SEI 2012

• Download these copies:
• http://bit.ly/Ltjp4D (Worksheet)
• http://bit.ly/MxWA0C (Reference)

6/20/2012

If yo...
Metadata Overview
Jenn Riley
Head, Carolina Digital Library and Archives
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

How in the world am I
supposed to deal with this?!?

3
6/20/2012
SEI 2012

Don’t panic. You can make
good decisions with the right
information.
We’ll begin with some theory,
and...
SEI 2012

• “Data about data”
• “Structured information about an information
resource of any media type or format.” (Capla...
SEI 2012

• Other characteristics
• Structure
• Control
• Origin
• Machine-generated
• Human-generated
• Don’t get stuck o...
Slide labels
Online catalogs

Finding aids
R
e
g
i

V
R
d
Inventories
a
t
a
b
a
s

SEI 2012

Catalog cards

6/20/2012

Som...
Some types of metadata
Type

Use

Technical metadata

Interoperability
Digital object management
Preservation

Preservatio...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Metadata in action

Descriptive metadata
Technical metadata

Rights metadata

Navigating between
mult...
We’ll primarily talk
about descriptive
metadata this morning

SEI 2012

The lines between these
types are rarely clear

6/...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

And you also need to know about…

11

Chart by Elings & Waibel, “Metadata for All” <http://firstmonda...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

2 minutes on XML

12
General principles to apply

• Look to the community for best practices
• Know why you’re doing something a certain way
• ...
Let’s look at some options.

6/20/2012
SEI 2012

So now what?

14
•
•
•
•
•
•

VRA Core
CDWA
CDWA Lite
MARC
MODS
Dublin Core

• Data structure
(technical)
• MIX
• EXIF (mostly)

SEI 2012

...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

CCO content standard

16
From http://cco.vrafoundation.org/
• Try to constrain the full standard for your local implementation
• Don’t fret too much if your case isn’t covered or you...
SEI 2012

• THIS is the metadata structure standard that you really
need to know
• Designed by visual resources specialist...
6/20/2012
SEI 2012

19
This record
in XML
Let’s create some VRA!

Artist: Ange Francois

SEI 2012

Date: Unknown but not later than
1867

6/20/2012

Description: "G...
SEI 2012

• Strong museum, curatorial focus
• Strong on culture, physical location
• Meant to describe original works, not...
22

SEI 2012

6/20/2012
And again, in CDWA…

Artist: Ange Francois

SEI 2012

Date: Unknown but not later than
1867

6/20/2012

Description: "Good...
CDWA Derivatives

• LIDO = Lightweight Information Describing Objects
• Expansion of CDWA Lite
• Combined with museumdat
•...
• You wanted discovery through the library catalog
• Your unit is an integral part of an academic library system and
does ...
SEI 2012

• “Bibliographic” in nature
• No natural places for some data elements crucial for visual
resources, such as cul...
And again, this time in MODS…

Artist: Ange Francois

SEI 2012

Date: Unknown but not later than
1867

6/20/2012

Descript...
SEI 2012

• An extremely basic metadata structure standard,
originally developed for documents on the web
• Intended to be...
Qualified Dublin Core

• Native format in some digital library systems
• DSpace
• CONTENTdm

SEI 2012

• Additional elemen...
And now in Qualified Dublin Core…

Author: Ange Francois

SEI 2012

Date: Unknown but not later than
1867

6/20/2012

Desc...
Let’s think more carefully about
what goes in those fields.

6/20/2012
SEI 2012

But this is only
the first step.

Content...
SEI 2012

• Also known as:
• Controlled vocabularies
• Authority control
• Use it for fields where:
• You want browseabili...
6/20/2012
SEI 2012

Which fields in VRA core would
benefit from vocabulary control?

33
SEI 2012

Most have a mechanism for new terms to
be proposed

6/20/2012

Controlled vocabularies are highly
specialized – ...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Art & Architecture Thesaurus
(AAT)

35
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Thesaurus for Geographic
Names (TGN)

36
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Union List of Artists’ Names
(ULAN)

37
•
•
•
•
•
•

Creator
Creation date
Measurements
Materials
Current location
Etc.

SEI 2012

• A work authority file
• Forth...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Thesaurus for Graphic
Materials (TGM) I & II

39
VRA Work Title ≈ CDWA Title Text ≈ MODS <titleInfo><title>

A documented crosswalk lays the
groundwork for automatically
t...
SEI 2012

6/20/2012

Much mapping work pre-exists
for you

How does our work matching
up data between metadata
41
formats ...
SEI 2012

• Store metadata internal to an image file or
externally?
• Store natively in XML or in a relational database or...
SEI 2012

• All discovery and digital asset
management systems have limitations.
• Be informed so you can push where
reaso...
SEI 2012

• There’s an active metadata community to talk
with
• Increasingly catalogers are working closely with
technical...
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Metadata Overview, SEI 2012

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Riley, Jenn. "Metadata Overview." Summer Educational Institute for Visual Resources and Image Management, University of Michigan, June 20, 2012.

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  • Things to point out:* Work and image in separate records*Separate elements for display and indexing values*Use of controlled vocabularies*Connections to research relevant to the work
  • Facets:Associated conceptsPhysical attributesStyles and periodsAgentsActivitiesMaterialsObjectsBrand names
  • Mappings performed via XSLT, or a full programming language.
  • Have a group discussion about these issues.
  • Metadata Overview, SEI 2012

    1. 1. SEI 2012 • Download these copies: • http://bit.ly/Ltjp4D (Worksheet) • http://bit.ly/MxWA0C (Reference) 6/20/2012 If you don’t have printed handouts… 1
    2. 2. Metadata Overview Jenn Riley Head, Carolina Digital Library and Archives The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    3. 3. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 How in the world am I supposed to deal with this?!? 3
    4. 4. 6/20/2012 SEI 2012 Don’t panic. You can make good decisions with the right information. We’ll begin with some theory, and then move on to practice. 4
    5. 5. SEI 2012 • “Data about data” • “Structured information about an information resource of any media type or format.” (Caplan) • “Structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource.” (NISO) • “Metadata is constructed, constructive, and actionable.” (Coyle) •… 6/20/2012 Many definitions of metadata 5
    6. 6. SEI 2012 • Other characteristics • Structure • Control • Origin • Machine-generated • Human-generated • Don’t get stuck on the difference between data, metadata, and meta-metadata 6/20/2012 Refining a definition 6
    7. 7. Slide labels Online catalogs Finding aids R e g i V R d Inventories a t a b a s SEI 2012 Catalog cards 6/20/2012 Some uses of metadata in cultural heritage institutions 7
    8. 8. Some types of metadata Type Use Technical metadata Interoperability Digital object management Preservation Preservation metadata Interoperability Preservation Rights metadata Interoperability Digital object management Structural metadata Navigation 6/20/2012 Searching Browsing Display Interoperability SEI 2012 Descriptive metadata 8
    9. 9. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Metadata in action Descriptive metadata Technical metadata Rights metadata Navigating between multiple views of the same image would be structural metadata. 9
    10. 10. We’ll primarily talk about descriptive metadata this morning SEI 2012 The lines between these types are rarely clear 6/20/2012 But… 10
    11. 11. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 And you also need to know about… 11 Chart by Elings & Waibel, “Metadata for All” <http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1628/1543>
    12. 12. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 2 minutes on XML 12
    13. 13. General principles to apply • Look to the community for best practices • Know why you’re doing something a certain way • Display, search, browse • Current and reasonable future discovery needs • If it’s not immediately justifiable, ask the hard questions • Avoid the temptation to over-describe • Document your decisions • Consider uses of your metadata beyond your local system SEI 2012 • Art images vs. documentary images • Pedagogical vs. museum object management vs. archival 6/20/2012 • Tie your choice of standards to your purpose 13
    14. 14. Let’s look at some options. 6/20/2012 SEI 2012 So now what? 14
    15. 15. • • • • • • VRA Core CDWA CDWA Lite MARC MODS Dublin Core • Data structure (technical) • MIX • EXIF (mostly) SEI 2012 • Data structure (descriptive) 6/20/2012 Some metadata standards of use to VR professionals • Data content • CCO • AACR2/RDA • DACS 15
    16. 16. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 CCO content standard 16 From http://cco.vrafoundation.org/
    17. 17. • Try to constrain the full standard for your local implementation • Don’t fret too much if your case isn’t covered or you find it ambiguous SEI 2012 • It’s OK to pick and choose when to apply it • It’s just a set of rules (that humans wrote) and therefore is wide open to interpretation 6/20/2012 Using a content standard • Provided examples are useful, but they’re not the rules • Alternatives to CCO • AACR2/RDA if you want a more “bibliographic” approach • DACS if you want a more archival approach, focusing on the description of whole collections rather than individual items 17
    18. 18. SEI 2012 • THIS is the metadata structure standard that you really need to know • Designed by visual resources specialists • Distinguishes between collection, work, and image • Schemas for “unrestricted” and “restricted” versions • Provides for values for both display and indexing • This isn’t common in other metadata standards • Focus on creation, style, culture • Best used on collections of reproductions of works of art & architecture 6/20/2012 Visual Resources Association Core Categories (VRA Core) 18
    19. 19. 6/20/2012 SEI 2012 19 This record in XML
    20. 20. Let’s create some VRA! Artist: Ange Francois SEI 2012 Date: Unknown but not later than 1867 6/20/2012 Description: "Good memories" by Ange Francois, Belgian painter (18001867) Don’t worry about data values for now; we’ll get to that in a bit. 20 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:MemoriesAngeFrancois.jpeg
    21. 21. SEI 2012 • Strong museum, curatorial focus • Strong on culture, physical location • Meant to describe original works, not surrogates or reproductions • Best used for unique materials owned and managed by your institution • Base metadata format for many museum collection management systems • No formally specified encoding, but recommends storing data in a relational structure • Guidelines are nearly as prescriptive as a content standard 6/20/2012 Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) 21
    22. 22. 22 SEI 2012 6/20/2012
    23. 23. And again, in CDWA… Artist: Ange Francois SEI 2012 Date: Unknown but not later than 1867 6/20/2012 Description: "Good memories" by Ange Francois, Belgian painter (18001867) Don’t worry about data values for now; we’ll get to that in a bit. 23 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:MemoriesAngeFrancois.jpeg
    24. 24. CDWA Derivatives • LIDO = Lightweight Information Describing Objects • Expansion of CDWA Lite • Combined with museumdat • Also intended for use in data harvesting, between institutions SEI 2012 • In XML • For data sharing 6/20/2012 • CDWA Lite = Simplified version of the full CDWA 24
    25. 25. • You wanted discovery through the library catalog • Your unit is an integral part of an academic library system and does not invest in an image database for teaching • You can do it, but it’s not a great fit • MARCXML sometimes used when MARC exists but an XML form is needed • I won’t suggest that we do a MARC exercise here. (Woohoo!) SEI 2012 • Used in library catalogs • Might use if 6/20/2012 MARC 25
    26. 26. SEI 2012 • “Bibliographic” in nature • No natural places for some data elements crucial for visual resources, such as cultural origin of an object • Doesn’t make work vs. image distinction • Might use if: 6/20/2012 Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) • You’re integrating your VR material material into a wider digital library context • You are describing documentary images rather than art images • You already have a system that can handle it 26
    27. 27. And again, this time in MODS… Artist: Ange Francois SEI 2012 Date: Unknown but not later than 1867 6/20/2012 Description: "Good memories" by Ange Francois, Belgian painter (18001867) Don’t worry about data values for now; we’ll get to that in a bit. 27 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:MemoriesAngeFrancois.jpeg
    28. 28. SEI 2012 • An extremely basic metadata structure standard, originally developed for documents on the web • Intended to be core across all resource domains • This is the format used for the OAI-PMH metadata sharing protocol • Rarely if ever used as a native metadata format in the cultural heritage sector 6/20/2012 Simple Dublin Core 28
    29. 29. Qualified Dublin Core • Native format in some digital library systems • DSpace • CONTENTdm SEI 2012 • Additional elements • Element qualifiers • Syntax encoding schemes 6/20/2012 • A more robust version of simple Dublin Core • Might use if: • You’re integrating your VR material material into a wider digital library context • You are describing documentary images rather than art images • You already have a system that can handle it 29
    30. 30. And now in Qualified Dublin Core… Author: Ange Francois SEI 2012 Date: Unknown but not later than 1867 6/20/2012 Description: "Good memories" by Ange Francois, Belgian painter (18001867) Don’t worry about data values for now; we’ll get to that in a bit. 30 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:MemoriesAngeFrancois.jpeg
    31. 31. Let’s think more carefully about what goes in those fields. 6/20/2012 SEI 2012 But this is only the first step. Content standards + vocabulary control 31
    32. 32. SEI 2012 • Also known as: • Controlled vocabularies • Authority control • Use it for fields where: • You want browseability • Many different resources will have the same value in a field • One thing might be known by different names and it would be useful to discover those things together 6/20/2012 Vocabulary control 32
    33. 33. 6/20/2012 SEI 2012 Which fields in VRA core would benefit from vocabulary control? 33
    34. 34. SEI 2012 Most have a mechanism for new terms to be proposed 6/20/2012 Controlled vocabularies are highly specialized – other communities may have some that are useful for you Let’s look at some controlled vocabularies useful for VR collections 34
    35. 35. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) 35
    36. 36. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Thesaurus for Geographic Names (TGN) 36
    37. 37. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Union List of Artists’ Names (ULAN) 37
    38. 38. • • • • • • Creator Creation date Measurements Materials Current location Etc. SEI 2012 • A work authority file • Forthcoming from Getty vocabularies • Will include records at several different levels: item, group, collection, etc • Accepting contributions now • Records may include: 6/20/2012 Cultural Objects Name Authority (CONA) 38
    39. 39. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM) I & II 39
    40. 40. VRA Work Title ≈ CDWA Title Text ≈ MODS <titleInfo><title> A documented crosswalk lays the groundwork for automatically transforming metadata from one structure standard into another. SEI 2012 Surprise! You’ve done some of this already today. 6/20/2012 Getting from one format to another; aka, metadata mapping 40
    41. 41. SEI 2012 6/20/2012 Much mapping work pre-exists for you How does our work matching up data between metadata 41 formats compare to this? http://www.getty.edu/research/publications/electronic_publications/intrometadata/crosswalks.html
    42. 42. SEI 2012 • Store metadata internal to an image file or externally? • Store natively in XML or in a relational database or some other way? • How widely can/will you share your metadata? • What will your workflow look like? 6/20/2012 There will be many implementation issues • Description vs. authority control • Digitize first or describe first? • Is there any pre-existing metadata you can reuse? • What can you to in today’s implementation to make migration to future systems easier? 42
    43. 43. SEI 2012 • All discovery and digital asset management systems have limitations. • Be informed so you can push where reasonable, and contribute effectively to system selection and implementation process • Be careful about hacking your data to accommodate a local system quirk 6/20/2012 Your interaction with the system 43
    44. 44. SEI 2012 • There’s an active metadata community to talk with • Increasingly catalogers are working closely with technical staff • Get some hands on practice! • I’d be happy to talk further: jennriley@unc.edu 6/20/2012 What’s next? 44 This work by Jenn Riley is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
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