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HOW DO ANTIBODY KILLS BACTERIA Prepared by: Firdaus, hairi, naim, zaid, faiz, zaeck Bac. Of Medical Technology (Part 1) )
What is antibody? <ul><li>a.k.a IMMUNOGLOBULIN </li></ul><ul><li>Group of protein (gamma globulin) found on the B cell sur...
Structure of Antibody
Structure of Antibody <ul><li>Y shape molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Each Ig consist: </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 identical Light c...
Structure of Antibody <ul><li>EPITOPE / ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT </li></ul><ul><li>- part of macromolecule that is recognize ...
Class of antibody <ul><li>Ig molecule are divided into 5 major class : </li></ul><ul><li>- IgG (76%) </li></ul><ul><li>- I...
IgG <ul><li>Composed 76% of our Ig pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Has single binding side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate phagocytic...
IgA <ul><li>Composed 15% of Ig pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 binding sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by cell in mucous m...
IgM <ul><li>Compose 8% of our total Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 5 binding sides (pentamer). </li></ul><ul><li>The largest Ab...
IgD <ul><li>Make up 1% in total Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Single binding side. </li></ul><ul><li>Activating & suppressing lymp...
IgE <ul><li>Make up 0.002% of our Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Has single binding site </li></ul><ul><li>Mediator in allergic res...
Ab-Ag interaction
Ab-Ag interaction  <ul><li>1. Complement fixation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ab attach to antigen on pathogen’s cell </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>2.  Neutralization : </li></ul><ul><li>The antibody bind to antigen of viral or bacterial toxins, making them inca...
<ul><li>3.Agglutination: </li></ul><ul><li>Clumping of solid (insoluble) antigen  or  soluble antigens   attached to parti...
<ul><li>4.Precipitation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ab binds to soluble Ag forming the Ag-Ab complex to form immobile precipitate (...
- If harmful bacteria enter the body  - they cause damage by either  damaging the cells around them  or by releasing toxin...
The harmful bacteria cross into the blood vessels where they are attacked by   white blood cells  which are part of the   ...
There are two types of white blood cells called  phagocytes  and  lymphocytes. bacteria A blood vessel in the body. Phagoc...
bacteria A blood vessel in the body. Phagocytes   because of their shape can   “eat”   bacteria.   Phagocytes
Phagocytes   because of their shape can   “eat”   bacteria.   A blood vessel in the body. Phagocytes
Phagocytes   because of their shape can   “eat”   bacteria.   A blood vessel in the body.
Phagocytes   because of their shape can   “eat”   bacteria.   A blood vessel in the body.
Phagocytes   because of their shape can   “eat”   bacteria.
A group of  lymphocytes  produce proteins called  antibodies. A blood vessel in the body. antibodies
A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so th...
Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are   easily “eaten”...
A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so th...
A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so th...
A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so th...
Antibodies   kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are   easily “eaten”...
Antibodies  can also promote/facilitate killing of  the bacteria in co-operation with another protein called  complement ....
Antibodies  can also promote/facilitate killing of  the bacteria in co-operation with another protein called  complement .
The End Thank you for listening…… ANY QUESTION???
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Antibody Antigen Intrction

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Transcript of "Antibody Antigen Intrction"

  1. 1. HOW DO ANTIBODY KILLS BACTERIA Prepared by: Firdaus, hairi, naim, zaid, faiz, zaeck Bac. Of Medical Technology (Part 1) )
  2. 2. What is antibody? <ul><li>a.k.a IMMUNOGLOBULIN </li></ul><ul><li>Group of protein (gamma globulin) found on the B cell surface, in serum and ECF (lymph, mucus) </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC = react with 1 Ag/ foreign substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ig secreted by plasma cell (as Ig surface receptor & B cell markers). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of Antibody
  4. 4. Structure of Antibody <ul><li>Y shape molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Each Ig consist: </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 identical Light chain (L) </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 identical Heavy chain (H) </li></ul><ul><li>- lined by disulphide bond </li></ul><ul><li>Ig mol. symmetric & capable of binding 2 identical EPITOPES present on the same Ag mol. / dif mol. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Structure of Antibody <ul><li>EPITOPE / ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT </li></ul><ul><li>- part of macromolecule that is recognize by the Ig. </li></ul><ul><li>Ab binding site = paratope, idiotope, idiotype </li></ul><ul><li>Variable (V) region = specific binding to Ag occur </li></ul><ul><li>Constant (C) region = serve as basis for distinguishing the class of Ab </li></ul>
  6. 6. Class of antibody <ul><li>Ig molecule are divided into 5 major class : </li></ul><ul><li>- IgG (76%) </li></ul><ul><li>- IgA (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>- IgM (8%) </li></ul><ul><li>- IgD (1%) </li></ul><ul><li>- IgE (0.002%) </li></ul>
  7. 7. IgG <ul><li>Composed 76% of our Ig pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Has single binding side. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate phagocytic cells activate the complement system binds neutrophile & neutralize toxin. </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest-can cross the plasenta & confer immunity from fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect against bacteria, viruses, & toxin. </li></ul>
  8. 8. IgA <ul><li>Composed 15% of Ig pool. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 binding sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by cell in mucous membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Location : respiratory tract, digestive tract, vagina, colostrum. </li></ul><ul><li>F(x) : prevent the attachment of viruses & bacteria to epithelium surface. </li></ul><ul><li> : in colostrum, Ig protect baby for about 6 months. </li></ul>
  9. 9. IgM <ul><li>Compose 8% of our total Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Has 5 binding sides (pentamer). </li></ul><ul><li>The largest Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>First activate in initial attack of Ag. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective in agglutination & involve in complement fixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Important in the initial activation of B cell & complement system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. IgD <ul><li>Make up 1% in total Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Single binding side. </li></ul><ul><li>Activating & suppressing lymphocyte activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Help differentiation of B cell into plasma & memory cell. </li></ul><ul><li>As receptor for Ag on the B cell surface. </li></ul>
  11. 11. IgE <ul><li>Make up 0.002% of our Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>Has single binding site </li></ul><ul><li>Mediator in allergic response. </li></ul><ul><li>Activates histamines secreting cells </li></ul><ul><li>Play role in parasitic infection </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ab-Ag interaction
  13. 13. Ab-Ag interaction <ul><li>1. Complement fixation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ab attach to antigen on pathogen’s cell </li></ul><ul><li>Complement protein attach to pair Ab. </li></ul><ul><li>The activated complement protein, attach to pathogen membrane forming a MAC which produce lesion in the antigen cell membrane that result of cell lysis. </li></ul><ul><li>These Ab are called “lysine”. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>2. Neutralization : </li></ul><ul><li>The antibody bind to antigen of viral or bacterial toxins, making them incapable of attaching to a cell, thus harmless. </li></ul><ul><li>Phagocytic cells eventually destroy the complex </li></ul><ul><li>These Ab called “antitoxin”. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>3.Agglutination: </li></ul><ul><li>Clumping of solid (insoluble) antigen or soluble antigens attached to particles).  </li></ul><ul><li>through the formation of a framework </li></ul><ul><li>in which antigen particles or molecules alternate with antibody molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Ab attaches to Ag b/sites of invading microorganism. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the cell to clump & easily remove by the phagocytes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>4.Precipitation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ab binds to soluble Ag forming the Ag-Ab complex to form immobile precipitate (easily engulf by phagocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>These Ab are called the “precipatin” </li></ul><ul><li>5.Opsonization </li></ul><ul><li>Ab coat the bacteria to enhance phagocytes to ingest them. </li></ul><ul><li>These Ab are called “opsonin”. </li></ul>
  17. 17. - If harmful bacteria enter the body - they cause damage by either damaging the cells around them or by releasing toxins (poisons) that make us ill. bacteria
  18. 18. The harmful bacteria cross into the blood vessels where they are attacked by white blood cells which are part of the immune system. A blood vessel in the body. White blood cells bacteria
  19. 19. There are two types of white blood cells called phagocytes and lymphocytes. bacteria A blood vessel in the body. Phagocytes Lymphocytes
  20. 20. bacteria A blood vessel in the body. Phagocytes because of their shape can “eat” bacteria. Phagocytes
  21. 21. Phagocytes because of their shape can “eat” bacteria. A blood vessel in the body. Phagocytes
  22. 22. Phagocytes because of their shape can “eat” bacteria. A blood vessel in the body.
  23. 23. Phagocytes because of their shape can “eat” bacteria. A blood vessel in the body.
  24. 24. Phagocytes because of their shape can “eat” bacteria.
  25. 25. A group of lymphocytes produce proteins called antibodies. A blood vessel in the body. antibodies
  26. 26. A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes. antibodies
  27. 27. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes. A blood vessel in the body.
  28. 28. A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes.
  29. 29. A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes.
  30. 30. A blood vessel in the body. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes.
  31. 31. Antibodies kill the bacteria in different ways. One way is to make them clump together so that they are easily “eaten” by phagocytes.
  32. 32. Antibodies can also promote/facilitate killing of the bacteria in co-operation with another protein called complement . A blood vessel in the body.
  33. 33. Antibodies can also promote/facilitate killing of the bacteria in co-operation with another protein called complement .
  34. 34. The End Thank you for listening…… ANY QUESTION???
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