffer  Can be done in-house or outsourced
    5. 5. Types of photographic materials  Reflective  Prints  Transparent (film)  Negative  Positive  All come in various sizes
    6. 6. What we’ll cover  Introduction  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations
    7. 7. Technical overview  Analog to digital conversion  Resolution  Bit depth  Color  Compression
    8. 8. Analog to digital conversion  Image is converted to a series of pixels laid out in a grid  Each pixel has a specific color, represented by a sequence of 1s and 0s  Pixel-based images are called “raster” images or “bitmaps”
    9. 9. Resolution (1)  Often referred to as “dpi” or “ppi”  RATIO of number of pixels captured per inch of original photo size  8x10 print scanned at 300ppi = 2400 x 3000 pixels  35mm slide (24x36mm!) scanned at 300ppi ≈ 212 x 318 pixels
    10. 10. Resolution (2)  “Spatial resolution” refers to pixel dimensions of image, e.g., 3000 x 2400 pixels  Flatbed and film scanners have a fixed focus, so they know how big the original is; digital cameras don’t
    11. 11. Resolution (3)  Optical vs. interpolated  Optical is the number of sensors in the scanning array – what the scanner actually “sees”  Interpolated is a higher resolution - the number of pixels the software can make up based on what the scanner actually saw  Don’t set a scanner to use higher than its optical resolution
    12. 12. Bit depth (1)  Refers to number of bits (binary digits, places for zeroes and ones) devoted to storing color information about each pixel  1 bit (1) = 21 = 2 shades (black & white)  2 bit (01) = 22 = 4 shades  4 bit (0010) = 24 = 16 shades  8 bit (11010001) = 28 = 256 shades
    13. 13. Bit depth (2) 1 bit (black & white) 2 bit (4 colors) 4 bit (16 colors) 8 bit (256 colors)
    14. 14. Color  RGB  Scanners generally have sensors for Red, Green, and Blue  Each of these “channels” is stored separately in the digital file  8 bits for each channel = 24 bit color  CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) is used for high-end “pre-press” printing purposes
    15. 15. Compression  Makes files smaller for storage  Files must be decompressed for viewing – this takes time  Lossless  Lossy  “visually lossless”
    16. 16. Technical questions?  Analog to digital conversion  Resolution  Bit depth  Color
    17. 17. What we’ll cover  Introduction  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations
    18. 18. Best practices for capture  General considerations  Resolution  Color  Image processing  File formats
    19. 19. General considerations  Determine purpose  Capture once, use many times  Create “master” image when scanning  Create “derivatives” for specific uses later  Scan from earliest generation practical  Some imaging programs use color bars or rulers for future reference  Train scanner operators in correct handling of materials
    20. 20. Determining resolution (1)  Charts can be good starting points  Western States handout  Other standards/best practices listed on bibliography at end of presentation  Current thinking is that master files for photographic materials should be 3000-5000 pixels on their longest side
    21. 21. Determining resolution (2)  Higher is not always better  Scan at highest resolution necessary to achieve your stated purpose, no higher chart from Cornell’s online digital imaging tutorial: <http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/conversion/conversion-03.html>
    22. 22. Resolution comparison
    23. 23. 600dpi vs. 300dpi
    24. 24. Color  Match current photo or match original scene  Final master images should be 8 bits per channel (8-bit grayscale, 24-bit RGB); some specialized projects using higher bit depths  Any color adjustments should be done in scanning software before final scan is done  Use almost the full tonal range; avoid “clipping”
    25. 25. Histograms good (dark image)
    26. 26. Image processing  Color balance, cropping, etc., can be done when creating derivatives  Generally avoided for master images  Descreening for halftoned images possible exception halftoned descreened
    27. 27. File formats  Master  TIFF (uncompressed)  Derivative  JPEG (web)  Zoomable formats (specialized uses)
    28. 28. JPEG compression  Lossy-compressed every time they are saved  No standard scale  Photoshop: 0 to 12 (low to maximum)  ImageMagick: 1 to 100, default 75 low compression, high quality high compression, low quality
    29. 29. Best practice questions?  General considerations  Resolution  Color  Image processing  File formats
    30. 30. What we’ll cover  Introduction  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations
    31. 31. Digital imaging workflow  Planning phase  Production phase  Post-production phase
    32. 32. Planning phase  Define purpose of imaging project  Define master image specifications  Select scanning equipment  Develop and test procedures for digitization  Develop and test procedures for quality review  Determine technical metadata to be recorded  DOCUMENT
    33. 33. Choosing equipment  Scanner  Resolution  Dynamic range  photographic prints: 1.4 – 2.0  negative films: 2.8  commercial grade colored slides: 2.8 – 3.0  high grade transparencies: 3.0 – 4.0  Monitor: use CRT, not LCD dynamic range chart from Kenney & Rieger, Moving Theory into Practice, p. 38
    34. 34. Quality review  A consistent quality review process is *absolutely* essential  Objective  pixel dimensions  resolution  bit depth  Subjective  scanning artifacts  cropping  orientation
    35. 35. Subjective image review
    36. 36. TEST!  Don’t blindly follow any specific recommendation – make sure it works for you  Drawings, engravings, maps, printed text, handwritten text, musical notation, etc., all require different approaches
    37. 37. Metadata and documentation  Essential!  For fixing quality problems  For long-term maintenance of files  NISO draft standard: Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images
    38. 38. Production phase  Train employees in digitization and handling procedures  Ongoing digitization  Ongoing quality review  Ongoing metadata creation  Periodic equipment color characterization/calibration
    39. 39. Color management (1)  ISO 3664 describes standard graphic viewing conditions  All devices should be characterized with ICC profiles  monitors  scanners  printers  Creating your own preferable to using “canned” profiles  Profiling software from Monaco Systems; also included in high-end scanning software
    40. 40. Color management (2)  Embed ICC profiles in master images  Set up Photoshop to use that profile and to warn you when profiles are missing or different
    41. 41. Post-production phase  Store master images safely  Create derivatives  Review process for areas of improvement
    42. 42. Workflow questions?  Planning phase  Production phase  Post-production phase
    43. 43. Other questions?  Technical overview  Best practices for capture  Workflow considerations  Other?
    44. 44. More information  These presentation slides: <http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/workshops/bbfall2003.htm>  Digital imaging standards and best practices and how the IU DLP uses them: <http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/dmic/general/>  Cornell digital imaging tutorial: <http://www.library.cornell.edu/preservation/tutorial/contents.html>  jenlrile@indiana.edu
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