Finland

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Finland

  1. 1. Why Are Finland's Schools Successful? The country's achievements in education have other nations, especially the United States, doing their homework By LynNell Hancock Smithsonian Magazine | Subscribe September 2011 Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/why-are- finlands-schools-successful-49859555/#1G2i94H6osAdrZO7.99 Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter t was the end of term at Kirkkojarvi Comprehensive School in Espoo, a sprawling suburb west of Helsinki, when Kari Louhivuori, a veteran teacher and the school’s principal, decided to try something extreme— by Finnish standards. One of his sixth-grade students, a Kosovo- Albanian boy, had drifted far off the learning grid, resisting his teacher’s best efforts. The school’s team of special educators— including a social worker, a nurse and a psychologist—convinced Louhivuori that laziness was not to blame. So he decided to hold the boy back a year, a measure so rare in Finland it’s practically obsolete.
  2. 2. Finland has vastly improved in reading, math and science literacy over the past decade in large part because its teachers are trusted to do whatever it takes to turn young lives around. This 13-year-old, Besart Kabashi, received something akin to royal tutoring. “I took Besart on that year as my private student,” Louhivuori told me in his office, which boasted a Beatles “Yellow Submarine” poster on the wall and an electric guitar in the closet. When Besart was not studying science, geography and math, he was parked next to Louhivuori’s desk at the front of his class of 9- and 10-year- olds, cracking open books from a tall stack, slowly reading one, then another, then devouring them by the dozens. By the end of the year, the son of Kosovo war refugees had conquered his adopted country’s vowel-rich language and arrived at the realization that he could, in fact, learn. Years later, a 20-year-old Besart showed up at Kirkkojarvi’s Christmas party with a bottle of Cognac and a big grin. “You helped me,” he told his former teacher. Besart had opened his own car repair firm and a cleaning company. “No big fuss,” Louhivuori told me. “This is what we do every day, prepare kids for life.” This tale of a single rescued child hints at some of the reasons for the tiny Nordic nation’s staggering record of education success, a phenomenon that has inspired, baffled and even irked many of America’s parents and educators. Finnish schooling became an unlikely hot topic after the 2010 documentary film Waiting for “Superman” contrasted it with America’s troubled public schools. “Whatever it takes” is an attitude that drives not just Kirkkojarvi’s 30 teachers, but most of Finland’s 62,000 educators in 3,500 schools from Lapland to Turku—professionals selected from the top 10 percent of the nation’s graduates to earn a required master’s degree in education. Many schools are small enough so that teachers know every student. If one method fails, teachers consult with colleagues to try something else. They seem to relish the challenges. Nearly 30 percent of Finland’s children receive some kind of special help during
  3. 3. their first nine years of school. The school where Louhivuori teaches served 240 first through ninth graders last year; and in contrast with Finland’s reputation for ethnic homogeneity, more than half of its 150 elementary-level students are immigrants—from Somalia, Iraq, Russia, Bangladesh, Estonia and Ethiopia, among other nations. “Children from wealthy families with lots of education can be taught by stupid teachers,” Louhivuori said, smiling. “We try to catch the weak students. It’s deep in our thinking.” The transformation of the Finns’ education system began some 40 years ago as the key propellent of the country’s economic recovery plan. Educators had little idea it was so successful until 2000, when the first results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a standardized test given to 15-year-olds in more than 40 global venues, revealed Finnish youth to be the best young readers in the world. Three years later, they led in math. By 2006, Finland was first out of 57 countries (and a few cities) in science. In the 2009 PISA  scores released last year, the nation came in second in science, third in reading and sixth in math among nearly half a million students worldwide. “I’m still surprised,” said Arjariita Heikkinen, principal of a Helsinki comprehensive school. “I didn’t realize we were that good.” In the United States, which has muddled along in the middle for the past decade, government officials have attempted to introduce marketplace competition into public schools. In recent years, a group of Wall Street financiers and philanthropists such as Bill Gates have put money behind private-sector ideas, such as vouchers, data-driven curriculum and charter schools, which have doubled in number in the past decade. President Obama, too, has apparently bet on compe- tition. His Race to the Top initiative invites states to compete for federal dollars using tests and other methods to measure teachers, a philosophy that would not fly in Finland. “I think, in fact, teachers would tear off their shirts,” said Timo Heikkinen, a Helsinki principal with 24 years of teaching experience. “If you only measure the statistics, you miss the human aspect.”
  4. 4. Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/why-are- finlands-schools-successful-49859555/#1G2i94H6osAdrZO7.99 Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter Education System in Finland The welfare of Finnish society is built on education, culture and knowledge. The flexible education system and basic educational security make for equity and consistency in results. The Finnish education system is composed of: nine-year basic education (comprehensive school) for the whole age group, preceded by one year of voluntary pre-primary education upper secondary education, comprising general education and vocational education and training (vocational qualifications and further and specialist qualifications) higher education, provided by universities and polytechnics Learning pathway In Finland, pre-primary education, basic education and upper secondary education and training, complemented by early childhood education and before- and after-school activities, form a coherent learning pathway that supports children's growth, development and well-being. The Finnish education system has no dead-ends. Learners can always continue their studies on an upper level of education, whatever choices they make in between. The practice of recognition of prior learning has been developed in order to avoid unnecessary overlapping of studies. Students' opportunities to progress from one level of education to the next is safeguarded by legislation. Both general and vocational upper secondary certificates provide eligibility for further studies. Higher education is offered by universities and polytechnics. Both sectors have their own profiles. Universities emphasise scientific research and
  5. 5. instruction. Polytechnics, also known as universities of applied sciences, adopt a more practical approach. Adult education is provided at all levels of education. Adults can study for a general education certificate or for a vocational qualification, or modules included in them, take other courses developing citizenship and work skills, or pursue recreational studies. Mainpage Education Education system Educational Curriculum in FinlandDocument Transcript 1. The Curriculum in Finland Researcher: Mark Ryan A. Lastrilla I. Brief Description With its high levels of educational achievement and attainment, Finland is regarded as one of the world’s most literate societies. More than 98% attend pre-school classes; 99 % complete compulsory basic education; and 94 % of those who start the academic strand of upper secondary school graduate. Completion rates in vocational upper secondary school also reach close to 90%(Statistics Finland, 2010; Välijärvi & Sahlberg, 2008). In Finland, education is free at all levels from pre-primary to higher education. In pre-primary and basic education the textbooks, daily meal and transportation for students living further away from the school are free for the parents. At secondary level and in higher education the students themselves or their parents purchase their own books. At secondary level the students have the right to a free meal and in higher education meals are subsidised by the state. Adult education is the only form of education that may require payment. To ensure the opportunities to study for everyone there is a well-developed system of study grants and loans. Financial aid can be awarded for full-time study in an upper secondary school, vocational institution, or institution of higher education. The current thinking in Finland is that the potential of each pupil should be maximised. Therefore, educational guidance is seen as essential. Guidance and counselling aims to support, help and guide pupils and students so that they can all perform as well as possible in their studies and be able to make correct and appropriate decisions concerning their education and careers. Guidance and counselling is seen as the work of all education personnel. Thus, teachers are required to treat the children and young people as individuals and help them to proceed according to their own capabilities. Learners should also experience success and joy of learning. Today all pupils and students have the right to educational support. This support can be
  6. 6. remedial instruction or support for the pupil’s special needs. II. Educational aims and objectives. • The main objective of Finnish education policy is to offer all citizens equal opportunities to receive education, regardless of age, domicile, financial situation, sex or mother tongue. Education is considered to be one of the fundamental rights of all citizens. Firstly, provisions concerning fundamental educational rights guarantee everyone (not just Finnish citizens) the right to free basic education; the provisions also specify compulsory education. Secondly, 2. the public authorities are also obligated to guarantee everyone an equal opportunity to obtain other education besides basic education according to their abilities and special needs, and to develop them without being prevented by economic hardship. • A major objective of Finnish education policy is to achieve as high a level of education and competence as possible for the whole population. One of the basic principles behind this has been to offer post- compulsory education to whole age groups III. What are the areas being studied? The core subjects taught to learners in the basic education syllabus are the mother tongue and literature (Finnish or Swedish), the other official language, one foreign language, environmental studies, health education, religion or ethics, history, social studies, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, physical education, music, art and crafts, and home economics. Guidance counselling must also be provided for students. IV. What teaching methodologies or strategies are used? In instruction, methods characteristic of the subject are to be used, as are versatile working approaches that help support and guide the pupil's learning. The function of the working approaches is to develop social, learning, thinking, working, and problem- solving skills, and to foster active participation. The approaches must further the development of skills with information and communication technology. They must also provide opportunities for the creative activity, experiences, and play characteristic of the age group in question. The pupils' various learning styles and backgrounds, as well as the developmental differences between boys and girls and among individuals generally, must receive consideration. Alongside the traditional forms of teaching – lectures, demonstrations and examinations based on lectures and literature – instruction makes increasing use of other methods, such as essays, projects, seminar and group work. The use of new information technologies in instruction has also increased. The aim has been to increase students’ independent and self-motivated study. There are various forms of project and teamwork and studies have increasingly been transferred outside the institution. V. How are the educational institution/organization being administered? The Finnish Parliament decides on educational legislation and the general principles of education policy. The government, the Ministry of Education, and the Finnish National Board of Education are responsible for the implementation of this policy at the central administration level. The government participates in the costs of schools by paying the so-called statutory government transfer to the education provider. The
  7. 7. role of the Ministry is to prepare strategic policy guidelines for education, to prepare and share 3. budget and to prepare educational laws. The main responsibility of NBE is to prepare and decide about the National Core Curriculum for the Comprehensive School, for Upper Secondary General and Vocational Education and for Adult Education. NBE is also responsible for the development of the Finnish education system. Universities have autonomy and they are guided straight by the Ministry of Education. The Basic Education Act (628/1998) and Basic Education Decree (852/1998) and the Government Decree on the General National Objectives and Distribution of Les-son Hours in Basic Education (1435/2001) govern basic education. These regulations stipulate such matters as the core subjects taught to all pupils, and the distribution of teaching hours between various subjects. VI. Compare the curriculum with the Philippine basic education curriculum. Comparison between Finland curriculum and Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Table 1. Finland Philippines(2002 BEC) 1.Educational aims and objectives 1.Offer all citizens equal opportunities to receive education, regardless of age, domicile, financial situation, sex or mother tongue. 2.Achieve as high a level of education and competence as possible for the whole population 1.To provide knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society. 2. Provide learning experiences which increase the child awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in society; 3. Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for the nation and the people to which s/he belongs; and 4. Promote work experiences, which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work. 2.The areas being Studied *Mother tongue and literature (Finnish or Swedish) *The other official language *One foreign language *Environmental studies *Health education *Religion or ethics, *History *Social studies *Mathematics The CORE SUBJECTS:Filipino; English; Math; Science (Science and Health for Elem.); Science and Technology for Secondary The Experiential Area: Makabayan: Araling Panlipunan; MAPEH (Music, Arts, PE and health); TLE; Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (the practice 4. *Physics *Chemistry *Biology *Geography *Physical education *Music *Art and crafts *Home economics environment for holistic learning to develop a healthy personal and national self-identity‖. 3.Teaching methodologies used. *Traditional forms of teaching -lectures -demonstrations -examinations based on lectures - literature *Instruction makes increasing use of other methods, such as -essays - projects -seminar -group work *Thematic Teaching *Content-Based Instruction *Focusing Inquiry *Demonstration 4. How are the educational institution/ organization being administered. * The Finnish Parliament decides on educational legislation and the general principles of education policy. The
  8. 8. government, the Ministry of Education, and the Finnish National Board of Education are responsible for the implementation of this policy at the central administration level. The government participates in the costs of schools by paying the so-called statutory government transfer to the education provider. The role of the Ministry is to prepare strategic policy guidelines for education, to prepare and share budget and to prepare educational laws. The main responsibility of NBE is to prepare and decide about the National Core Curriculum for the Comprehensive School, for Upper Secondary General and *Administrative structures of curriculum development Development of the basic education level curriculum is the responsibility of the Central Office Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education, Curriculum Development Divisions. This bureau defines the learning competencies for the different subject areas; conceptualizes the structure of the curriculum; formulates national curricular policies. These functions are exercised in consultation with other agencies and sectors of society (e.g. industry, socio-civic groups, teacher-training institutions, professional organizations, school administrators, parents, students, etc.). The subject offerings, credit points, and time allotments for the different subject areas are also determined at the national level. In this sense, a national curriculum exists in the Philippines. However, while curriculum implementation 5. Vocational Education and for Adult Education. NBE is also responsible for the development of the Finnish education system. Universities have autonomy and they are guided straight by the Ministry of Education. guidelines are issued at the national level, the actual implementation is left to schoolteachers. They determine the resources to be used; teaching and assessment strategies and other processes. Furthermore, schools have the option to modify the national curriculum (e.g. content, sequence and teaching strategies) in order to ensure that the curriculum responds to local concerns. References: Books; Cf. Bilbao,et.al., Curriculum Development. Lorimar: QC. 2008 PDF; Aho, E., Pitkänen, K. & Sahlberg, P. (2006). Policy development and reform principles of basic and secondary education in Finland since 1968. Washington, DC: World Bank. Ditapat, Maria, Pelagia, Mariñas, Bella O., Philippines Curriculum Development. FINLAND Regional Preparatory Workshop on Inclusive Education Eastern and South Eastern Europe, Sinaia, Romania, 14 – 16 June 2007 OAJ (2008). Teacher education in Finland. Helsinki: The trade union of education in Finland. Sahlberg, P. (2007). Education policies for raising student learning: The Finnish approach. Journal of Education Policy, 22(2), 147-171. Finnish Curriculum System Tähkä, Tiina, Vitikka, Erja, Curriculum Unit, Finnish National Board of Education Websites; Statistics Finland (2010). Education. Retrieved September 4, 2010 from http://www.stat.fi/til/kou_en.html. www.studyinfinland.fi/destination_finland/education_system/secondary_educatio n
  9. 9. Finland Successful School reform What we can learn from Finland’s successful school reform Finland came from behind to become the world leader in student achievement. Their strategy is the opposite of what we’re doing in America. To imagine how that might be done, one can look at nations that started with very little and purposefully built highly productive and equitable systems, sometimes almost from scratch, in the space of only two to three decades. Strong educational system As an example, I am going to briefly describe how Finland built a strong educational system, nearly from the ground up. Finland was not succeeding educationally in the 1970s, when the United States was the unquestioned education leader in the world. Yet this country created a productive teaching and learning system by expanding access while investing purposefully in ambitious educational goals using strategic approaches to build teaching capacity. Teaching and learning system I use the term ―teaching and learning system‖ advisedly to describe a set of elements that, when
  10. 10. well designed and connected, reliably support all students in their learning. These elements ensure that students routinely encounter well-prepared teachers who are working in concert around a thoughtful, high-quality curriculum, supported by appropriate materials and assessments—and that these elements of the system help students, teachers, leaders, and the system as a whole continue to learn and improve. Although no system from afar can be transported wholesale into another context, there is much to learn from the experiences of those who have addressed problems we also encounter. The Finnish Success Story Finland has been a poster child for school improvement since it rapidly climbed to the top of the international rankings after it emerged from the Soviet Union’s shadow. Once poorly ranked educationally, with a turgid bureaucratic system that produced low-quality education and large inequalities, it now ranks first among all the OECD nations (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development—roughly, the so-called ―developed‖ nations) on the PISA (Program for International Student Assessments), an international test for 15- year-olds in
  11. 11. language, math, and science literacy. The country also boasts a highly equitable distribution of achievement, even for its growing share of immigrant students. Strategies for Reform Because of these trends, many people have turned to Finland for clues to educational transformation. As one analyst notes: "Most visitors to Finland discover elegant school buildings filled with calm children and highly educated teachers. They also recognize the large autonomy that schools enjoy, little interference by the central education administration in schools’ everyday lives, systematic methods to address problems in the lives of students, and targeted professional help for those in need." (Sahlbert, 2009, p. 7) Leaders in Finland attribute the gains to their intensive investments in teacher education—all teachers receive three years of high-quality graduate level preparation completely at state expense—plus a major overhaul of the curriculum and assessment system designed to ensure access to a ―thinking curriculum‖ for all students. A recent analysis of the Finnish system summarized its core principles as follows: Resources for those who need them most. High standards and supports for special needs.
  12. 12. Qualified teachers. Evaluation of education. Balancing decentralization and centralization. (Laukkanen, 2008, p. 319) The process of change has been almost the reverse of policies in the United States. Over the past 40 years, Finland has shifted from a highly centralized system emphasizing external testing to a more localized system in which highly trained teachers design curriculum around the very lean national standards. This new system is implemented through equitable funding and extensive preparation for all teachers. The logic of the system is that investments in the capacity of local teachers and schools to meet the needs of all students, coupled with thoughtful guidance about goals, can unleash the benefits of local creativity in the cause of common, equitable outcomes. Meanwhile, the United States has been imposing more external testing—often exacerbating differential access to curriculum—while creating more inequitable conditions in local schools. Resources for children and schools, in the form of both overall funding and the presence of trained, experienced teachers, have become more disparate in many states, thus undermining the capacity of schools to meet the outcomes that are ostensibly sought. Sahlberg notes that Finland has taken a very different path. He observes:
  13. 13. "The Finns have worked systematically over 35 years to make sure that competent professionals who can craft the best learning conditions for all students are in all schools, rather than thinking that standardized instruction and related testing can be brought in at the last minute to improve student learning and turn around failing schools." (Sahlberg, 2009, p. 22) Sahlberg identifies a set of global reforms, undertaken especially in the Anglo- Saxon countries, that Finland has not adopted, including standardization of curriculum enforced by frequent external tests; narrowing of the curriculum to basic skills in reading and mathematics; reduced use of innovative teaching strategies; adoption of educational ideas from external sources, rather than development of local internal capacity for innovation and problem-solving; and adoption of high-stakes accountability policies, featuring rewards and sanctions for students, teachers, and schools. By contrast, he suggests: This article is about the Sielun Veljet album. For the country, see Finland. Suomi-Finland
  14. 14. Studio album by Sielun Veljet Released 1988 Genre Alternative rock Length 39:52 Label Poko Rekords Producer Riku Mattila Sielun Veljet chronology Shit-Hot (1987) Suomi-Finland (1988) Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars (1989) Professional ratings Review scores Source Rating
  15. 15. Soundi [1] Suomi-Finland is the sixth studio album of the Finnish rock band Sielun Veljet. It was released in 1988 between two English language albums, Shit-Hot and Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars. Suomi-Finland has a more acoustic sound than earlier Sielun Veljet material, anticipating the psychedelic, all-acoustic Softwood Music Under Slow Pillars.[2] "Volvot ulvoo kuun savuun" has been covered by industrial metal band Turmion Kätilöt
  16. 16. AMITA, JENELYN A. FINLAND Educational system in Finland the Finnish society is built on education, culture and knowledge. There are composed of: 1st . nine year basic educations. 2nd . upper secondary education, comprising general education and vocational education and training (vocational qualifications and further and specialist qualifications) 3rd . higher education, provided by universities and polytechnics. So in the basic education and upper secondary education and training complemented by early childhood education and before and after the school activities form a coherent learning pathway that supports children growth, development and well-being. And it has no dead ends. Learners can always continue their studies on upper level of education whatever choices they make in between. And the learner developed in order to avoid unnecessary overlapping of studies. And both sectors have their own profile. Universities emphasise scientific research and instruction. Polytechnics also known as universities applied more on practical approach. Have also an adult education provide at all levels of education. Adults can study for a general education certificate for a vocational qualification and take other courses developing citizenship and work, skills, or pursue recreational studies. And it is called as the learning curve because it has five things that education leaders should remember. The 1st . is that spending lots of money on schools and teachers does not always mean students will learn. 2nd . is that "good teachers are essential to high-quality education". The report said teachers should be "treated as the valuable professionals they are, not as technicians in a huge, educational machine". 3rd . and 4th . Are that a country’s culture must have a strong focus on the importance of education, and parents having key parts to play. Finally, countries need to "educate for the future, not just the present."

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