ART 299 VISUAL CULTURE GLOBAL CONTEXTM8 NOT REPRESENTING THE DEITY
Module 8 Overview Five Pillars of Islam mosque (congregational mosque, Friday mosque, great mosque) mihrab qibla convivencia Look: Dome of the Rock (10-2), (10-3) Great Mosque of Isfahan (10-25) Great Mosque of Djenne (19-9) Hagia Sophia (9-5 to 9-9) Great Mosque of Cordoba (10-1), (10-9), (10-10), (10-11), (10-12) Synagogue of El Transitó (http://www.bh.org.il/database-article.aspx?48725) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Sinagoga_del_Transito_(Toledo) Mihrab from MadrasaImami (10-26) carpet (10-27) mosque lamp (10-28)
Goals Understand a few central aspects of the Muslim faith and learn the associated terminology. Begin to make connections between the tenets of the faith and the artistic forms of the culture. Become aware of the origin and early history of the faith. Relate that early history to the changing meanings of the Ka’ba.
Goals define sacred and secular architecture identify forms of sacred architecture associated with the major world religions what does the sacred architecture of Islam look like? Examine pictures of major mosques from Muslim countries around the world Learn key terms for describing mosque architecture Understand how modernization has altered a specific aspect of traditional Muslim worship in Cairo, Egypt
ConceptOne distinction we can make in studying visual culture is between sacred and secular art forms.
Concept Distinguishing between sacred and secular art gives us one way of sorting the variety of art objects by their intended use.
Concept When looking at any art object in this class, you can ask yourself: Does this object have a religious or devotional purpose? If so, we can label it sacred.
Though it’s possible to discern in the form of the “golden arches” an invitation to a heavenly realm (an echo perhaps, of the “pearly gates”?), the cathedral is the work of sacred architecture.
Test your understandingClassifying buildings or objects as sacred or secular is easy if you are familiar with the forms of a particular religious tradition. If these forms are less familiar, you may need to do further reading and research before determining whether a given object is sacred or not.Do you know if the image on the right is sacred, or secular?
Do you see any visual cues that might enable you to make an educated guess?
Lingam, cave temple dedicated to Shiva, c. 550, Karnataka, India
Map of the Arabian Peninsula, showing key sites at the timeof Muhammad
1. Shahadah “There is no god but God and Muhammad is his Messenger.” declaration of faith in a monotheistic God Muhammad is the Prophet, not a deity
2. Salat prayers five times a day at specific hours preceded by ablutions facing toward Mecca
3. Zakat offering of financial help to the poor in one’s own community percentage of income
4. Sawm fasting during the holy month of Ramadan during the daylight hours
5. hajj pilgrimage to Mecca during set time every Muslim must make the pilgrimage at least once during their lifetime pilgrims wear a simple white garment called Ihram clothing to signify equality before God
Widening your perspective Read the article about the play “Radio Muezzin,” developed after this policy went into effect in Cairo. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/19/theater/ 19abroad.html How does the author compare and contrast the aural environments of Cairo and Berlin?