ART299Module8

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This module examines some key works of sacred art and architecture from the Islamic tradition.

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ART299Module8

  1. 1. ART 299 VISUAL CULTURE GLOBAL CONTEXTM8 NOT REPRESENTING THE DEITY
  2. 2. Module 8 Overview Five Pillars of Islam mosque (congregational mosque, Friday mosque, great mosque) mihrab qibla convivencia Look: Dome of the Rock (10-2), (10-3) Great Mosque of Isfahan (10-25) Great Mosque of Djenne (19-9) Hagia Sophia (9-5 to 9-9) Great Mosque of Cordoba (10-1), (10-9), (10-10), (10-11), (10-12) Synagogue of El Transitó (http://www.bh.org.il/database-article.aspx?48725) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Sinagoga_del_Transito_(Toledo) Mihrab from MadrasaImami (10-26) carpet (10-27) mosque lamp (10-28)
  3. 3. Goals Understand a few central aspects of the Muslim faith and learn the associated terminology. Begin to make connections between the tenets of the faith and the artistic forms of the culture. Become aware of the origin and early history of the faith. Relate that early history to the changing meanings of the Ka’ba.
  4. 4. Goals define sacred and secular architecture identify forms of sacred architecture associated with the major world religions what does the sacred architecture of Islam look like?  Examine pictures of major mosques from Muslim countries around the world  Learn key terms for describing mosque architecture  Understand how modernization has altered a specific aspect of traditional Muslim worship in Cairo, Egypt
  5. 5. ConceptOne distinction we can make in studying visual culture is between sacred and secular art forms.
  6. 6. Concept Distinguishing between sacred and secular art gives us one way of sorting the variety of art objects by their intended use.
  7. 7. Concept When looking at any art object in this class, you can ask yourself: Does this object have a religious or devotional purpose? If so, we can label it sacred.
  8. 8. A BWhich object would we term sacred?
  9. 9. Which building would you describe as “sacred”?
  10. 10. Though it’s possible to discern in the form of the “golden arches” an invitation to a heavenly realm (an echo perhaps, of the “pearly gates”?), the cathedral is the work of sacred architecture.
  11. 11. Test your understandingClassifying buildings or objects as sacred or secular is easy if you are familiar with the forms of a particular religious tradition. If these forms are less familiar, you may need to do further reading and research before determining whether a given object is sacred or not.Do you know if the image on the right is sacred, or secular?
  12. 12. Do you see any visual cues that might enable you to make an educated guess?
  13. 13. Lingam, cave temple dedicated to Shiva, c. 550, Karnataka, India
  14. 14. Map of the Arabian Peninsula, showing key sites at the timeof Muhammad
  15. 15. 1. Shahadah “There is no god but God and Muhammad is his Messenger.”  declaration of faith in a monotheistic God  Muhammad is the Prophet, not a deity
  16. 16. 2. Salat prayers  five times a day at specific hours  preceded by ablutions  facing toward Mecca
  17. 17. 3. Zakat offering of financial help to the poor in one’s own community percentage of income
  18. 18. 4. Sawm fasting during the holy month of Ramadan during the daylight hours
  19. 19. 5. hajj pilgrimage to Mecca during set time every Muslim must make the pilgrimage at least once during their lifetime pilgrims wear a simple white garment called Ihram clothing to signify equality before God
  20. 20. hajj paintings
  21. 21. hajj paintings
  22. 22. hajj paintings
  23. 23. Great Mosque of Isfahan,qiblaiwan
  24. 24. Mihrab, Great Mosque of Isfahan, Iran, c. 1500,ceramic mosaic, 9 1/2 x 8 ft
  25. 25. detail of tilework
  26. 26. mihrab: indentation in theqibla wall, most likelymarking the presence of theProphetqibla: wall closest to Mecca
  27. 27. Great Mosque of Djenné, Mali
  28. 28. engraving of the mosque from1911
  29. 29. Great Mosque of Cordoba
  30. 30. Great Mosque of Cordoba
  31. 31. Great Mosque of Cordoba
  32. 32. Synagogue “El Transito”
  33. 33. Great Mosque of Cordoba
  34. 34. Synagogue “El Transito”
  35. 35. Synagogue “El Transito”
  36. 36. Synagogue “El Transito”
  37. 37. Synagogue “El Transito”
  38. 38. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C06E2DA113BF931A25753C1A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=
  39. 39. Widening your perspective Read the article about the play “Radio Muezzin,” developed after this policy went into effect in Cairo. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/19/theater/ 19abroad.html How does the author compare and contrast the aural environments of Cairo and Berlin?

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