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Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS
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Contrastive fonology # 1 POR JENNY DUENAS

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  • 1. ARTICULATORY DIAGRAM ORGANS OF THE SPEECH e 1. TONGUE d f A.- APICO SEGMENT b B.- FRONTO a c SEGMENT C.- DORSO SEGMENT 2. PALATAL D- ALVEOLAR SECTION E.- PALATAL SECTION F- VELAR SECTION
  • 2. CONTRASTIVE PHONOLOGY DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGAN OF SPEECH THE PAIRED VOCAL FOLDS ARE LOCATED IN THE LARYNX, COURSING FROM THE TYROID CARTILAGEANTERIORLY TO THE ARYTENOIDS CARTILAGES. THE VOCAL THE LIPS FORM THE ORAL THE ORAL THE THE FOLDS AND NASAL VIBRATE. CAVITY OF THE UVULA PALATE CAVITY MOUTH. THE UVULA IS THAT THE NASAL CAVITY IS A THE PALATE IS SMALL PIECE OF RESONANTINGTHE VOCAL FOLDS VIBRATE TO THE LIPS FORM SEGMENTED IN THREE CHAMBER LYING CREATE SOUNDS FOR SOFT TISSUE THAT SECTIONS ASWELL: THE VOWELS AND VOICED THE ORAL CAVITY CAN BE SEEN UPPER TEETH, THA HARD ABOVE THE HARD AND CONSONANTS. OF THE MOUTH DANGLING DOWN PALATE FORMS THE SOFT PALATE. THE THE TONGUE IS SEGMENTED HOUSE OF THE MOUTH ORAL CAVITY IS A IN THREE SECTIONS: THE AND ARE FROM THE SOFT ALONG WITH THE SOFT RESONANTING TONGUE TIP, ALSO PALATE OVER THE KNOW AS APEX, IS THAT COMPRISED OF BACK OF THE STRUCTURE EZTENDS CHAMBER WHOSE POETEROIRLY FROM THE SHAPE IS MODIFIED BY PART LYING JUST BELOW MUSCLES FIBERS TONGUE. THE UVULA HARD PALATE AND ACTS THE ARTICULATORS TO THE UPPER ALVEOLAR TO MODIFY THE RIDGE, THE TONGUE FROM A NUMBER IS DESCRIBED COMMUNICATION PRODUCE THE NASAL BACK IS THAT PART OF DIFFERENT VARIOUSLY SHAPED BETWEEN THE ORAL AND AND ORAL SPEECH LIKE A U, A TEAR OR NASAL CAVITY. SOUNDS. FACIAL MUSCLES. A GRAPE.
  • 3. THE VOWEL INVENTORY. THE PICTURE BELOW SHOWS THE MOUTH CAVITY AND ITS EQUIVALENT GRID IN WHICH THE TONGUE IS MOVED UP-DOWN OR BACK TO UTTER THE VOWEL SOUNDS. VOWELS. DIPHTHONGS VOWEL PRODUCTION A VOWEL IS A SPEECH SOUND THE ASPECTS BCONSIDERED TO WHEN VOWELS OCCUR COMBINATIONS, PRODUCED BY HUMAN BEINGS DETERMINE THE VOWEL FEATURES THEY ARE CALLED DIPHTHONGS. A WHEN THE BREATH FLOWS OUT ARE AS FOLLOWS: VOICING: EVERY DIPHTHONG STARTS IN ONETHROUGH MOUTH WITHOUT BEING VOWEL IS VOICED IN BOTH POSITION (NUCLEUS) AND MOVES BLOCKED BY TEETH, TONGUE OR LANGUAGES; VOWEL QUALITY: TO ANOTHER POSITION (THE GLIDE)LIPS. VOWELS ARE NOT FORMED BY VOWELS ARE CLASSIFIED AS SIMPLE OR VICEVERSA. A DIPHTHONG IS A BLOCKING AIRFLOW; INSTEAD BY AND COMPLEX. THIS SPEECH SOUND WHICH IS USUALLY PASSING AIR THROUGH DIFFERENT CLASSIFICATION DIFFERS FROM CONSIDERED AS ONE DISTINCTIVE SHAPES OF THE MOUTH AND ENGLISH AND SPANISH. SIMPLE VOWEL SOUND OF A PARTICULAR DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF THE VOWELS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS PURE LANGUAGE. TONGUE AND LIPS. VOWELS. THEY ARE FOR ENGLISH:/a/, /æ/, /Ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɔ/, /ʊ/, /ǝ/; FOR SPANISH: /a/,/e/,/i/,/o/,/u/.
  • 4. THE VOWEL INVENTORYFRONT CENTRAL BACK HIGH MID LOW THE PICTURE BELOW SHOW THE MOUTH CAVITY AND IT ISSPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED EQUIVALENT GRID IN WHICH THE TONGE IS MOVED UP-DOWN OR BACK TO UTTER THE VOWEL SOUND
  • 5. VOWEL PRODUCTION. ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT. QUADRANT.THE POSITION OF THE ARTUCULATORY WITH VERY FEW EXCEPTIONS, NO MORE ORGANS IN THE PRODUCTION OF THAN TWO VOWELS CAN OCCUR VOWELS IS NOT AS AESILY SPECIFIED TOGETHER IN SPANISH. VOWEL AS THAT OF CONSONANTS. THIS IS PAIRS ARE PRONUNCED ACCORDING MAINLY DUE TO THE LINGUISTIC TO A FEW SIMPLE RULES. FIRSTLY POINTS OF VIEW, RESEARCHES, THE VOWELS ARE GROUPED INTO SOME BACKGROUNDS AND STRONG OR OPEN SOUNDS /a/, /e/ DIALECTS WHICH MAY CHANGE AND /o/ AND WEAK OR CLOSED CERTAIN DETAILS ON THE VOWEL SOUNDS /i/ AND /u/. INVENTORY. NOT ALL DIALECTS OF ENGLISH MAINTAIN A DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE LAX MID-BACK VOWEL[ɔ] AND THE LOW VOWEL [a].
  • 6. ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT AREA FRONT CENTRAL BACK /iy/ /uw/ TENSE HIGHT MO UN SG /I/ /ʊ/ CE L MID /ey/ EP /ə/ /ow/O /ɛ/ TSI E LOWTI NO /æ/ /ɔ/ TI LAXN O /a/ N SPREAD NEUTRAL ROUNDED LIP SHAPE
  • 7. SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT AREAT FRONT CENTRAL BACK MO U /i/ /u/ S HIGHNG C T LE E E N MIDP /e/ /o/ SO T E ESI N LOWT TI /a/ IO O NEUTRA ROUNDEN SPREAD N L D LIP SHAPE
  • 8. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC VOWEL CONTRAST. CONTRASTIS THE DIFFERENCE IN PRONUNCIATION WHICH IS USED BY THE SPEAKER TO DISTINGUISH DIFFERENT UTTERANCES IN A LANGUAGE. MONOPHTHONGS. VOWEL SOUNDS ARE SORTED AS MONOPHTHONGS AND DIPHTHONGS. A MONOPHTHONGS IS A SINGLE VOWEL ARTICULATED WITHOUT CHANGE IN QUALITY THROUGHOUT THE COURSE OF A SYLLABLE, AS THE VOWEL OF ENGLISH <pet> /pƐt/ AND SPANISH <toro> /‘toɾo/, AS WELL AS TWO WRITTEN VOWELS REPRESENTING A SINGLE SOUND, AS <ea> IN <team> /tɪym/. MONOPHTHONGS ARE JUST ONE VOWEL SOUND. THEY ARE CLASSIFIED AS FRONT, CENTRAL AND BACK SOUNDS. A FRONT VOWEL IS PRONUNCED WITH THE HIGHEST PART OF THE TONGUE PUSHED FORWARD IN THE MOUTH AND SOMEWHAT ARCHEDWITH A FORWARD SHIFT OF THE TONGUE FROM ITS NEUTRAL POSITION. SPANISH /i/ WITH ENGLISH /ɪy/ AND /ɪ/SPANISH /i/. ENGLISH /ɪy/. ENGLISH /I/
  • 9. SPANISH /i/ WITH ENGLISH /ɪy/ AND /ɪ/. SPANISH /i/ ENGLISH /Iy/ ENGLISH /I/THE FRONTO SECTION OF THE TONGUE IS THE TONGUE IS THE TONGUE RISES TO POSITIONED FORWARD POSITIONED FORWARD AND SLIGHTLY LOWER MAKE CONTACT BOTH AND HIGH IN THE ORAL THAN IN THE ORAL SIDES OF THE UPPER LATERAL TEETH. A CAVITY WITH THE SIDES CAVITY FOR /i/, WITH GROOVE IS FORMED IN IN CONTACT WITH THE THE SIDES IN CONTACT THE MIDDLE OF IT AND TEETH LATERALLY AND WITH THE TEETH THE AIRSTREAM THE TIP POSITIONED LATERALLY AND THE BEHIND THE LOWER TIP POSITIONEED FLOWS THROUGHOUT BEHIND THE LOWER FREELY. THE TIP OF TEETH. THE LIPS ARE TEETH. THE JAW THR TONGUE TOUCHES SPREAD AND MOVES UP SLIGHTLY THE LOWER INCISIVE RETRACTED. THE JAW LOWER THAN FOR /i/. TEETH. MOVES UP. LIPS ARE SPREAD AND EXEMPLE: RETRACTED. EXEMPLE: <i> <ira> /‘iɾa / EXEMPLE: <ee> <week> /‘wɪyk / <o> <women> /‘wɪmɪn/
  • 10. SPANISH /e/ WITH ENGLISH /ey/ AND /Ɛ/. SPANISH /e/ ENGLISH /ey/ ENGLISH /Ɛ /THE DORSO SECTION OF THE THE TONGUE IS THE TONGUE IS POSITIONED FORWARD TONGUE REACHES THE POSITIONED FORWARD AND HIGH IN THE ORAL BORDERS OF THE HARD PALATE MAKING A AND HIGH IN THE ORAL CAVITY WITH THE SIDES GROOVE BETWEEN THE CAVITY WITH ITS SIDES IN CONTACT WITH THE TONGUE AND THE IN CONTACT WITH THE LATERAL TEETH AND PALATE. THE JAW THE TIP PLACED LATERAL TEETH. THE BEHIND THE LOWER MOVES DOWN MORE JAW MOVES UP. THE THAN IN /i/ TEETH. LIPS ARE LIPS ARE SPREAD AND SPREAD AND PRODUCTION. THE TIP OF THE TONGUE MOVES RETRACTED. RETRACTED. FORWARD THE LOWER EXEMPLE: EXEMPLE: FRONT TEETH. <ay> <say> /‘sey/ <ea> <head> /‘hƐd/ EXEMPLE: <e> <tren> /‘tɾen/
  • 11. SPANISH /a/ WITH ENGLISH /a/ AND / æ /.SPANISH /a/ ENGLISH /æ/ ENGLISH /a/ ENGLISH / ǝ / THE TONGUE IS POSITIONED THE TONGUE IS THE TONGUE ISTHE DORSO SECTION OF SLIGHTLY BACK AND THE TONGUE MOVES SLIGHTLY AND LOW IN THE SLIGHTLY BACK AND ORAL CAVITY WITH THE APEX LOW IN THE ORAL LOW IN THE ORAL UPWARDS GENTLY TO CAVITY WITH THE THE CENTRAL AREA OF POSITIONED BEHIND THE CAVITY WITH THE LOWER TEETH. THE JAW IS TIP OF THE TONGUE TIP OF THE TONGUE THE ORAL CAVITY. THE PLACING BEHIND TONGUE REMAINS LOWERED MORE THAN ANY PLACING BEHIND OTHER FRONT VOWEL THE LOWER FRONT THE LOWER FRONT MOVELESS. THE TIP OF TEETH. THE JAW IS THE TONGUE TOUCHES SOUND. LIPS ARE SPREAD TEETH. THE JAW IS AND RETRACTED. SLIGHTLY LOWERED SLIGHTLY LOWERED LIGHTLY THE LOWER AND MAY CHANGE INCISIVE TEETH. THE A CENTRAL VOWEL SOUND IS AND MAY CHANGE PRODUCED WITH THE DEPENDING ON THE DEPENDING ON THE JAW MOVES DOWN PHONETIC MUCH GREATLY THAN TONGUE IN ITS CENTRAL PHONETIC POSITION ANDNEAR THE ENVIRONMENT. LIPS ENVIRONMENT. LIPS THE OTHER SOUNDS. ARE SPREAD. EXEMPLE: CENTER OF THE VOCAL ARE SPREAD. CAVITY. EXEMPLE: EXEMPLE: <a> <cársel> /‘kaɾsel/ <u> <hut> EXEMPLE: <o> <not> <a> <hat> /‘hæt/ /‘nat/ /‘hǝt/
  • 12. SPANISH /o/ WITH ENGLISH / ɔ/ AND /ow /. SPANISH /o/ ENGLISH /ɔ/ ENGLISH / ow/THE TONGUE IS RETRACTED THE TONGUE IS POSITIONED THE DORSO SECTION OF THE BACKWARDS THE ORAL BACK IN A LOW-MIED TONGUE IS MOVED CAVITY. THE POSITION WITH RESPECT TO BACKWARDS BUT LOWER POSTDORSO SECTION THE HEIGHT. THE JAW IS THAN / ʊ /. THE JAW IS OF THE TONGUE MOVES SLIGHTLY LOWERED. THE LIPS SLIGHTLY LOWERED. THE UP TOWARD THE SOFT ARE ROUNDED BUT BIGGER LIPS ARE ROUNDED AND PALATE. THE TIP OF THE THAN FOR /u/ AND/ow/. PROTRUDED. TONGUE REACHES THE EXEMPLE: EXEMPLE: LOWER TOOTH RIDGE. <a> <war> /‘wɔɹ/ <ew> <sew> LIPS ARE ROUNDED. /‘sow/ EXEMPLE: <o> <amor> /a‘moɾ/
  • 13. A DIPHTHONG IS A PHONOLOGICAL DIPHTHONGS GROUP CONSISTING OF A VOWEL SOUND FOLLOWED BY A NON- ADJACENT GLIDE WITHIN THE SAME SYLLABLE. ENGLISH SPANISH DIPHTHONGS DIPHTHONGSA DIPHTHONG IS A COMPLEX VOWEL, MADE OF THE VOWELS IN SPANISH CAN BE CLASSIFIED ASTWO COMPONENTS; A DIPHTHONG BEGINS AS EITHER WEAK, <i,u> OR STRONG, <o,e,a> AND THEONE VOWEL AND FINISHES AS ANOTHER. CLASSIFICATION CAN DETERMINE WHENUSUALLY, THE TWO COMPONENTS CAN BE COMBINATIONS OF TWO OR MORE VOWELS AREREFERRED TO AS A NUCLEUS AND AN OFF- CONSIDERED TO FORM A SEPARATE SYLLABLE.GLIDE. FOR EXEMPLE, THE DIPHTHOND THE BASIC RULE OF VOWEL COMBINATIONS ANDTRANSCRIBED PHONETICALLY [aɪ], FOUND IN SYLLABLES IS THAT TWO STRONG VOWELS CANNOTWORDS LIKE <ride>, IS COMPOSED OF /a/ (THE BE IN THE SAME SYLLABLE, SO THAT WHEN TWONUCLEUS) AND /y/ (THE OFF-GLIDE). STANDARD STRONG VOWELS ARE NEXT TO EACH OTHER, THEYENGLISH HAS THREE “PHONEMIC” ARE CONSIDERED TO BELONG TO SEPARATEDIPHTHONGS: /ay/, AS IN <ride> AND <why>, SYLLABLES, <ma.re.o> /ma.‘ɾe.o/. BUT OTHER/aw/, AS IN <loud> AND <how>, AND /ɔy/, IN COMBINATIONS -SUCH AS A STRONG AND A WEAK<boy> AND <moist>. VOWEL OR TWO WEAK VOWELS- ARE CONSIDEREDIT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW THAT THERE ARE TO FORM A SINGLE SYLLABLE, <frio.len.to>SEVERAL ARBITRARY WAYS OF TRANSCRIBING /fɾio.’len.to/, <bai.la.ble> /bay.’la.ble/.DIPHTHONGS WHICH DO NOT DEAL WITH IPA.
  • 14. OTHER GLIDED SOUNDS.(SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS). SPANISH SPANISH SPANISH SPANISH DIPHTHONG /ya/ DIPHTHONG /ye/ DIPHTHONG /yo/ DIPHTHONG /yw/ THE DORSO SECTION OF THE DORSO SECTION OF THE DORSO SECTION OF THE TONGUE MOVES THE TONGUE MOVES THE TONGUE MOVES THE DORSO SECTION OF DOWNWARDS FROM THE DOWNWARDS FROM THE DOWNWARDS AND THE TONGUE MOVES HIGH FRONT POSITION TO HIGH FRONT POSITION BACKWARDS FROM THE BACKWARDS FROM THE THE LOW CENTRAL TO THE MID FRONT HIGH FRONT POSITION HIGH FRONT POSITION TO POSITION. LIP SHAPE POSITION. LIP SHAPE TO THE MID BACK THE HIGH BACK POSITION.CHANGES FROM SPREAD TO KEEP SPREAD. JAW POSITION. LIPS SHAPE LIPS SHAPE CHANGE CHANGE FROM SPREAD FROM SPREAD TONEUTRAL. THE JAW MOVES MOVES DOWN SLIGHTLY. TO ROUNDED. JAW ROUNDED. THEREFORE,DOWNWARDS. THEREFORE, AS A RESULT, /ye/~ [je] IS MOVES DOWN SLIGHTLY. /yw/~ [ju] IS FEATURED AS /ya/~ [ja] IS VOICED, VOICED, COMPLEX- CONSEQUENTLY, /yo/~ VOICED, COMPLEX-NON COMPLEX-NON ADJACENT ADJACENT GLIDE, HIGH [jo] IS FEATURED AS ADJACENT GLIDE, HIGH GLIDE, HIGH FRONT FRONT BECOMING LOW VOICED, COMPLEX-NON FRONT BECOMING MID BECOMING LOW CENTRAL, FRONT, TENSE, SPREAD. ADJACENT GLIDE, HIGH BACK, TENSE, SPREADTENSE, SPREAD BECOMING FRONT BECOMING MID BACK, TENSE, SPREAD BECOMING ROUNDED. NEUTRAL. EXEMPLE: EXEMPLE: BECOMING ROUNDED. EXEMPLE: SPANISH: EXEMPLE: <ye> [je] [ tjene] SPANISH:SPANISH: SPANISH: <yu> [ju] [‟sju’đaɵ] <yo> [jo] [„laBjo ]<ya> [ja] [‟asja]
  • 15. OTHER GLIDED SOUNDS.(SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS). SPANISH SPANISH SPANISH SPANISH DIPHTHONG /wa/ DIPHTHONG /we/ DIPHTHONG /wy/ DIPHTHONG /wo/ THE DORSO SECTION THE DORSO SECTION OF THE DORSO SECTION OF OF THE TONGUE THE DORSO SECTION OF THE TONGUE MOVES THE TONGUE MOVES MOVES FORWARDS THE TONGUE MOVES DOWNWARDS AND DOWNWARDS FROM THE CONTINUALLY FROM DOWNWARDSFORWARDS FROM THE HIGH HIGH BACK POSITION TO THE HIGH BACK CONTINUALLY FROM THEBACK POSITION TO THE LOW THE MID FRONT POSITION TO THE HIGH HIGH BACK POSITION TO CENTRAL POSITION. LIP POSITION. LIP SHAPE FRONT POSITION. LIP THE MID BACK POSITION. SHAPE CHANGE FROM SHAPE CHANGE FROM LIP SHAPE KEEP CHANGE FROM ROUNDED TO SPREAD. ROUNDED. THUS, /wo/~ ROUNDED TO NEUTRAL. ROUNDED TO SPREAD. FOR THAT REASON, [wo] IS FEATURED AS THEREFORE, /wa/~ [wa] IS THEREFORE, /we/~ [we] /wy/~ [wi] IS FEATURED VOICED, COMPLEX - FEATURED AS VOICED, IS FEATURED AS VOICED, AS VOICED, COMPLEX- ADJACENT GLIDE, HIGH COMPLEX-NON ADJACENT COMPLEX- NON NON ADJACENT GLIDE, BACK BECOMING MID GLIDE, HIGH BACK ADJACENT GLIDE, HIGH HIGH BACK BECOMING BECOMING LOW CENTRAL, BACK BECOMING MID HIGH FRONT, TENSE, BACK, TENSE, ROUNDED . TENSE, ROUNDED FRONT, TENSE, ROUNDED SPREAD BECOMING NEUTRAL. EXEMPLE: ROUNDED BECOMING BECOMING ROUNDED . SPREAD. EXEMPLE: EXEMPLE: SPANISH: EXEMPLE:SPANISH: <wo> [wo] SPANISH:<wa> [wa] [‟aɤwa] SPANISH: <yo> [jo] [‟laBjo ] [‘aɾđwo] <we> [we] [„swelo]
  • 16. SPANISH FALLING DIPHTHONGS. SPANISH SPANISH SPANISH DIPHTHONG /ay/ DIPHTHONG /ey/ DIPHTHONG /ew/ THE DORSO SECTION OF THE THE FRONTO SECTION OF TONGUE MOVES UPWARDS THE FRONTO SECTION OF THE TONGUE MOVES AND FORWARDS THE TONGUE MOVES UPWARDS AND BACKWARDSRECURRENTLY FROM THE LOW UPWARDS GENTLY FROM THE SMOOTHLY FROM THE MID CENTRAL POSITION MAKING MID FRONT SECTION TO THE FRONTPOSITION TO THETHE FRONTO SECTION OF THE HIGH FRONT AREA IN THE HIGH BACK AREA IN THE TONGUE REACH THE HIGH ORAL CAVITY. LIP SHAPE IS ORAL CAVITY. LIP SHAPE FRONT AREA IN THE ORAL KEPTAS SPREAD. CHANGES FROM SPREAD TOCAVITY. LIP SHAPE IS MODIFIED THEREFORE, /ey/~ [Ɛi] IS ROUNDED. CONSEQUENTLY, FROM NEUTRAL TO SPREAD. /ew/~ [Ɛu] IS VOICED, FEATURED AS VOICED, HENCE, /ay/~ [ai] IS FEATURED COMPLEX-NON ADJACENT COMPLEX-ADJACENT GLIDE, AS VOICED, COMPLEX-NON GLIDE, MID FRONT ADJACENT GLIDE, LOW MID FRONT BECOMING HIGH BECOMING HIGH BACK, CENTRAL, BECOMING HIGH FRONT, TENSE, SPREAD. THE TENSE, SPREAD BECOMING FRONT, TENSE, NEUTRAL /e/ SOUND AS PART OF A ROUNDED. THE /e/ SOUND AS BECOMING SPREAD. FALLING DIPHTHONG PART OF A FALLING BECOMES OPEN [Ɛ]. DIPHTHONG BECOMES OPEN EXEMPLE: [Ɛ]. EXEMPLE:SPANISH: EXEMPLE:<ay> [ai] [‟aire] SPANISH: SPANISH: < Ɛi> [Ɛi] [„pƐine ] < eu> [Ɛu] [‟fƐuđo ]
  • 17. THE CONSONANT INVENTORY USED PRIMARILY FOR BREATHING AND EATING SECONDARILY FOR SPEAKING CONSTRCTING AIRFLOW IN THE MOUTH AT VARIOUS POINTS, WE MAKE THE DISTINCTIVE SOUNDS FORHUMAN SPEECH. THE VOCAL TRACT HAS ACTIVE AND PASSIVEARTICULATORS. THEY ARE ALSO KNOW AS ARTICULATORS AND POINTS ARTICULATION. ARTICULATORY BASIS FOUR PRINCIPAL DIMIENSIONS ARE CONSIDERED WHEN REGARDING “CONSONANT ARTICULATION” VOICING ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF THE ARTICULATION CAVITY AND MANNER.
  • 18. IT DIRECTLY DEALS WITH THE VOICINGSOUND QUALITY PRODUCED BY THE VOCAL CORDS. WHEN VOCAL CORDS VIBRATED, IT IS SAID TO BE VOICED; OTHERWISE, IT IS SIAD TO BE VOICELESS VOICED CONSONANTS. VOICELESSA SIMPLE EXPLANATION OF VOICED CONSONANTS IS THAT THEY USED VOICELESS CONSONANTS DO NOTTHE VOICE. THIS IS EASY TO TEST BY USED THE VOICE. THEY ARE PUTTING YOUR FINGER ON YOUR PERCUSSIVE AND HARD SOUNDS. THROAT. YOU CAN TEST IF A CONSONANT IS VOICELESS BY PUTTING YOUR FINGER ON YOUR THROAT
  • 19. ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION POINT THE MANNER OFTHE ARTICULATOR CAVITY ARTICULATION ARTICULATION IT REFERS TO THE WAY IS THE DOER OF IS ANY PART OF IT CONCERNS HOW AIR FLOWS OUT THE THE MOUTH THE PLACE DURING THE PRODUCTION ARTICULATION THAT CAN BE WHERE AIR GOES OF A SOUND. THE SOUND AND MOVES REACHED BY THE THROUGH. IT MIGHT BE STOP FRICATIVEFREELY ENOUGH CAN BE THE NASAL LATERAL VIBRANT ARTICULATOR. IT AFFRICATEOR A TO BE ACTIVE IN IS ALSO KNOWN MOUTH OR CONTINUANT. THETHE APEECH. IT IS AS MAJOR NASAL CAVITY. MANNER OF CONSONANTSALSO KNOWN AS PASSIVE DESCRIBES THE MANNER IN MAJOR ACTIVE ARTICULATOR WHICH AIRFLOW IS ARTICULATOR RESTRICTED.
  • 20. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS STOP OR HOMORGANIC PLOSIVE. SOUNDS THE ACTIVE ARTICULATOR TOUCHES THE PASSIVE ARTICULATOR AND COMPLETELY IN PHONETICS, THIS REFERS TO CUTS OFF THE AIRFLOW THROUGH THE SOUNDS MADE AT THE SAME PLACE MOUTH. ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS OF ARTICULATION. LITERALLY, WITH INCLUDE: /p/, /b, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/. IF /P/, THE SAME ORGAN, BUT WITH MOST /t/ OR /k/ ARE PRONUNCED BEGINNING SOUNDS THE ORGAN IS THE OF AN ENGLISH WORDS, A STRONG PUFF TONGUE, SO IN THESE CASES IT OF BREATH WILL BE FELT. IT IS CALLED REFERS TO WHICH POINT IN THE ASPIRATION. ORAL CAVITY THE TONGUE ISMEANWHILE, THIS ASPIRATION MAY NOT BE FELT IN SPANISH OCCLUSIVE TOUCHING, EVENTHOUGH THE SOUNDS..BESIDES, ALL THE PLOSIVE LOWER LIP ALSO PRODUCES EXCEPT /d/ DO NOT OCCUR IN FINAL HOMORGANIC SOUNDS. STOP POSITION. THEREFORE, A MAJOR SOUNDS, BOTH IN ENGLISH AND CONCENTRATION ON THEIR PROCUCTION SPANISH, MAY BE CONSIDERED AS MUST BE PLACED WHEN UTTERING THE HOMORGANIC. FINAL PLOSIVE ENGLISH SOUNDS.
  • 21. HOMORGANIC SOUNDS IN PHONETICS THIS LITERALLY, WITH REFERS TO SOUNDS THE SAME ORGAN, MADE AT THE SAME BUT WITH MOST PLACE OF SOUND THE ORGAN ARTICULATION. /p-b/ PRODUCTION IS THE TONGUE PICTURE BILABIAL ORAL STOP/b/ VOICED VOICELESS /p/
  • 22. /p/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. /p/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER FEATURES. ANALYSIS. SPANISH AND ENGLISH /p/ IS VOICELESS, BILABIAL, ORAL, STOP. HOWEVER, SPANISH HAS JUST ONE IN LIGHT OF THE FACT THAT L2 ALLOPHONE: [p] VOICELESS, BILABIAL, ORAL, PRONUNCIATION ERRORS ARE OFTEN STOP, UNASPIRATED. CAUSED BY THE TRANSFER OF WELL- OPPOSEDLY, ENGLISH HAS FOUR ALLOPHONES: [Pʰ-] ESTABLISHED L1 SOUND SYSTEMS, IT IS VOICELESS, BILABIAL, ORAL, STOP, STRONGLY IMPORTANT TO EXAMINE SOME OF THE ASPIRATED, [-p-] VOICELESS, BILABIAL, ORAL, CHARACTERISTIC PHONOLOGICAL STOP, UNASPIRATED, [-p ] VOICELESS, BILABIAL, DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPANISH AND ORAL, STOP, UNRELEASED, [-p-] VOICELESS, ENGLISH. TO DISCUSS SEVERAL BILABIAL, ORAL, STOP, RELEASED. PROBLEMATIC AREAS OFEXEMPLES: PRONUNCIATION FOR SPANISH LEARNERS OF ENGLISH BY COMPARINGENGLISH: <p> pick /pɪk / SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTALSPANISH: <p> patrón /patɾon/, capa ASPECTS OF BOTH LANGUAGES IS QUITE /kapa/ REMARKABLE IN A CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS COURSE.
  • 23. CONTEXTUALIZED PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION CONTEXTUALIZED STRONG AND WEAK PHONETIC FORMS TRANSCRIPTION IN CONNECTED SPEECH, MANY OF THE SMALL WORDS WE USE VERYFOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE MASTERED FREQUENTLY TEND TO TAKE ON A THE IPA (INTEERNATIONAL PHONETIC DIFFERENT SHAPE FROM THE ONE ALPHABET) PHONETIC LISTED IN THE DICTIONARY. ALL OF TRANSCRIPTIONS CAN HELP IMPROVE THESE WORDS BELONG TO THE THEIR UNDERSTANDING OF THE CATEGORY OF FUNCTION WORDS. THESE IMPORTANCE OF CONNECTED SPEECH ARE WORDS THAT HAVE LITTLE WHEN SPEAKING ENGLISH. SEMANTIC CONTENT OF THEIR OWN, DICTIONARIES GIVE SINGLE WORD BUT TEND TO HAVE MORE PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS WHICH GRAMMATICAL OR REFERENTIAL CAN GREATLY IMPROVE STUDENTS FUNCTION IN RELATING CONTENT PRONUNCIATION SKILLS. THIS IS IN WORDS OR HIGHER SYNTACTIC UNITS TO GREAT PART DUE TO THE FACT THAT ONE ANOTHER. ENGLISH IS A TIME STRESSED LANGUAGE. EXEMPLES: <he> /hɪm/ /ɪm/ <can> /kæn/ /kən/
  • 24. /b/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. /b/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES.THE ENGLISH /-b/ IS MISPRONOUNCED AND THE VOICELESS LABIO-DENTAL FRIVATIVE /-f/ IS WRONGLY USED.BOTH SPANISH AND ENGLISH /b/ SOUND IS VOICED, BILABIAL, ORAL, STOP. SPANISH HAS TWO ALLOPHONES: [b] VOICED, BILABIAL, ORAL, STOP, AND[-ß-] VOICED, BILABIAL, ORAL, FRICATIVE, WHICH OCCURS AFTER /l/ /ɾ/, BETWEEN VOWELS AS WELL ASA BETWEEN A VOWEL AND A VOICED CONSONANT SOUND. [-ƀ-] IS ARBITRARY SYMBOL THAT CAN BE FOUND IN NON-OFFICIAL IPA NOTATION.EXEMPLES:ENGLISH: <b> crab /‘kɹæb/SPANISH: <b> baraja /baɾaxa/, <v> vaca /‘baka/
  • 25. /t-d/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. /t/ PHONEMIC AND /d/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. PHONETIC FEATURES. BOTH SPANISH AND ENGLISH USE THE SAME /t/, THE CONSONANT QUALITY DIFFERS DUE TO THE POINT OF ARTICULATION. THUS, SPANISH /t/ IS VOICELESS, APICO- PHONOLOGICAL SYMBOL /d/. IT IS, IN SPANISH, DENTAL, ORAL, STOP. THIS PHONEME PRESENTS JUST ONE VOICED, APICO-DENTAL, ORAL, STOP AND HAS FOURALLOPHONE: [t] IS VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP ALLOPHONES: [d] VOICED, APICO-DENTAL, ORAL, AND HAS SEVEN VARIANTS: [tʰ-] VOICELESS, APICO- STOP; [-δ-] VOICED, APICO-INTERDENTAL, ORAL, ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, STRONGLY ASPIRATED, [-t-] FRICATIVE (OTHER SYMBOL IS [đ] WHICH IS UTTERED VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, UNASPIRATED, [- WHEN FOUND BETWEEN VOWELS, AFTER THE FLAPɾ-] VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, FLAP. /t/ IS BETWEEN SOUND /ɾ/ AND A VOICED CONSONANT SOUND; [-θ] VOWELS AND THE STRESS ISPLACED ON A PREVIOUS VOICELESS, APICO-INTERDENTAL, ORAL, FRICATIVE.. SYLLABLE, [- ʔ-] VOICELESS, GLOTTAL, STOP, NASAL, IN ENGLISH, THE /d/ SOUND IS VOICED, APICO- RELEASED WHICH OCCURS IN FINAL-WORD POSITION ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP AND THREE ALLOPHONES BETWEEN A VOWEL AND AN <-n>, v [-t] VOICELESS, APICO- MIGHT BE FOUND: [d] VOICED, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ALVEOLAR, NASALIZED, STOP, [-t] VOICELESS, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, UNRELEASED, AND [-t -̍] VOICELESS, ORAL, STOP; [-ɾ-] VOICED, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, APICO-ALVEOLAR, ORAL, STOP, RELEASED. FLAP , (OTHER SOUND OCCURS JUST IN INTERVOCALIC POSITIONBEFORE UN UNSTRESSEDEXEMPLES: SYLLABLE; r [-ʔ-] v VOICELESS, GLOTTAL, STOP, NASAL, RELEASED).SPANISH: <resta> [resta] EXEMPLE:ENGLISH: <hoped> [‘howpt] SPANISH: <d> andar /andaɾ/ ENGLISH: <d> date /‘deyt/
  • 26. /k-g/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES. /k/ PHONEMIC AND /g/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC PHONETIC FEATURES. FEATURES. THE /k/ SOUND KEEPS THE SAME FEATURES IN BOTH LANGUAGES: VOICELESS, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, SAPNISH SPEAKERS MAY STOP. HOWEVER, THEY DIFFER IN PRONOUNCE THE ENGLISH [-g-] THEIR PHONETIC ANALYSIS. THE SOUND AS [- γ -] AND THE ENGLISHSPANISH /k/ HAS ONE ALLOPHONE: [k] [-g] SOUND AS [x]. BOTH LANGUAGES HAVE VOICELESS,N DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, PHONETICALLY THE SAME /g/ SOUND:STOP, UNASPIRATED. THE ENGLISH /k/ VOICED, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, STOP. HAS FOUR ALLOPHONES: [kʰ-] SPANISH HAS THREE VARIATIONS: [g] VOICELEES, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, VOICED, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, STOP, STOP, STRONGLY ASPIRATED; [-k-] [- γ -] VOICED, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, FRICATIVE WHICH OCCURS BETWEEN VOICELESS, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, VOWEL SOUNDS, AFTER / ɾ/ AND /l/.STOP, UNASPIRATED; [-kˉ] VOICELESS, ENGLISH HAS ONE ALLOPHONE: [g]DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, STOP, RELEASED; VOICED, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, STOP.[-k] VOICELESS, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, STOP, UNRELEASED. EXEMPLE: SPANISH: <g> gato /gato/EXEMPLE: ENGLISH: <g> great /‘gɹəyt/SPANISH: <c> acosar /akosaɾ/ENGLISH: <c> clear / ‘kliyəɹ /
  • 27. CONTRATS OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH FRICATIVE FRICATIVE SOUNDS ARE PRODUCED THE ARTICULATOR PARTIALLY TOUCHES THE POINT OF ARTICULATIONAND GETS CLOSE ENOUGH THAT AIRFLOW THROUNGH THE OPENING BECOMES TURBULENT. ENGLISH SPANISH has a wide /f/ /v/ labio dental dialectal variation, /s/ /z/ apico alveolar consequently /θ/ /ð/ apico speakers of different interdental dialects our /ʃ/ /Ʒ/ fronto palatal pronounciation /h/ glottal problem. TIPSThe letter <v> is a part of the Spanish Alphabet it is pronunced [b] or fricative [β]. The /ʃ/ sound is not problem for Ecuadorian Andean speakers due to the kychwa /ʃ/.
  • 28. /f-v/ PRODUCTION /f/voiceless, labio-dental,oral, fricative. /v/ voiced, labio-dental,oral, fricative /f/ PHONEMIC AND /v/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC PHONETIC FEATURES FEATURESBoth languages havethe /f/ sound which is The /v/ sound does voiceless, labio- not exist in Spanish. dental,oral, fricative. In English /v/ is Spanish has two voiced, labio- allophones: dental,oral, fricative. [f] [ɸ] It has one allophone: [v]
  • 29. /s-z/ PRODUCTION / /s/ voiceless, apico-alveolar, oral, fricative. /z/ voiced, apico-alveolar, oral, fricative. /s/ PHONEMIC AND /z/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC PHONETIC FEATURES FEATURES Both languages havethe /s/ sound which is Both languages have the /s/ voiceless, apico- sound which is voiceless,alveolar,oral, fricative. apico-alveolar,oral, fricative.In Spanish the [z] English variants: sound occurs before a voiced [s] [-s̻-] consonant sound because of its positional variation and it is an allophone. English has one allophone: [z]
  • 30. /θ/ PRODUCTION / /θ/ voiceless, apico-interdental, oral, fricative. /θ/ PHONEMIC AND /θ/ PRODUCTION PHONETIC FEATURES Both languages have the /θ/ soundEcuadorian Spanish speakers find whichthe distinction that Spanish it is an particulary difficulty in allophone [θ] while in English it is a producing the /Ɵ/ in initial and phneme. midddle position of English The English /θ/ sound has no phonetic words. In final position, we do variation. have this sound as an Eventhough the phoneme /θ/ is not used allophone of /d/ in American Spanish it occurs in a low register as a phoneme of /s/ in the EXAMPLES: province of Manabí in our country- SPANISH Ecuador. Ciudad [sju‟ðaθ] For example: ENGLISH <salir> /θali/ Thank /‟θæŋk/ <receta> /ɾeθeta/
  • 31. /ð/ PRODUCTION /ð/ voiced, apico-interdental, oral, fricativa. /ð/ PHONEMIC AND /ð/ PRODUCTION PHONETIC FEATURESSince [ð] is a positional variant in Spanish for /d/ Both languages have the /ð/Spanish speakers tend to sound in Spanish it is an pronounce <th> as a allophone which occurs in middle dental stop sound, /d/. position betwwen vowels. English it is a phoneme [ð] in EXAMPLES: initial, middle and final position. SPANISH: Verdad [beɾ̻‟ðaθ] ENGLISH EXAMPLES: ENGLISH That /‟ðæt/ Although /əlðow/ Teethe /tiyð/
  • 32. /ʃ/ PRODUCTION /ʃ/ voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, groove, fricative. /ʃ/ PRODUCTION /ʃ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES In Spanish does not occurs . Speanish speakers from Ecuador use it as part of kichwa words loaned to the language. This /ʃ/ sound occursEXAMPLES: exclusively in EnglishENGLISH: <sh> should /ʃʊd/<s> insurance /ɪnʃʊɹəns/ has one allophone [ʃ] .<ss> issue /’ɪʃuw/ENGLISH: <sch> schwa /ʃwa/ Examples:<sc> crescendo /kɹə’ʃƐndow/ English<ce> ocean /’owʃƐn/ENGLISH: <ci> special /‘spƐʃəl/ Propulsion /pɹə„pəlʃən/<ti> partial /’parʃəl/ Permission /pəɹmɪʃən<xu,xi>=k luxury /‘ləkʃəɹɪy/
  • 33. /ʒ /PRODUCTION /ʒ/ Sound occurs in English only middle and final position. .The English /ʒ / sounds features are voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, groove, fricative, and has an allophone which keeps the same features as it s phoneme./ʒ/In spanish does not occurs a phoneme. EXAMPLES: Garage /gəɹaʒ/ <si>ocacion /ə„keyʒən/ <s>measure /mɛʒəɹ/ <g> regime /ɹeyɪʒiym/ <z> azure /æʒəɹ/
  • 34. /x /SPANISH PRODUCTION ORAL DORSO VELAR FRICATIVE VOICELESS/x /Is a sound which exists particularly in Spanish. EXAMPLES:This phoneme has three allophones which may occur in <j>jarabe /xaɾabe/free variation regarding the position. This are <g>girasol /xiɾa‘sol/[x] voiceless, dorso-velar,oral,fricative. <x>Xavier /xabyeɾ/[h] voiceless, glottal,oral,fricative.[Ø] zero allophone
  • 35. /h / PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH ORAL GLOTTAL FRICATIVE VOICELESSSpanish /h /has an allophone of [x] used by peoplefront the coastal region. EXAMPLES:This phoneme in English has two allophones. This are <h>holiday /‘halɪdey/[h] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative. <wh>whole /‘howl/[-ɦ-] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative, and happens justbetween voiced sounds.The /h/ sounds never occurs in final position nor has acounterpart.
  • 36. CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH AFFRICATES THOSE CONSONANTS HAVE THE SAME OR SIMILAR PLACES OF ARTICULATION. ENGLISH SPANISHAFFRICATES: AFFRICATES: /tʃ/ [tʃ] [dʒ] /tʃ/ [tʃ]
  • 37. /tʃ/ /dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHApico alveolar lamino fronto palatal oral Voiceless /tʃ/ Africative Voiced /dʒ//tʃ/ there are in Spanishand English. It is Examples Englishvoiceless, apico alveolar, <cheap> /tʃɪyp/lamino , fronto , palatal, <preacher> /pɹɪytʃəɹ/oral affricate. Its <reach> / ɹɪytʃ/phoneme [tʃ]
  • 38. /dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHSpanish spellings: /ʤ/ does not exist as a phoneme .In english its occurs as phoneme and allophone /ʤ/voiced, apico alveolar, lamino, fronto palatal, oral affricateEXAMPLES OF ENGLISH:<jam> /ʤæm/<larger> /laɹʤəɹ/<large> /laɹʤ/
  • 39. /m/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH The /m/sounds is similar in both languages:[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, continuant. ENGLISH SPANISHThe /m/ phoneme has three allophones: The /m/ phoneme has one [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, allophone:continuant [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal,[-ɱ-] voiced, labiodental, nasal, occlusive,continuant which occurs before the voiceless occlusive, continuantlabiodental fricative. [m̩ ] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive,continuant, occurs in a word finally syllable
  • 40. The /n/ Sound is voided, apico- [n] is voiced,/n/PHONEMIC aleolar, nasal , In Spanish apico-alveolar,AND PHONETIC occlusive, nasal , FEATURES continuant, in both They are : occlusive, english and continuant spanish. [-ɱ-] is voiced, [nʲ] is voiced, [-n̻-] is [ŋ] is voiced, voiced,apico labiodental, nasal fronto-palatal, , occlusive, dorso-velar, nasal nasal , occlusive, dental, nasal, , occlusive, continuant . And occusive, continuant. And continuant. And ocurrer before the continuant . And ocurrer before ocurrer before a the voiceless voiceless palatal happeens before dorso velar affricate sound, labiodental sound, /k-g-x/ a dental stop /t,d fricative /f/ /tʃ/ /Sound
  • 41. /ŋ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES [ŋ] is voiced, dorso-velar, nasal , occlusive, continuant.[-ņ-] is voiced, dorso-velar, nasal , occlusive, continuant. Syllabic which happens just in contextual speech between 2 any dorso velar sound, /k-g-x/ /ŋ/ PRODUCTION Both languages have the /ŋ/ sound. It voiced, is voiced, dorso-velar, nasal , occlusive, continuant In english, /ŋ/ is a phoneme. The english /ŋ/ has to possible allophones In Spanish, /ŋ/ is allophone of /n/. REMINDER The spanish [ŋ] occurs in free vatiation in final-word position
  • 42. CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH LATERALSWhen an /l/ is formed, the tongue tip touches the alveolar ridge (or maybe the upper teeth) Sounds like this with airflow along the sides of the tongue are called lateral English lateral only incluides /l/. Spanish laterals includes /l/ and /ʎ/
  • 43. /l/ PHONEMIC • English and spanish have the /l/ sound which isAND PHONETIC voiced, apico-alveolar , oral, lateral • English has more allophones than spanish FEATURES • [l] voiced, apico-alveolar , oral, lateral SPANISH • [˛l] voiceless, apico-alveolar , oral, lateral VARIANTS • [ l̪ ] ] voiced, apico-dental , oral, lateral, which occurs before a dental sound /t-d/ • [l] voiced, apico-alveolar , oral, lateral ENGLISH • [˛l] voiceless, apico-alveolar , oral, lateralALLOPHONES • [-ɫ] voiced, dorso-velar, oral, dark, lateral ARE: • [-˛ɫ] voiced, dorso-velar, oral, dark, lateral, syllabic, which occurs in final-word position
  • 44. THE PHONEMIC /ʎ/ THE /ʎ/ SOUND BELONG PARTICULARY TO SPANISH. IT IS VOICED, FRONTO-PALATAL, ORAL, LATERAL /ʎ/ PRODUCTION /ʎ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURESThe /ʎ/ does not exist in the english language, englishspeakers occasionally pronunce /l/ for /ʎ/ or virtually In Ecuador and some otheruse the “yeismo”. countries of Latin AmericaThe yeismo is a distinctive feature of many dialects ofthe Spanish language. some variants many happen:Which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal [ʎ] voiced, fronto-palatal,lataral phoneme writen <ll>, and its merger into oral, lateralphoneme written /y/ usually realized as a palatal [y] voiced, fronto-palatal,fricativeThe term ye{ismo comes from the Spanish name of oral, groove, frcativethe letter y(i griega or ye) These may happen in free variation.EXEMPLE:<llama> /ˈllama/or/ˈyama/. The correc is /ˈʎama/
  • 45. /w-y/ PHONETIC AND PHONEMIC FEATURES /W/ VOICED, BILABIAL, DORSO-VELAR, ORAL, APPROXIMANT /y/ VOICED, FRONTO-PALATAL, ORAL, APPROXIMANT /w/ /y/ PRODUCTION PRODUCTION/w/ It occurs in both languages SPANISH:Have both languages [-i] Voiced, Fronto-palatal, Oral, Semivowel.SPANISH: [y-] Voiced, fronto-palatal, Oral, Fricative.[w-] Voiced, Bilabial dorso-velar, Oral, [dz] Voiced, Fronto-palatal, Oral,Semiconsonant Africate [j-] Semiconsonant , Oral, Fronto palatal,[-u] Voiced, Bilabial dorso-velar, Oral, Semivowel Voiced[gw] Voiced, Bilabial dorso-velar, Oral, ENGLISH:Semiconsonant[g] cold [j] Voiced, Fronto-palatal, Oral,ENGLISH: Semiconsonant[w-] Voiced, Bilabial dorso-velar, Oral, [y] Voiced, Fronto-palatalSemiconsonant Oral, Fricative[-u] Voiced , Bilabial dorso- velar, Oral, Semivowel [-i] Voiced , Fronto-palatal, Oral, Semivowel
  • 46. R-PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES ENGLISH, it /ɹ/ is voiced, SPAINISH /ɾ/ is voiced,apico-DESPITE THE FACT WE MAY apico alveolar,oral,flap or tap.it REFER TO R-SOUNDS IN postalveolar,oral,approximBOTH LANGUAGES, SPANISH has the following variants: ant,reflex and it has the AND ENGLISH USE [ɾ] voiced,apico- following possibilities: [ɹ]DIFFERENT PHONOLOGICAL alveolar,oral,flap;[ŗ] voiced, apico- SYMBOLS WHICH IMPLIES voiceless, apico- DIFFERENT MANNERS OF postalveolar,oral,retroflex, alveolar,oral,flap; [ŗ] PRODUCING THEM IN semiconsonant,[ɹ] voiced, apico- SPANISH AND ENGLISH voiceless, apico- dental.oral.fap. postalveolar,oral,retroflex.
  • 47. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CONNECTED SPEECH CONNECTED SPEECH HAVE TO DO WITH THE CHANGES IN PRONUNCIATIONTHESE PROCESSES OF CONNECTED IT OCCURS BECAUSE LEARNERS OF DEPEND ON THE FORMALITY OR FOREIGN LANGUAGES TRY TOINFORMALITY OF THE SITUATION, PRONUNCE EACH SINGLE WORD.THE RATE OF SPEAKING, DIALECTS AND IDIOLECT THIS CAUSES THE LANGUAGE TO BE CHOPPED.

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