Visual Impairments DefinitionTeachers need basic information on Visual Impairments is a very visual impairments in four general generic term and is divided areas. into categories Fundamental concepts of Legal blindness, which means vision and visual impairments the student has visual acuity of Signs of possible visual 20/200 with means they see at problems 20 ft what a average student Typical characteristics of would see at 200ft. Legally students with visual blind students will need major impairments adaptations in their everyday learning. Specific adaptive and or Low Vision- Indicates some accommodative techniques to functional vision exists. meet students needs Students may need minor adaptation and may use optical, or electronic devices to assist them in their learning.
Types of Visual Impairment Retinal Strabismus- improper alignment of the eyes Optic Nerve Problems Nystagmus- rapid involuntary movements of eyes Disorders of the Cornea Glaucoma- Fluid pressure build Iris and Lens Problems up Cataract- Cloudy film over eye lens Diabetic retinopathy- Changes in blood vessels caused by diabetes Macular degeneration-damage to central portion of the retina Retinitis Pigmentusa- genetic eye disease leading to blindness
Prevalence and Causes Vision problems are very common in our society however corrective lenses are often enough to correct vision and individuals can see efficiently. If students have visual impairments they tend to get worse with age. Approximately 0.06 percent of students in school are visually impaired (varying with region). First Nations people are 3-4 times more likely to lose their vision due to more premature births, trauma, and diabetes.
Characteristics of Students with Visual ImpairmentsBehavioural •Rubs eyes excessively Psychological •Intellectual abilities •Shuts or covers one eye, similar to those of sighted tilts head peers •Has difficulty in reading •Concept development or other work requiring can depend on tactile close use of the eyes experiences •Hold books close to eyes •Unable to use sight to •Squint eyelids together assist in the development or frowns of integrated concepts •Unable to use visual imagery Communicational •Relatively unimpaired in language abilitiesAppearance •Crossed eyed Social/Emotional/ •May display repetitive, •Red-rimmed, encrusted, or stereotyped movements swollen eyes Behavioural (rubbing eyes) •Inflamed or watery eyes •Socially immature •Recurring styles •Withdrawn •IndependentComplaints •Eyes that itch Mobility •Distinct disadvantage in •Cannot see well using spatial information •Dizziness, Headaches, or •Visual imagery and nausea memory problems with •Blurred or double vision functional implications Academic • Generally behind sighted peers
Classroom Adaptations for VisuallyImpairedSocially for a Student Physical Considerations Encourage students to Identify what special become independent learners equipment will be needed in the classroom Create opportunities for Learn how to use special students to manipulate their equipment own environment Guarantee classroom is free Reinforce their efforts of hazards Help develop a healthy self Use the ``clock`` approach concept Place students desk where the Teach students how to student can learn to their communicate nonverbally highest potential
Ways to promote InclusionInclusion Practices Teacher Supports Remember that students with Get help from others. Teach visual impairments is but one of them how to assist the many student in the classroom. visually impaired students. Introduce them the same way you would any other student. Learn how to adapt and Use same disciplinary practices modify instruction ahead of for all students. time. Encourage visually impaired to Learn as much as you can. seek leadership and high-profile roles. Find out any training that Expect the same level of work might be needed. from all students.
Hearing Impairment Definition Prevalence Hearing impairment – generic Only 0.14 percent of the term that has frequently been used to cover the entire range of school aged children have a hearing loss hearing impairment Deafness – hearing loss that is so sever that speech cannot be Gets worse as you get older through the ear alone, with or without aids 2-5% of the total population Hard of hearing – individuals who has some degree of hearing have a hearing loss that makes it loss difficult, but not impossible to understand speech through the Considered a low-incidence ear alone, with or without hearing aids disability
Classifications Conductive Hearing Loss Sensorineural Hearing Loss When sound is not When there is damage to the conducted efficiently through inner ear the outer or middle ears. Reduction in sound level, affects speech understanding or ability Reduction in sound level to hear clearly Can often be corrected Cannot be corrected medically, through medicine or surgery it is a permanent loss Causes Causes Birthing injuries, genetics, Impacted ear wax, fluid in viruses, head trauma, aging, the middle ear, ear infections exposure to noise, tumors
Student Behaviours Turns head to position the ear Has a restricted vocabulary to the speaker and/or problems with spelling Asks for information to be repeated frequently Withdraws from classroom activities that involve Uses a loud voice listening Does not respond when Less socially mature someone is speaking to them Difficulty making friends Has frequent colds, earaches, or infections Academic achievement levels are lower than those of Misarticulates certain speech hearing peers sounds or omits certain consonant sounds Fidgets and moves about in seat
What you can do as a teacher If you see any of those student Use visual aides behaviours, refer them to an audiologist for formal Speak clearly and normally assessment Avoid frequent movement Use of technologies like around the classroom and amplification assistance turning your back from student Seat students in a semi-circular Use gestures and facial arrangement to increase sight expressions lines Keep beard/moustaches Make sure they are subject to the trimmed same requirements as other Encourage students to ask students questions for clarification Have a classroom buddy who Repeat comments of students can help the student who speak in discussions Reduce distracting noises
What you can do as a teacherWhen using an interpreter... Socially for student Position the student so that they Help develop a realistic sense can see the teacher and of their abilities interpreter clearly Be sure to include the Help them become more interpreter as an IEP member responsible and independent Discuss lessons with the Help them interact interpreter prior to teaching appropriately with their peers Allow adequate lag time for the interpreter Help enhance their sense of Remember that sign language belonging does not follow the grammatical convention of English
Bibliography Smith, T, Polloway, E, Patton, J, Dowdy, C, McIntyre, L, & Francis, G. (2010). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.