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The Effect of Interactive and Traditional Media on Relationship Building
 

The Effect of Interactive and Traditional Media on Relationship Building

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Measuring the Influence of Yahoo Video and Broadcast Television on Organization-Public relationships ...

Measuring the Influence of Yahoo Video and Broadcast Television on Organization-Public relationships

An undergraduate honors thesis conducted by Jennifer (De Yeso) Taylor, published May 2011 by the University of Tennessee at Martin.




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  • SET UP TOPICUSAGJ CONSIDERING ADDING INTERACTIVE MEDIA CHANNELSTHIS STUDY WAS A BASELINE PILOT STUDY TO HELP USAGJ EVALUATE THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVE MEDIA ON ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PUBLICS
  • “Every complex concept starts with a simple idea…”One way = LINEAR One voice = UNIVOCALReceiver is passive
  • LEVEL PLAYING FIELD FOR SENDERS AND RECEIVERSDIALOGIC COMMUNICATION – open forum for an ongoing loop of conversation that can develop into a relationship over timeModern PR research is measuring effectiveness of PR by evaluating relationships with publicsPR practitioners can use this interactive model + dialogic communication to create relationships, but must understand that people access different media for different purposes (as shown in recent studies)
  • positive OPR is goal of PR Not just positive outputs or outcomes, as previous PR research has contended2WAY SYMMETRICAL COMM (Grunig & Grunig)SHIFT AWAY FROM MANIPULATING VIA MESSAGES TO NURTURING COMMUNICATION & RELATIONSHIPS- AUDIENCE IS ACTIVE AND OPINIONS OF EQUAL IMPORTANCE AS PR PRACTITIONERS- positive relationships are the product of interacting symbolic and behavioral relationships over time (GRUNIG)SYMBOLIC = THINKS & FEELS- BEHAVIORAL = EXPECTED BEHAVIORNOW WE KNOW HOW TO CREATE POSITIVE OPRs, NEXT = THE OUTCOMES OF MAINTAINING POSITIVE OPRs
  • HON & GRUNIG (1999) DEVELOPED A VALIDATED SCALE OF OPR MEASURESCONTROL MUTUALITY REFERS TO the degree to which parties agree on who has rightful power to influence one anotherTRUST REFERS TO HAVING FAITH THAT OTHERS WILL NOT EXPLOIT ONE’S GOODWILLSATISFACTION REFERS TO HOW POSITIVELY A PERSON FEELS THAT THEIR EXPECTATIONS ABOUT AN ORGANIZATION HAVE BEEN REINFORCEDCOMMITMENT REFERS TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PARTY BELIEVES THAT THE RELATIONSHIP IS WORTH EXPENDING ENERGY TO MAINTAIN and PROMOTE--------------- FIRST 4 WERE ORIGINALLY DEVELOPED AS A SCALE THAT ALSO DESCRIBES MARKETING RELATIONSHIPS, BUT NEXT 2 ITEMS TAKE RELATIONSHIP TO A NEW LEVEL OF INTERACTIONEXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP REFERS TO A PARTY PROVIDING BENEFITS TO THE OTHER BECAUSE THEY EXPECT THAT THEY WILL RECEIVE COMPENSATION OR EQUAL BENEFITS IN THE FUTURECOMMUNAL RELATIONSHIP REFERS TO A PARTY EXTENDING BENEFITS TO THE OTHER SOLELY OUT OF CONCERN FOR THE OTHER PARTY’S WELL-BEING; EVEN IF IT SEEMS THEY WILL RECEIVE NOTHING IN RETURNCAN BUILD AN ORGANIZATION’S REPUTATION AND TRUST WITH PUBLICS-ORGS AND PUBLICS CAN ACHIEVE BROADER GOALS IN THE COMMUNITY BY WORKING TOGETHER, FROM WHICH EVERYONE MUTUALLY BENEFITS- MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLELY USING A MARKETING STRATEGY AND EFFECTIVE PR (RELATIONSHIPS)---------- JO AND KIM NOTED TWO MORE ITEMS IN THE OPR SCALE : LOCAL/COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT REFERS TO THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AN ORGANIZATION AND THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH IT EXISTS - SEEMINGLY ALTRUISTIC - MIRRORS COMMUNAL RELATIONSHIP – PROVIDES MORE BENEFITS THAN TO MERELY ITSELF - ORGS AND PUBLICS CAN MUTUALLY BENEFIT FROM SHARING TASKS FACING THE COMMUNITYREPUTATION REFERS TO AN ORGANIZATION’S INVISIBLE ASSETS IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE IMAGESRESULTS FROM THE PUBLIC’S EXAMINATION OF THE ORGANIZATION’S EXHIBITED BEHAVIORS-SHAPES PUBLIC’S ANTICIPATION OF HOW ORG WILL BEHAVE IN FUTURENOW THAT WE HAVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DESIRED OUTCOMES OF EFFECTIVE OPRs, WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND HOW CAN YIELD THEM VIA NEW INTERACTIVE MEDIA SO WE CAN DEVELOP POSITIVE OPRs VIA THE INTERNET
  • THE INTERNET LENDS ITSELF TO DEVELOPING RELATIONSHIPS BECAUSE IT ALLOWS AN OPEN FORUM FOR DIALOGIC COMMUNICATION TO DEVELOPNOT AS A MEANS TO AN END BUT FOR THE PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATING IN AN OF ITSELFCOMMUNICATING IS PRODUCT, NOT PROCESSWHEN ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGE IN THIS TYPE OF COMMUNICATION THEY BUILD TRUST AND COOPERATION WITH PUBLICS IN THE LONG TERMTHUS, WEBSITES FEATURING FLASHY GIMMICKS IN THE HOPES OF CONNECTING WITH AUDIENCES WILL BE DISAPPOINTED- THEY WILL NOT BE ENOUGH. MEANINGFUL CONVERSATION AND EXPRESSION MUST BE PROMOTED IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIPS WITH USERS.
  • I COMPLETED MY SENIOR YEAR OF HIGH SCHOOL AT CAMP ZAMA JAPANWE WERE STATIONED THERE BECAUSE MY FATHER WAS INITIALLY THE G1 OR HUMAN RESOURSE MANAGER FOR US ARMY JAPAN, AND IS NOW THE CHIEF OF STAFF AND DEPUTY COMMANDER OF US ARMY JAPAN HQ.WHEN CONDUCTING MY LIT REVIEW AND DEVELOPING MY METHODOLOGY, I DECIDED IT WOULD CREATE AN INTERESTING STUDY TO COLLECT MY DATA FROM USARJ HEADQUARTERS AT CAMP ZAMA JAPANUSARJ IS COMPRISED OF MANY UNITS, ONE OF THEM BEING US ARMY GARRISON JAPANCHIEFLY CONCERNED WITH INSTALLATION MANAGEMENT OF CAMP ZAMA, JAPAN- things like public works, human resources, public affairs and media, and community affairsPRESENTS AN INTERESTING POPULATION FOR THIS STUDY2/3 JAPANESE, MAJORITY CIVILIANYielded a 15% completion rate… somewhat low for academic studies but high for regular surveys conducted by this organization
  • PARTICIPANTS RECEIVED A DIFFERENT INVITATION EMAIL DEPENDING ON TREATMENT GROUPPROVIDED DIFFERENT INSTRUCTIONS FOR VIEWING STIMULUS MATERIALSURVEY WAS FRAMED ON THE VALIDATED OPR MEASURES
  • MEASURES WHETHER RESPONSES WERE GENERALLY CONSISTENT OR IF PARTICIPANTS ANSWERED AT RANDOMALSO MADE SURE SCALES ACTUALLY MEASURED WHAT THEY WERE SUPPOSED TOMANOVA MEASURED WHETHER CHANNEL HAD A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON RELATIONSHIP AS A WHOLEUNIVARIATE ANALYSES MEASURED EACH DEPENDENT VARIABLE (THE POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP OUTCOMES)MANOVA SHOWED THAT CHOICE OF CHANNEL WAS SIGNIFICANTAND UNIVARIATE ANALYSES SHOWED THAT THE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF RELATIONSHIPS WERE EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIPS, REPUTATION, AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
  • THESE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION MEDIA MORE EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATE COGNITIVE MESSAGES, THUS SUPPORTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYMBOLIC RELATIONSHIPS…. RESULTING IN HEIGHTENED PERCEPTIONS OF REPUTATION IN THIS CASE RESULTS ALSO REVEALED THAT MESSAGES SENT VIA SOCIAL MEDIA YIELDED MOR EPOSITIVE PERCEPTIONS OF EXCHANGE MUTUALITYWHICH, REMEMBER, REFERS TO SIMPLE EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION BETWEEN TWO PARTIES IN AN OPRHOWEVER, THE REPORTED PERCEPTIONS OF COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT SHOWING AS SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS SUGGESTS THAT INTERACTIVE MEDIA ALLOWS ORGS AND PUBLICS TO ENGAGE BEYOND SIMPLE EXCHANGE, AND TO EXTEND ALTRUISTIC INTENTIONS TOWARD THE OTHER. PARTIES ARE INTERACTING TO BRING BENEFITS TO ALL
  • AS MY RESULTS HAVE SHOWN, TRADITIONAL MEDIA CAN BE USED TO POSITIVELY IMPACT COGNITIVE RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERACTIVE MEDIA CAN BE USED TO POSITIVELY INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPSTHUS, BOTH TRADITIONAL AND INTERACTIVE MEDIA SHOULD BE SIMULTANEOUSLY IMPLEMENTED BY AN ORGANIZATION TO DEVELOP POSITIVE OPRsBUT EACH MEDIUM SHOULD BE USED FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES (AS PEOPLE ACCESS THEM FOR DIFFERENT REASONS)THIS STUDY IS INFLUENTIAL BECAUSE IT NOT ONLY PROVIDES VALUABLE INFORMATION FOR USAGJ’S PR STRATEGY, BUT ALSO PROVIDES A BASELINE STUDY FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO FOLLOW UP IN THE FUTURE TO EVALUATE OPR DEVELOPMENT OVER TIMEADDITIONALLY, THIS STUDY PROVIDES A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING CHANNEL EFFECTIVENESS BASED ON RELATIONSHIPS OUTCOMES ---AS OPPOSED TO MERELY PR OUTPUTS OR OUTCOMES
  • Uses and gratifications theory attempts to provide a framework for understanding why individuals access different media.SOCIAL/PSYCH ORIGINS = desire to be informed, entertained EXPECTATIONS = you expect television to provide programming that may inform or entertain you, such as in-depth news features, like those shown during CBS’s Sunday Morning News programDIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS = you will choose to watch this program on Sunday morningsGRATIFICATIONS = you may result in feeling informed or entertained, as well as a wealth of other, perhaps unintended, consequences.THIS IS THE CORE OF U&G THEORYHAS ADAPTED TO MEET EVOLVING TECHNOLOGY OVER TIME
  • KENT & TAYLOR SUGGESTED 5 STEPS FOR PR PRACTITIONERS TO FOLLOW IN CREATING DIALOGIC COMMUNICATION ONLINE.DIALOGIC LOOP refers to an ongoing cycle of communicating messages and receiving feedback between a sender and a receiverAllows for feedbackWeb activity must be monitored regularly and must be updated by individuals who can compassionately meet the needs of usersUSEFULNESS OF INFORMATION refers to how effectively a website provides information of general value to viewers- example: contact information, general purpose, history, etc. - so if a user wants to create a relationship they can enter as an informed memberGENERATION OF RETURN VISITS refers to whatever features the website provides that motivates users to repeatedly visit the site in the future- examples: updated information, discussion forumsINTUITIVENESS/EASE OF INTERFACE refers to the ease with which a user may locate content on an organization’s website- users should not be confused with a site’s navigation or feel as though they should click at random to find what they are looking for- WEB designers often feature flashy/superfluous page attributes (crazy colors, in-your-face graphics) at the expense of their credibilty or content value- According to Kent & Taylor, PR practitioners should use websites to establish a lasting, genuine and valuable relationships- not merely as a propaganda or marketing tool.RULE OF CONSERVATION OF VISITORS refers to how well the features and links of a site promote continued navigation within that site. - website should list links that lead the user astray or to unknown locations- remember users did not go to their site to shop for other ones- only essential locations should be included within links- if not, users will be alienated and feel as though the site is meant solely as a marketing/propaganda tool- does the opposite of establishing/nurturing a positive OPR via internetIN SUMMATION, AN ORGANIZATION MAY FOLLOW THESE 5 STEPS TO ENGAGE IN DIALOGIC COMMUNICATION VIA THE WEB

The Effect of Interactive and Traditional Media on Relationship Building The Effect of Interactive and Traditional Media on Relationship Building Presentation Transcript

  • THE EFFECT OF INTERACTIVEAND TRADITIONAL MEDIA ONRELATIONSHIP BUILDING: Measuring the Influence of Yahoo Video and Broadcast Television on Organization-Public Relationships By Jennifer DeYeso Mentor: Dr. Tracy Rutledge University of Tennessee at Martin
  • TRADITIONAL MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Figure 1. The Traditional Communications Model introduced by Shannon and Weaver (1949). Retrieved from Launch! Advertising and Promotion in Real Time (Solomon et. al., 2009).  Linear  Univocal
  • INTERACTIVE MODEL OF COMMUNICATION Allowsdevelopment of dialogic communication Recent studies show that different media gratify different needs  people use different media for different reasons (Uses & Figure 2. An interactive, nonlinear, multivocal Gratifications Theory) communications model. Reprinted from Launch! Advertising and Promotion in Real Time (Solomon et al., 2009).
  • ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC RELATIONSHIPS Positive OPRs are the goal of effective public relations Two-way symmetrical model is the most effective type of communication in creating positive OPRs  Recognizes the audience Figure 3. Four models of public relations place as being active on two continua, by Grunig&Grunig (1992). Long-term OPRs are the result of interacting symbolic and behavioral relationships
  • RELATIONAL FACTORS OF OPRS Control mutuality Trust Satisfaction Commitment Exchange relationship Communal relationship Local or community involvement Reputation
  • RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERACTIVE MEDIA Interactive media fosters dialogic communication Dialogic communication plays a crucial role in building relationships  Allows senders and receivers to build trust and cooperation in the long term  Flashy gimmicks are not enough- conversation and expression must be promoted
  • STUDY RATIONALE Based on the uses and gratifications of traditional and interactive media and effective OPR development, the following hypothesis is proposed: Individuals that view USAGJ public affairs material via social media (Yahoo video) will report more positive perceptions of relational factors than those who viewed the stimulus material via traditional media (television)
  • METHOD: SAMPLE Population: 3,489 USAGJ employees located at Camp Zama, Japan. Includes:  669 U.S. military personnel  627 U.S. civilian employees  2,193 Japanese MLC employees Sample size:  460 individuals contacted (230 for each group)  67 participated Mainly males in their 30s/40s, holding 1+ college degrees, earning $60-100,000 annually
  • METHOD: PROCEDURE Participants were randomly selected and assigned to one of two treatment groups  Broadcast television or Yahoo Video Participants were contacted via email with a survey invitation and instructions  Directed to watch USARJ This Week  Then asked to complete an online survey Used previously validated OPR measures Data was analyzed using SPSS/PASW 18
  • RESULTS Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the internal consistency and reliability of measures  Two items were deleted from the control mutuality scale Hypotheses were tested using a one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by univariate analyses for each dependent variable  MANOVA indicated that choice of channel was significant  Univarate analyses revealed that the main effect was significant for exchange relationships, reputation, and community involvement
  • DISCUSSION Results showed that messages sent via traditional media yield more positive perceptions of reputation  Traditional media more effectively communicates cognitive messages, which helps to develop more positive symbolic relationships Results revealed that messages sent via social media yield more positive perceptions of exchange mutuality and local/community involvement  Interactive media allows organizations and publics to go beyond simple marketing exchange to develop more positive behavioral relationships
  • CONCLUSION OPRs are comprised of interacting symbolic and behavioral relationships  Traditional media and interactive media should be simultaneously implemented, but via different methods to achieve different PR goals This study provides a methodology for investigating the relationship between delivery medium choice and OPRs Also provides valuable information for USAG-J’s public affairs strategy and a baseline study for future research
  • QUESTIONS?
  • USES AND GRATIFICATIONS The social and psychological origins of Needs, which generate Expectations of the mass media or other sources, which lead to Differential patterns of media exposure, resulting in Need gratifications + other
  • CREATING DIALOGIC COMMUNICATION VIATHE INTERNET Usefulness Generation Dialogic loop of of return information visits Rule of Intuitiveness conservation of interface of visitors