Moreno: Chicana/o from the Civil Rights Era to the Present


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  • (Link for 1 min video in the LA times image)Tell the story of the family.-The Mendez family leased land from a Japanese family that was sent to the internment camps (similarly to the article passed around last week). The Mendez family farmed the land. The injustice of the internment camps led to the injustice of the Mexican students in the schools.-Gonzalo’s sister took his children and her own children to the local school and Gonzalo’s children were denied entrance. His sister’s children were allowed because they had a French last name and they looked “white”. His sister refused to let her children stay there and she was told they had to be taken to the Mexican school. She brought the children back home and Gonzalo thought it was all a misunderstanding. To his dismay, the school was discriminating against his children and they were forced to attend the Mexican schools.
  • As you can see form these images, not only were materials inadequate, but so were the school building structures and landscapes.
  • As stated in class discussion, when students have a strong sense of self or self-identity, they flourish. The message conveyed by segregation not only led to ignorant deficit beliefs by whites, but a negative self-identity by Mexican students from the rejection of the school system and administration, teachers included.These reasons were used as “justification” for segregation of Mexican students into Mexican schools or classrooms
  • Answer: Desired students to learn English as quick as possible so that they could be successful, in the dominant culture. They later realized the negative message this had towards their culture and language.
  • (Link for video in the image)-Influence by “the wider Chicana/o movement, the Black civil rights movement, the federal government’s War on Poverty, anti-Vietnam War sentiments, the women’s movement, and political struggles in Mexico and Latin America” (Moreno, p. 82-83)-Bilingual ed and vocational tracking are two main themes throughout the remainder of our chapter
  • -Chicana/o activism and Chicana feminist ideas merged with social policies to better address the needs of Chicana/o students and increase their access to institutions of higher education (p. 85)
  • Moreno: Chicana/o from the Civil Rights Era to the Present

    1. 1. Chicana/o Education from the Civil Rights Era to the Present by: Dolores Delgado Bernal Natalie Dominici Jeniffer Garcia Jesús López
    2. 2. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • California Méndez v. Westminster (1946) • Landmark case that ended de jure segregation for Mexican students • “Five Mexican Families, including Felicitas and Gonzalo Méndez, claimed that their children and other children of Mexican descent were victims of unconstitutional discrimination in the segregated schools of Orange County” (Moreno, p. 78-79)
    3. 3. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • Texas Delgado v. Bastrop Independent School District (1948) • “In Texas, just one year later, Minerva Delgado and twenty other parents filed a suit against several Texas school districts” (Moreno, p. 79). • “As in California, the court ruled that placing Mexican students in segregated schools was arbitrary and discriminatory, and in violation of the constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment” (Moreno, p. 79). Mathis High School (Mathis, Texas) “Mexican Ward School” (Mathis, Texas)
    4. 4. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • Although these two powerful cases ended de jure segregation (“concerning law”), de facto segregation (“concerning fact”) was still practiced. • When the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) and the American G.I. appeared in front of the State Board of Education in 1950, armed with a long list of 20 Texas cities who still practiced segregation, the board simply gave power to the districts on how to handle grievances and complaints. • This just led to an unfortunate decrease in the amount of grievances that could reach the state commissioner of education. Only 9 districts were brought before the commissioner between 1950-1957 for special hearings, leaving hundreds of districts to continue segregation of Mexican students.
    5. 5. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • Reasons de facto segregation continued: o White American belief in the cultural deficiency of Mexicans • Coincidently the act of “school segregation itself perpetuated an ideology of inferiority” (Moreno, p. 79) • Injurious Message: “Mexican students were inferior and did not deserve society’s investment in their education” (Moreno, p. 80). o Historic devaluation of Spanish • “Prohibiting Spanish-language use among Mexican schoolchildren was a social philosophy and a political tool used by local and state officials to justify school segregation” (Moreno, p. 80) • Bilingualism=“unAmerican”= perceived language deficiency
    6. 6. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • Teacher comments by Los Angeles teachers in the 1960’s (Moreno, p.80): o “I have never had a Mexican who could think for himself” o “These Mexican kids, why do they have to be here?” • How do you think Mexican students would feel if they overheard their teachers speaking like this in the hallways? • Recollection of Vickie Castro, student during the1950’s (Moreno, p. 80): o “I do recall my first day of school. And I did not speak English…. I just recall being frightened and I recall not knowing what to do and I recall being told to just sit over there in the corner. And there was one other little girl and we were just scared out of our minds. ” • If you were Vickie’s parents, what advice would you give her and how would you console her?
    7. 7. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • “Assimilationist” Perspective: o Held Mexican students back for several years while they learned English causing them to most likely drop out of school before graduating because they are over age for their grade o Bilingualism is a cognitive disability that caused confusion and impeded academic development. The brain can’t handle multiple languages • “Many Mexicans internalized these negative views of Spanish- and therefore a negative view of themselves and their families- in order to assimilate into the dominant society” (Moreno, p. 81) • Did you know, at this time, most teachers, and even some Mexican educators and the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) advocated for the English-only assimilationist language approach? Why do you think they felt this way?
    8. 8. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • Curriculum: o “Mexican boys and girls continued to be tracked into vocational classes that served an economic function and supported the unequal division of power, wealth, and status, just as in the era of de jure segregation” (Moreno, p. 81) • Curriculum & Gender: o “Young Mexican women were tracked into home economics and clerical or secretarial classes, which prepared them for low-paying domestic subservient work” (Moreno, p. 81) o “The sexist attitudes of the wider society were manifested in the Mexican culture through such common sayings as, ¿Para que quieres educarte si de nada te va a servir cuando te cases? (Why do you want to educate yourself if it will not be of any use to you when you get married?)” (Moreno, p. 82)
    9. 9. De Facto School Segregation: The 1950s to the Early 1960s • “Throughout the 1960s, the message that both Chicana and Chicano students were inferior continued to translate into overcrowded and underfinanced schools, low graduation rates, and the overrepresentation of Chicana/o students in the special education classes, including classes for the mentally retarded and the emotionally disturbed” (Moreno, p. 82) • In addition to forced de facto segregation by school districts, “Demographic factors such as the expanding Chicana/o school-age population, immigration, urbanization, and White flight also contributed to the increased de facto segregation of Chicana/o students” (Moreno, p. 82) • “As educational conditions worsened, tension and resentment increased” (Moreno, p. 82)
    10. 10. Social Activism and Social Policy of the Late 1960s • During the East Los Angeles walk outs the students presented a list of 36 grievances to the Los Angeles Board of Education. The demands included “smaller class sizes, bilingual education, an end to the vocational tracking of Chicana/o students, more emphasis on Chicano history, and community control of schools” (Moreno, p. 83) A Time for Chicanas in Action! • “In the early 1970s, in response to the absence of women in the curriculum, Chicana activists at a Chicano Studies/MEChA conference at California State University, Northridge, proposed five courses on La Chicana… they also proposed a requirement that all Chicano Studies majors take at least one class on La Chicana” (Moreno, p. 85) • At the National Women’s Political Caucus Convention on 1973 “the women of the Chicana Caucus attempted to address the unique problems that confronted Chicana students by shaping national social policy” (Moreno, p. 85) A Time for Action! • “The last half of the 1960s marked the first time that youth played a central role in the shaping of movements aimed against social institutions and those in power” (Moreno, p. 82)
    11. 11. Social Activism and Social Policy of the Late 1960s Policies that addressed the needs of Chicana/o students and increased their access into higher education institutions • During the Kennedy administration and Pres. Johnson’s War on Poverty, affirmative action was administered as an attempt to equalize the playing field (p. 85) • Higher Education Act of 1965 authorized funding programs • Title VII extended the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include all educational institutions • The Educational Opportunities Program (EOP) was one of the federal and state programs created that was critical in recruiting and retaining Chicana/o students into universities and colleges
    12. 12. Social Forces Shaping Bilingual Education • Historian Guadalupe San Miguel (1985) proposes that two views on bilingualism came into conflict and contributed to the formation of policies on bilingual education – the “assimilationist” perspective and the “pluralist” perspective. • “Assimilationist” perspective: post-World War II belief that bilingual education is un-American, a disability rather than an asset. • “Pluralist” perspective: accepted the multiplicity of languages as a necessary ingredient in U.S. education. o Embraced by most Chicana/o communities and political allies o Viewed L1 and culture of the child as essential to the instructional and learning process
    13. 13. Social Forces Shaping Bilingual Education (cont.) • Much political pressure from the Chicana/o communities + liberal educators who held a pluralist perspective = federal government (1st time) funded bilingual education in 1968 through Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 • 1968 Bilingual Education Act: provided $ to train teachers and aides, to develop instructional materials, & to establish parent-involvement projects • The Act was meant to “develop and carry out new and imaginative elementary and secondary school programs… [for] children of limited English-speaking ability”. However , the act did not impose teaching methods or even define the concept of bilingual education. In addition, the bill was viewed as a compensatory educational program in which linguistically “disadvantaged” children were assisted. (Moreno, p.87)
    14. 14. Social Forces Shaping Bilingual Education (cont.) • In most Chicana/o communities, bilingual education represented a way to maintain one’s language & culture & was by definition a rejection of colonization. However, the official goals of bilingual education emanating from federal and state bilingual education guidelines from 1968 to the present have never included the maintenance of the student’s first language. (Moreno, p.87) • One of the sponsors of the original 1968 Bilingual Education Act stated during the deliberation of the bill: “It is not the purpose of the bill to create pockets of different language throughout the country… not to stamp out the mother tongue and not to make their mother tongue the dominant language, but just to try to make these children fully literate in English, so that the children can move into the mainstream of American life”. • Native-language instruction was seen as a necessary strategy that allowed children to achieve competence in English. Never has federal or state legislation stated that it should help students maintain their first language to become bilingual and biliterate citizens.
    15. 15. Conservative Retrenchment • mid-1970s socialpolitically conservative era: negative impact on Chicana/o schooling conditions • Backlash against the social equity programs of Pres. Johnson’s War on Poverty that was accompanied by: o Increased military spending o Reduced education spending o A growing recession • The conservatives regained a strong voice, which reflected in social ideas, educational policy, and judicial decisions. As tension between desegregation and bilingual education intensified, the funding for bilingual education was drastically reduced and public school finance was restricted for Chicana/o schools. (Moreno, p.89)
    16. 16. The Tension Between Desegregation and Bilingual Education • By the 1970s, more Chicana/o students attended second-rate segregated schools than at the time of the 1947 Mendez decision. Many Chicana/o scholars & activists believed that the Brown decision had no effect on the schooling of Chicana/o students until the 70s when the courts were forced to decide how to treat Chicana/o students in the desegregation process. • Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District: filed in 1968 by Chicana/o labor activists in Corpus Christi, Texas, and was decided in 1970 at the federal district level. o Plaintiffs challenged the legal framework for future desegregation cases and the segregation of Chicana/o and African American school children in Corpus Christi. o Court ruled that Chicanas/os were an identifiable ethnic minority and found them to be unconstitutionally segregated in the public schools o Required that an appropriate desegregation plan that included Anglos, Chicanas/os, and African Americans be submitted.
    17. 17. The Tension Between Desegregation and Bilingual Education • Prior to this case, the strategy used in most successful school desegregation efforts was based on Chicanas/os’ claim to “Whiteness.” • The U.S. Supreme Court reinforced how Chicana/o students where to be treated in the process in the1973 Keyes v. School District Number 1 case. o Before this case, Denver Public Schools (like many throughout the Southwest) integrated Chicana/o students with African American students and called it desegregation. o The Court either had to define Chicana/o students as “Caucasians - & integrate them with African Americans or redefine their ethnic status (as a protected ethnic minority group) and integrate them with everyone else. (Moreno, p. 90) • The court authorized racial-balanced remedies & required districts to integrate African Americans & Chicanas/os into White urban school districts.
    18. 18. The Tension Between Desegregation and Bilingual Education • Growing tension between the pursuit of bilingual education & school desegregation… resegregation based on language within desegregated school. • Education policymakers who opposed bilingual education could avoid it by scattering limited-English-proficient students throughout their districts in the name of desegregation. At the same time, someone who opposed mixing White and Chicana/o students in the same classroom could use the opportunity to segregate Chicana/o students in bilingual classrooms, thus using the same old racially motivated rationale for separating Mexican children from White students based on their perceived language deficiency. • Under the Reagan administration, while the government spent billions of dollars on the military, Title VII bilingual education funding was cut from $167 million in 1980 to $133 million in 1986, representing more than a 20 % reduction – this at a time when the number of English learners was greatly increasing. (Moreno, p.90)
    19. 19. Educational Inequity in the 1970s and Beyond80s & 90s: • Chicana/o schools – severely underfunded – most overcrowded … limited curriculum with fewer resourced • Throughout the Southwest, Chicana/o students were highly unlikely to have Chicana/o teachers to act as mentors, since Latinas/os made up only 2.9% of all public school teachers in the country. • Chicanas/os and other high school students of color continue to report that they feel their teachers, school staff, and peers neither like nor understand them, and many of their teachers admit to not always understanding ethnically diverse students. • Continued school tracking of Chicana/o students into vocational programs & into special education programs for learning-disabled students has promoted educational, social, and economic inequities for such students and has limited their access to higher education. (Moreno, p.93) o 75% of all Latina/o high school seniors in 1980 had been enrolled in a curricular program that made a college education improbable
    20. 20. Meritocracy and Chicana/o College Students • Meritocracy: a system of rewards presumably based solely on ability and talent, so that rewards go to those who “perform the best” • Values drive a wide range of educational practices such as testing, grading, admissions, and ability tracking, all in the spirit of “equality” • - • Americans do no question the myth of meritocracy in higher education, believing that admissions decisions are fair and based solely on comparing one’s qualifications to a universal standard of excellence. (ex. SAT)
    21. 21. Meritocracy and Chicana/o College Students • “Reverse discrimination”: claimed by Whites & conservatives when they perceive that an allegedly fair and meritocratic system is being threatened • Regents of the University of California v. Blakke (1978) o 34-yr old White engineer, rejected by 13 medical schools (UC,Davis administrator suggested he sued as presumably less qualified students of color had been admitted) o Challenged the special admissions program that set aside sixteen slots out of one hundred for “disadvantaged” students  The university’s set-aside program was found to be illegal and the Court also ruled that race could be used in admissions provided that it was not the sole selection factor. • The Blakke case decision reflected growing public opinion that higher education had “gone too far” in trying to accommodate the special needs of “minorities” and was a precursor of the discourse of “reverse discrimination.” (Moreno, p. 96)
    22. 22. Progress of Chicano/Latino Students • College Enrollment • Chicano Studies course offered • Increased # of high school graduates • SAT and ACT tests • Eligibility for community college and state university system • Most unlikely ethnic group to finish high school, attend college, and to graduate from college • Anti-Latino and anti- immigrant beliefs continue to manifest themselves in propositions like 187, 209, and 227
    23. 23. California’s Prop 187 In the early 1990s, then governor Pete Wilson, and a group of “concerned” California residents tired of undocumented immigrants began the SOS (Save our State) movement which put Prop 187 on the ballot • Proposition 187 attempted to deny public education to anyone who was “reasonably suspected” of being an “illegal alien” in the United States. • These terms depicted immigrants as criminals just as just as de jure segregation conveyed an idea of inferiority of Mexican students • It required teachers and other officials to report those who were suspected of being in this country illegally
    24. 24. Proposition 187 was unconstitutional… but that didn’t stop them • Prop 187 was in direct conflict with a 1982 U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Plyer v. Doe: the state of Texas could not bar undocumented children from public education as it violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment • One of the goals of the authors of this proposition was to get a more politically conservative Supreme Court to overturn the Plyer ruling • Proposition 187 passed 59% to 41%
    25. 25. So what happened? • Five lawsuits were filed against the state and consolidated into one federal action • U.S District Judge Mariana Pfaelzer ruled that Proposition 187 was unconstitutional “from top to bottom” because the state has no power to regulate immigration • Unfortunately, California had already gotten the ball rolling in the wrong direction and similar measures followed in other states
    26. 26. California’s Prop 209 • Proposition 209, the California Civil Rights initiative, sounded nicer than Prop 187: California shall not use “race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin as criterion for either discriminating against, or granting preferential treatment to any individual or group.” • This was a way of trying to use the Equal Protection Clause to provide protection against “reverse discrimination” • California voters passed Proposition 209 in 1996
    27. 27. So what’s the problem? • This proposition was based on the meritocracy myth • This ideology ignores the reality that social inequities exist and it validates a subjective and highly selective admissions process that tracks Chicanos into community colleges and keeps the gate to four year campuses guarded. • Prop 209 limited access to higher education just as an increasing number of Chicano students were attending K-12 schools
    28. 28. The SAT Factor • Legal scholar Richard Delgado argues for an overhaul of the admissions process that would result in an increased number of woman and students of color gaining admission but he points out that these recommendations are ignored. • In 1997, the University of California Latino Eligibility Task force recommended that the university system simply eliminate the SAT in determining eligibility without reducing any other admissions standards. They argued that without the SAT, the proportion of Latino graduates that would achieve full eligibility to the UC system would rise by 59% (from 3.9 to 6.2 percent).
    29. 29. Do you feel that the University System should eliminate the SAT in determining eligibility? Why or why not?
    30. 30. What Came of Prop 209? • November 27, 1996: U.S. District Court Judge Thelton Henderson blocked enforcement of the proposition • A three-judge panel of the Court of Appeals overturned that ruling. • August 2, 2010: The Supreme Court of the state of California found for the second time that Proposition 209 was constitutional • April 2, 2012: The Court of Appeals rejected the latest challenge to Proposition 209 • September 1, 2011: SB 185 passed both chambers of the California State Legislature, but was vetoed by Governor Jerry Brown. SB 185 would have countered Proposition 209 and authorized the University of California and the California State University to consider race, gender, ethnicity, and national origin, along with other relevant factors, in undergraduate and graduate admissions, to the maximum extent permitted by the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. SB 185 is strongly supported by the University of California Student Association.
    31. 31. California’s Prop 227 • Proposition 227 called for the elimination of all bilingual programs in the state of California. • The proposition mandated that within 60 days of its passage, all 1.38 million limited-English-speaking students be put into separate classrooms – regardless of age, language background, and/or academic ability. • In June 1998, California voters passed Prop 227, the “English Language Education for Immigrant Children” initiative
    32. 32. The Problem with Prop 227 • Prop 227 required a 180-day English-only approach during which “all students would be taught in English by being taught in English.” • This proposition did away with all bilingual education and English-language development programs that did not meet its 180-day English-only approach. • Prop 227 allowed schools “to place English learners of different ages in the same classroom but of whose degree of English proficiency was similar.”
    33. 33. Even more frustrating than the fact that it passed, was the way that it passed. • Prop 227 supporters misleadingly presented themselves as the voices of Latinos, arguing that Latinos supported the measure by an overwhelming majority. • The proposition was carried by a 2 to 1 vote among whites in an electorate in which Whites represent a larger percentage than they represent in the general population. • “The hope that the new law would not be enforced, as a coalition of schoolchildren and civil rights groups filed a lawsuit in federal court to challenge Proposition 227 the day after it was passed by voters.”
    34. 34. So how’d we save ourselves from this one? • In short, We Didn’t! • Bilingual and Dual-Immersion Programs are scarce • Some school districts responded by defining Prop 227's requirement that they teach “overwhelmingly in English” as teaching in English for 51 percent of the school day (the Los Angeles school district) or 60% of the day(the Riverside and Vista school districts).
    35. 35. Biliteracy Would Get Federal Boost in Proposed Legislation • Discusses a measure introduced last month by U.S. Democratic Representative Julia Brownley called the Biliteracy Education Seal and Teaching (BEST) Act. By Leslie A. Maxwell Education Week: July 8, 2013
    36. 36. Biliteracy Education Seal and Teaching (BEST) Act • The purpose of this bill is “to help the future U.S. workforce compete in an increasingly global economy.” • Would create grants in the U.S. Department of Education to help states that want to grant certification (seal of biliteracy) to high-school students who can demonstrate proficiency in English and at least one other language • Proposes $10 million each year from 2015 through 2019 to be used to cover the administrative costs of setting up and carrying out a seal of biliteracy program, as well as for public outreach
    37. 37. Why Julia Brownley Feels This Is Important • “For a young person to be biliterate and bilingual – they can read and write in a second language – it’s so critical to 21st century skills and jobs. I don’t think we as a country do the very best job of this, so it’s critically important for our young people to speak a second language.” • “When a college or employer sees the Seal of Biliteracy on a diploma or resume, they know this is an individual with an important and unique 21st century skill.”
    38. 38. Something To Be Proud Of! • Last year, California was the first state to offer a seal of biliteracy to its high school graduates. New York followed suit last year. Illinois lawmakers approved a seal of biliteracy bill late last month. • In 2012, California issued 10,000 seals to high school graduates.