METAPHORA  comparison in which the subject is compared with something else, without using the words like or as.E.g. Her ...
ASSONANCEThe  repetition of vowel sounds in nearby words.E.g. At times, when the tides are high…
IRONYAn   implied discrepancy between what is said and what is meant.E.g. Lovely day today. (It is raining!)
HYPERBOLEA figure of speech that uses exaggeration or overstatement for effect.E.g. I could eat a horse.
FORESHADOWINGHints  or clues in a literary work that indicate what may happen later.It is used to create suspense.
ELLIPSISThe  omission from a sentence words or phrases necessary for grammatical completeness.E.g. One man was dead, the...
TONEThe  attitude a writer takes towards a subject or character.E.g. Solemn, humorous, serious, formal, ironic…
SIMILEA  comparison of the subject with something else.E.g. She was as brave as a lion.
REPETITIONWords   or phrases repeated for effect.E.g. I am very, very, very angry.
PERSONIFICATIONA  type of metaphor where a non-human is given human characteristics.E.g. The chair groaned as I sat down.
PARALLEL   CONSTRUCTIONA  repeated structure to give a feeling of balance.E.g. Now you see them, now you don’t.
OXYMORONPutting two contradictory words together.E.g. Parting is such sweet sorrow.
ELLIPSISThe  omission from a sentence words or phrases necessary for grammatical completeness.E.g. One man was dead, the...
ALLITERATIONThe  repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words.E.g. A wild, wet day.
SIMPLE SENTENCEA sentence consisting of one clause.E.g. Everyone was amazed.
INCOMPLETE     SENTENCEPart of a sentence, which does not make sense.E.g. Look at the…
MINOR SENTENCEA  fragment of a sentence, which makes sense but lacks some element.E.g. Going cheap.
PERIODIC SENTENCEA complex sentence in which the main clause comes last.E.g. Before you enter, you must pay.
LOOSE SENTENCEA complex sentence in which the main clause comes first.E.g. You must pay before you enter.
COMPLEX SENTENCEA sentence with at least one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.E.g. Everyone could see tha...
COMPOUND       SENTENCEA  sentence with two or more coordinated parts, linked with a conjunction.E.g. You must pay the m...
ANTITHESISJuxtaposition  of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.E.g. “Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing.” ...
CLICHEA  well worn or stereotyped expression.E.g. My hands are as cold as ice.
COLLOQUIALISMA  word or phrase used in speech but not appropriate in formal writing or speech.E.g. Cop rather than polic...
EUPHEMISMA ‘nicer’ way of saying something which may otherwise be distasteful.E.g. The actor is resting (not unemployed)...
INVERSIONReversing   the usual word order.E.g. A hero he is not.
JARGONThe  specialised vocabulary of people in the same work or identifiable activity.E.g. Computing – driver.
JUXTAPOSITIONThe   placing of two contrasting ideas side by side, to highlight the contrast.E.g. The darkness glared bri...
MOTIFAn   element which recurs in a literary work.E.g. The mice who appear in the corner of the screen in Babe to introd...
SOLILOQUYWhen   a character speaks his or her thoughts aloud, without other characters hearing (drama texts).E.g. Hamlet...
SYMBOLAn  object or action that is used to mean something more than its literal meaning.E.g. ‘The Kiwi’ symbolises New Z...
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Language Terms

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Language Terms

  1. 1. METAPHORA comparison in which the subject is compared with something else, without using the words like or as.E.g. Her gaze was icy.
  2. 2. ASSONANCEThe repetition of vowel sounds in nearby words.E.g. At times, when the tides are high…
  3. 3. IRONYAn implied discrepancy between what is said and what is meant.E.g. Lovely day today. (It is raining!)
  4. 4. HYPERBOLEA figure of speech that uses exaggeration or overstatement for effect.E.g. I could eat a horse.
  5. 5. FORESHADOWINGHints or clues in a literary work that indicate what may happen later.It is used to create suspense.
  6. 6. ELLIPSISThe omission from a sentence words or phrases necessary for grammatical completeness.E.g. One man was dead, the other dying.
  7. 7. TONEThe attitude a writer takes towards a subject or character.E.g. Solemn, humorous, serious, formal, ironic…
  8. 8. SIMILEA comparison of the subject with something else.E.g. She was as brave as a lion.
  9. 9. REPETITIONWords or phrases repeated for effect.E.g. I am very, very, very angry.
  10. 10. PERSONIFICATIONA type of metaphor where a non-human is given human characteristics.E.g. The chair groaned as I sat down.
  11. 11. PARALLEL CONSTRUCTIONA repeated structure to give a feeling of balance.E.g. Now you see them, now you don’t.
  12. 12. OXYMORONPutting two contradictory words together.E.g. Parting is such sweet sorrow.
  13. 13. ELLIPSISThe omission from a sentence words or phrases necessary for grammatical completeness.E.g. One man was dead, the other dying.
  14. 14. ALLITERATIONThe repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words.E.g. A wild, wet day.
  15. 15. SIMPLE SENTENCEA sentence consisting of one clause.E.g. Everyone was amazed.
  16. 16. INCOMPLETE SENTENCEPart of a sentence, which does not make sense.E.g. Look at the…
  17. 17. MINOR SENTENCEA fragment of a sentence, which makes sense but lacks some element.E.g. Going cheap.
  18. 18. PERIODIC SENTENCEA complex sentence in which the main clause comes last.E.g. Before you enter, you must pay.
  19. 19. LOOSE SENTENCEA complex sentence in which the main clause comes first.E.g. You must pay before you enter.
  20. 20. COMPLEX SENTENCEA sentence with at least one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.E.g. Everyone could see that he was frightened.
  21. 21. COMPOUND SENTENCEA sentence with two or more coordinated parts, linked with a conjunction.E.g. You must pay the money or return the goods.
  22. 22. ANTITHESISJuxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.E.g. “Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing.” (Goethe)
  23. 23. CLICHEA well worn or stereotyped expression.E.g. My hands are as cold as ice.
  24. 24. COLLOQUIALISMA word or phrase used in speech but not appropriate in formal writing or speech.E.g. Cop rather than policeman.
  25. 25. EUPHEMISMA ‘nicer’ way of saying something which may otherwise be distasteful.E.g. The actor is resting (not unemployed). She passed away.
  26. 26. INVERSIONReversing the usual word order.E.g. A hero he is not.
  27. 27. JARGONThe specialised vocabulary of people in the same work or identifiable activity.E.g. Computing – driver.
  28. 28. JUXTAPOSITIONThe placing of two contrasting ideas side by side, to highlight the contrast.E.g. The darkness glared brilliantly at us.
  29. 29. MOTIFAn element which recurs in a literary work.E.g. The mice who appear in the corner of the screen in Babe to introduce each part.
  30. 30. SOLILOQUYWhen a character speaks his or her thoughts aloud, without other characters hearing (drama texts).E.g. Hamlet’s “To be or not to be” speech.
  31. 31. SYMBOLAn object or action that is used to mean something more than its literal meaning.E.g. ‘The Kiwi’ symbolises New Zealand.

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