Urban planning The application of design principles to the city space. E.g., where should we locate the train stations? Access Zoning What’s already present? Essentially modern discipline.
Paris, before urban planningCharles Marville,Rue Maître Albert,Paris, 1852
Charles Marville,Passage du Dragon,Paris, 1858
Camille Pissarro, Avenue de L’Opera, 1898
Under Napoleon III Baron von Haussmann undertook what many consider the first modern urban works project, demolishing many existing neighborhoods to make way for grand boulevards and parks. He installed a sewer system and gas lighting in the major public places. He hired photographers to document the medieval streets he was plowing under.
Creative destruction“I’d like to see the planner who can remove aghetto without displacing some people, just likeI’d like to see the chef who can make anomelette without breaking some eggs.”—Robert Moses, New York City planner andarchenemy of Jane Jacobs
Creative DestructionJoseph SchumpeterCapitalism, Socialism and Democracy(1942)
RobertMoses,with themap ofthe FiveBoroughsof New YorkCitybehind him
The “Cross Bronx”Expressway,one of Robert Moses’notorious projects
Moses vs. Jacobs
Jacobs, p. 8 “Specifically, in the case of planning for cities, it is clear that a large number of good and earnest people do care deeply about building and renewing. Despite some corruption, and considerable greed for the other mans vineyard, the intentions going into the messes we make are, on the whole, exemplary.”
Jacobs, p. 8 “Planners, architects of city design, and those they have led along with them in their beliefs are not consciously disdainful of the importance of knowing how things work. On the contrary, they have gone to great pains to learn what the saints and sages of modern orthodox planning have said about how cities ought to work and what ought to be good for people and businesses in them. They take this with such devotion that when contradictory reality intrudes, threatening to shatter their dearly won learning, they must shrug reality aside.”
Her proposal:Let’s study healthy streets and blocks anddevelop a set of principles they share incommon.We can use those principles to guide newdevelopment.
The Death and Life of GreatAmerican Cities (1961)Has become a touchstone for planners andarchitects associated with the NewUrbanism.
Seaside, Florida, 1982, Robert Davis, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk