Group 5 Leader : JenieferDela Cruz Members : RinaApostol HervicBalagaza Al-lorenceCabautan LevieCalata JhaymarkCatagatan ErisonDalafu Jay zheeroEstabillo Marie Grace Gammad Sheila Marie Guingab OrlandoLayugan Charry Simon NanethMaddalora
Refers to basic alterations, behaviour patterns, culture and structure of society (Light 1985). Clearly, not all changes are social changes.
General term which refers to change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of the society or community of people.
It is also to acts of advocacy for the cause of changing society in positive ways. Advocacy for human rights, justice, equality and democracy as well as social movements and cause-oriented groups for liberation and eradication of poverty to make the society more humane and better place to live in, constitute social change.
Social Change could be:
Slow, gradual, incremental and evolutionary – in this it might be barely noticeable.
Fast, radical, sudden and revolutionary – it might even take people to surprise.
Wide in scope, affecting all people in a society
Limited in scope, affecting only a small numbers of people.
Four Major Theories of Social Change
1. The Evolutionary Theory It explains how one social form evolves into another. From single beginning to a more complex form; from homogeneity, from archaic to a civilized, from primitive to modern, from rural to urban. The classical evolutionary theorist include Emile Durkheim and Herbert Spencer, who maintain unlinear evolution for all societies.
Emile Durkheim has proposed cohesions “Mechanical Solidarity” People share a common set of values, beliefs, customs, folkways and mores with provide the chief source of solidarity among the members of society. “Organic Solidarity” Society becomes more formal to hold societies together are developed such as a central government and legal institutions.
Herbert Spencer Is a social evolutionist who views societies as social organisms involved in a struggle for existence in a world of competition and scarcity.
3. The Equilibrium Views society as lending towards a stale of stability or balance. Society’s institutions will eventually adapt achieving a new stability.
2. The Cyclical Theory This theory posits that every society undergoes a phenomenon of cyclical change, a pattern of subsequent and recurring phases of growths and decline. It argues that every society has a natural life cycle: death followed by the birth of some new social order.
4. The Conflict Theory The most influential proponent of the conflict theory is Karl Max. Max argues that conflict is the law which civilization has followed to the present day. According to Max, without conflict, there is no progress.
1. Shifting Population Population trends greatly affect social structure and social organizations. The increase in population size, the migration of rural dwellers to urban areas, the changes in the number of portion of male and female, the baby boom and bust have significant effects in bringing about positive and negative social changes. Sociologist have observed that migration to the rural folks to urban centres creates the problem of slums and squatters, urban blight and congestion, and other social problems attendant to urbanization.
2. Technological Innovation Technology – knowledge and skill applied in practical ways to the material aspects of life. Technological Innovation has profound influence in determining the course of history. Even a simple innovation has led to social change from the beginning to human history.
3. New Ideas and Culture Values The post materialist society, composed of educated and politically active young people, advocates values that promote the quality of human existence rather than the continued accumulation and consumption of material goods and services. Generally tail to catch up with the changes in material culture lending to “cultural lag” as viewed by Ogburn.
4. Diffusion Refers to the process by which change comes about as culture spreads from one society to another through direct or indirect contact between members of two different cultures.
The Nature of Globalization Alex MacGilliuray (2006), in his book “A Brief History of Globalization,” states “The planet we live in is now an incredible shrinking planet.” The fast pace of transportation and communication has, indeed, transformed the earth into an incredible shrinking planet!
Globalization Refers to the process of increasing integration between units around the world, including nation – states. It is an umbrella term, covering economic, trade, social, technological, cultural and political aspects, is the opposite of deglobalization (Levitt, Theodore, “Globalization of Markets,” 1983) From the definition of Encyclopaedia Britannica the globalization is a less economic – focused. It is the process by which the experience of everyday life.....is becoming standardized around the world. This could be in the form of political, informational or cultural globalization.