Cardiovascular System

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  • Cardiovascular System

    1. 1. Cardiovascular System
    2. 2. Cardiovascular System (a.k.a. Circulatory System) <ul><li>Comprised of the heart and blood vessels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Heart- a pump made of cardiac muscle and 4 chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessels- circulate blood to rest of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function - to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove CO2 and other metabolic wastes </li></ul>
    3. 4. Heart Anatomy <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorax between the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed apex directed toward left hip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About the size of your fist </li></ul>
    4. 5. Coverings of the Heart <ul><li>Pericardium – a double serous membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral pericardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next to heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal pericardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium </li></ul>
    5. 6. Walls of the Heart <ul><li>Three layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epicardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This layer is the parietal pericardium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly cardiac muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Chambers <ul><li>Right and left side act as separate pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Four chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discharging chambers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Right Atrium
    8. 9. Right Ventricle
    9. 10. Major Vessels: <ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries oxygen rich blood from left ventricle to body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries oxygen poor blood from right ventricle to lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vena cava </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries oxygen poor blood from body to right atrium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary veins (four) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry oxygen rich blood from lungs to left atrium </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. Valves <ul><li>Allow blood to flow in only one direction </li></ul><ul><li>Four valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular valves – between atria and ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bicuspid valve (left) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tricuspid valve (right) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves -between ventricle and artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary semilunar valve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic semilunar valve </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 13. Valves <ul><li>Valves open as blood is pumped through </li></ul><ul><li>Held in place by chordae tendineae (“heart strings”) </li></ul><ul><li>Close to prevent backflow </li></ul>
    12. 15. Cardiac Circulation <ul><li>O2 poor blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cavae  blood passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle  right ventricle contracts, blood is forced through semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery  In lungs, blood picks up oxygen and gives off CO2 . Oxygen rich blood enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein  blood passes through bicuspid valve into the left ventricle  blood forced through aortic semilunar valve into aorta and to tissues </li></ul>
    13. 17. Cardiac Circulation, Simplified <ul><li>Superior and inferior vena cavae  right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle  semilunar valve  pulmonary artery  lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle  semilunar valve  aorta </li></ul>
    14. 19. Conduction System <ul><li>2 nodes: </li></ul><ul><li>Sinoatrial (SA) Node- Located at the right atrium. Known as the “pacemaker”. </li></ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular (AV) Node- Located between the right atrium and ventricle </li></ul>
    15. 20. Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
    16. 21. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>The atria contract and then the ventricles contract </li></ul><ul><li>Systole= Ventricles contract </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole= Ventricles relax </li></ul>
    17. 22. Heart Sounds <ul><li>The first and louder sound (the “lubb”) is the AV valves closing. </li></ul><ul><li>The second (the “dubb”) is the semilunar valves closing. </li></ul>
    18. 23. Arteries <ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Thick walls </li></ul><ul><li>Expand and recoil as heart beats </li></ul><ul><li>Usually carry oxygenated blood </li></ul><ul><li>Usually red (except pulmonary) </li></ul>
    19. 24. Veins <ul><li>Have valves to prevent backflow </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually carry deoxygenated blood </li></ul><ul><li>Usually blue (except pulmonary) </li></ul>
    20. 25. Valves in the Veins <ul><li>RealPlayer </li></ul>
    21. 26. Capillaries <ul><li>Thin and flexible walls </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of nutrients, respiratory gasses, and wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and nutrients diffuse into cells </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and other wastes diffuse out of cells </li></ul>
    22. 27. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Aorta  Arteries  Arterioles  Capillaries  Venules  Veins  Vena Cavae </li></ul>
    23. 28. Major Arteries <ul><li>Coronary- carry oxygen and nutrients to heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Left common- to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial- arm </li></ul><ul><li>Renal- kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral- leg </li></ul>
    24. 30. Major Veins <ul><li>Drain blood from body </li></ul><ul><li>Brachial- from the arm </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular- from the head </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral- from the leg </li></ul><ul><li>Renal- from the kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic- from the liver </li></ul>
    25. 32. Hepatic Circulation <ul><li>Carries nutrient rich blood from the digestive organs, spleen, and pancreas and delivers it to the liver </li></ul>
    26. 33. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Baby’s blood obtains oxygen from the placenta instead of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby has one umbilical vein and 2 umbilical arteries </li></ul><ul><li>After birth, 2 shunts collapse and circulation is like that of an adult. </li></ul>
    27. 34. Physiology of Circulation <ul><li>Arterial pulse= pressure wave of blood as the artery expands and recoils </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure gradient: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BP is highest in the arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower in the capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest in the veins </li></ul></ul>
    28. 35. Blood Pressure <ul><li>Pressure in the arteries as blood pushes against the inner walls </li></ul><ul><li>Sphygmomanometer = blood pressure cuff </li></ul><ul><li>Systolic pressure = pressure when ventricles contract </li></ul><ul><li>Diastolic pressure= pressure when ventricles relax </li></ul>
    29. 36. Effects on Various Factors on Blood Pressure <ul><li>Neural Factors = ANS (Sympathetic system causes vasoconstriction) </li></ul><ul><li>Renal Factors = Kidneys (as BP increases, kidneys allow more water to leave blood) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold constricts BV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat dilates BV </li></ul></ul>
    30. 37. Effects Continued <ul><li>Chemicals= </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine and nicotine increase BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and histamine decrease BP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet= Salt, saturated fats, and cholesterol can lead to high BP </li></ul>
    31. 39. Variations in BP <ul><li>“ Normal”= 120/80 mm Hg (110-140 systolic/ 75-80 diastolic) Varies greatly between individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotension= systolic below 100 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often associated with good health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypertension= 140/90 or higher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be dangerous. Known as “silent killer” b/c it strains heart and damages arteries </li></ul></ul>
    32. 40. Diseases <ul><li>Pericarditis = inflammation of the pericardium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be caused by infection, cancer, or irritation </li></ul></ul>
    33. 41. Angina Pectoris <ul><li>Pain and pressure in the chest </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of blood flow to the heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Main cause is coronary artery disease (caused by atheroschlerosis) </li></ul>
    34. 42. Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) <ul><li>Death of heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by narrowing of coronary arteries </li></ul>
    35. 43. Heart Murmur <ul><li>Abnormal or unusual heart sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by valve problems (although can be found in the young and elderly with perfectly healthy hearts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Mitral valve prolapse </li></ul></ul>
    36. 44. Atherosclerosis <ul><li>Platelets and atherosclerotic plaques accumulate inside of arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hardening of the arteries” </li></ul>
    37. 45. Aneurysm <ul><li>Enlargement of a blood vessel, like a bulge of a balloon. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerous because it may burst </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly occur in the circle of willis or in the aorta </li></ul>

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