Juan Diaz de Solis (Solis) First European to set foot on Argentine soil in 1516 BUT before Europeans: Population of about 100,000 Settlements in the northwest that were a part of Inca Empire ALSO nomadic Indians
1536: First settlement of Buenos Aires by Mendoza whowas from Paraguay, but was destroyed by Indians 1580: Buenos Aires founded by Spaniard, Garay Spain establishes a permanent colony here Spanish brings: the Spanish language Catholicism
Created by Spain in 1776 Spain’s attempt to expand their Spanish empire Countries that made up the vice-royalty: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia. Buenos Aires: the capital During this time Buenos Aires became a successful port 1806: British invasion begins During this time in Europe = Napoleonic Wars British wanted to weaken Spain’s Empire So….take over their South American territory
San Martin: Leader of Argentina’s fight 1.) Natives ended up for independence fighting off British July 9, 1816: Argentina invasions on their own officially declares 2.) Spanish king independence from Spain captured by Napoleon FIRST independent country in Latin America So…May Revolution But the independence of begins in 1810 the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata was also May 25, 1810: declared Argentina creates its own independent government Succeeding battle against the royalists was the Battle of Tucuman in 1812
Main political issue in early years of republic: Unitarists (favor centralization) VS. Federalists (demanding autonomy for the regions) Series of Civil Wars take place: Paraguay escapes Buenos Aires attempt to liberate it So then declare independence and fall under the rule of dictator Francia Artigas leads Uruguay toward independence But Uruguay didn’t officially achieve independence until 1828 with British mediation Bolivar helps Peru achieve independence in 1828 Peru renamed Bolivia after its liberator
United Provinces dissolve = Federalists triumphed 1821: Rivadavia appointed chief minister advocated educational, social, and economic reform Founded University of Buenos Aires abolished ecclesiastical fuero & the tithe, & suppressed some monasteries Greatest progress: cattle raising 1822: Rivadavia introduces Emphyteusis A program that distributes public lands through long-term leases at fixed rentals Result: the creation of a new & powerful estanciero class, which was the enemy of Rivadavia’s progressive principles
1825: Rivadavia proposes constitution 1826: he was elected President War with Brazil (1825-1828) over Uruguay Later his agent signs peace treaty that recognized Uruguay as a part of Brazilian Empire He denies the treaty, but too late Combination of public’s resentment over constitution and treaty = Rivadavia’s downfall Who doesn’t like constitution? federalist caudillos because they feared that strong national government would end their power so…they refuse to ratify constitution & even remove their delegates from congress Estancieros didn’t like constitution because they didn’t wanted to lose land privileges Basically rich people who didn’t want to lose power 1827: He resigns as president & goes into exhile = liberal program for achieving national unity failed
Rosas becomes governor of Buenos Aires in 1829 Rosas long reign = reversal of Rivadavia’s policies People saw him as young, handsome, and a popular do-gooder But later becomes powerful dictator
IMPORTANT EVENTS IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD-Mexico: Age of Santa Anna (1821-1855)-The Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1834) ~Charles Darwin and Robert Fitzroy Río de la Plata, Patagonia and Tierra Del Fuego-The United States ~1830 the „Underground Railroad‟ is established ~1831 Nat Turner‟s Slave Revolt in Southampton County, Virginia. (anti-literacy law) ~1835 Texas declares independence from Mexico ~ Presidents: John Quincy Adams , Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren , William Harrison, John Tyler, and James K. Polk
FEDERAL PACT : JANUARY 4, 1831 signed by: Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. created a federal military alliance to go against the Unitarians. Purpose: the federalist wanted to create a federation of independent provinces The Unitarians were against this idea May 31, 1831 :Federalists vs. Paz and his troops resulted in the Unitarians defeat. Provinces of the Unitarian League eventually joining the Federal Pact and the Argentine Confederation.
THE FALKLAND ISLANDS
THE DISPUTE AND LUIS VERNET The British, Spanish, and French all claim to basically own these islands. Luis Vernet approached the British and asks if it‟s ok to build a settlement where the Spanish settlement of Puerto Soledad used to be. He asks for protection of the settlement if the British every wanted to have a permanent presence there. After making an agreement with them he continually provides them with reports.
LUIS VERNET AS GOVERNOR Luis Vernet is proclaimed governor of the islands in 1829. Britain is NOT ok with this. In 1831, Luis Vernet seized three American vessels (Breakwater, Superior and Harriet) for hunting seals in Falklands waters. He takes their seals and then arrests them. He goes to trial with them for violating restrictions on seal hunting. He is later expelled by the USS Lexington and the island is declared free of all government.
JUAN MANUEL DE ROSAS
BACKGROUND INFO born in Buenos Aires on March 30, 1793. born to one of the wealthiest families of Rio de Plata He came from money, like Carranza. Carranza became a presidential dictator and Rosas becomes a dictator as well. His name used to be Ortiz de Rozas but he changes it to just Rosas. He starts military career at age 15.
CONQUEST OF THE DESERT (1833) The purpose: to expand and secure the farming lands from attacks. The attacks were called “malones” and were done because the indigenous people were poor Thousands of square kilometers were gained by the end of the first conquest. The land was then distributed to hacendados
THE SUPREME CHIEF OF THECONFEDERATION At first, Rosas was just the governor of the Buenos Aires Province from 1829 until he resigns after his 3 year term is done He is elected the Supreme Chief of the Confederation in 1839.He was the last person to have this title. He gains control of the ENTIRE country He destroys the liberty of the press, dissolves Congress, organizes a secret police and he continues his rule until he is overthrown in1852 Does this remind you of something? The signs of a dictator: destroys people‟s freedoms, makes a group of people who only answer to him and are loyal, and gets rid of the existing people in congress.
1845 Bernardino Rivadavia, the first president of the United Provinces of Argentine (1826), died under exile in Spain. The naval Battle of Vuelta de Obligado took place on the waters of the Paraná River on November 20, 1845, between the Argentine Confederation, under the leadership of Juan Manuel de Rosas, and an Anglo-French fleet.
1846 The Battle of Laguna Limpia, was part of the Argentine Civil Wars. It happened in the southwest of the Corrientes Province, Argentina on February 4, 1846, when the army under Entre Ríos Province governor Justo José de Urquiza, defeated and captured the commander of the advanced columns of Corrientes army, Juan Madariaga.
1847• Camila O’Gorman, a wealthy socialite, and Fr. Gutiérrez, a Jesuit priest, eloped on horseback and found refuge in Corrientes Province, which was then under the control of Benjamín Virasoro, hostile to the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas. As the scandal broke, the supporters of Rosas suggested that she had been kidnapped. Rosas exiled political opponents, and future President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, declared that Rosas tyranny was responsible for the moral corruption of Argentine womanhood.
1848 Camila OGorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas.
1849• On January 10, the head of the French naval forces in the Rio de la Plata, Admiral LePredour is ordered France to negotiate with the Confederacy and embarks Argentina in Montevideo to Buenos Aires.• On April 23, Justo José de Urquiza, enacts a law protectionism to favor the development of the provincial economy.• On June 9, two divisions invade Paraguayan province of Corrientes, aim to extend the territory between the rivers Parana and Uruguay to facilitate communications with the Empire of Brazil.• On July 28 Urquiza founded the Colegio de Concepción del Uruguay.
1850 Juan Manuel de Rosas presented his resignation to the Board of Representatives of Buenos Aires on September 12th, even though his term ends on March 7, 1850. His resignation was rejected immediately.
1851• The Platine War, also known as the War against Oribe and Rosas August 18, 1851 – February 3, 1852) was fought between the Argentine Confederation and an alliance consisting of the Empire of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes. The war was part of a long-running contest between Argentina and Brazil for influence over Uruguay and Paraguay, and hegemony over the regions bordering the Río de la Plata (River Plate). The conflict took place in Uruguay, on the Río de la Plata and in the northeast of Argentina (the Platine region).
1852• The Battle of Caseros occurred on February 3, 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army (Ejército Grande) led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza, and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom. This defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina.• Urquizas triumph terminated at long last the 20- years term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires
1853 Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, and the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution. Argentina abolished slavery.
1854 After overthrowing Rosas, the new constitution established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed as six years, with no possibility of reelection. The first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
1855• A treaty is signed between Buenos Aires and Argentina by the Confederation which stated that the interim separation of Buenos Aires does not alter the laws of the Nation. Meanwhile, the provinces of Cordoba, La Rioja and Salta sanction their respective constitutions.• On September 21 signed a friendship treaty between Argentina and Sardinia. Opens the passenger dock in Buenos Aires.
1856 The Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce and Navigation of 1856 between Chile and Argentina was the first boundary treaty between Argentina and Chile. It established that the boundaries should be based on (the uti possidetis principle ) what each country possessed before independence in 1810. Later declared null and void.
1857 On August 5 opens with the first railway, Porteña Argentina, that Runs between Plaza Lavalle and Floresta.
Argentina 1859 – 1876the independence wars and the early post-colonial period of the nation (1810 to 1880)
OVERVIEW The history of Argentina from the years 1859- 1876 are more easily viewed by looking at those who lead the country and the events that happened under each president. Leaders President Santiago Derqui President Juan E. Pedernera President Bartolomé Mitre President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
1859/1860 President Urquiza‟s work in national organization led to opposition by Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation open war breaks out in 1859. Battle of Cepeda. Buenos Aires agreed to re- enter Confederation. Difficulties continued, Urquiza withdrew from battle and the presidency.
Santiago Derqui & Juan E.Pedernera Professor Pavón, and resignation. President less than a Elected as Derqui‟s year. Vice President . Became constitutional Was an interim president after President when Derqui Urquiza‟s mandate. resigned Named country UNTIL the political República Argentina situation forced the Unpopular dissolution of the office. Led to Battle of
Bartolomé Mitre Elected to be President in 1962 Liberal, former Colonel and leader of the several revolts in support of the beliefs of Buenos Aires (defeat, Cepeda; victory, Pavón) Strove for: national political unity War of the Triple Alliance; Mitre initially names head of the allied forces Founder of La Nación, one of South America‟s leading newpapers
War of the Triple Alliance Fought 1864-1970 Paraguay vs. the Triple Alliance (Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay) Fighting began between Brazil and Paraguay with the rest of the Triple Alliance getting involved later. Devastated male population of Paraguay
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento Brought out the middle class as the pivot power of the nation Inspired by New England, specially Boston Establish 800 education and military institutions 5,000 km of telegraph line for improved communications Built the Red Line for improved trade with England through Buenos Aires UNPOPULAR Didn‟t fight for the Straits of Magellan from Chile Influx of European immigrants – yellow fever in Buenos Aires Survived assassination attempt and finished term. Successor: Nicolás Avellaneda, his former Minister of