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UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN PHILIPPINESMASTER OF ARTS IN NURSING
CATEGORIES:Indigenous or Folk MedicineWestern Type
Folk medicine is a form of healthcare thatinvolves the use of remedies and practicesthat are handed down from one generationto the next.These remedies make use of herbs andother natural elements to aid in caring forthe infirm, as well as helping individualsmaintain good health.
A folk healer is an unlicensed person whopractices the art of healing using traditionalpractices, herbal remedies and even thepower of suggestion.In some cultures a healer might beconsidered to be a person who hasinherited the "gift" of healing from his orher parent.
It is one of the key components of traditionalChinese medicine (TCM) and is among theoldest healing practices in the world. Acupuncturist inserts needles into variouspoints on the body in order to relieve pain orto relax certain areas of the body. They believe that success in acupuncture isdue to the needles stimulating the nervous,endocrine, and lymphatic systems.
A system of traditional medicine native tothe Indian subcontinent and a form ofalternative medicine.Ayurvedic practitioners utilize yoga,meditation, massage, or healing herbs orfoods as a supplement to the biomedicalmodel.
Herbalism is the study and use ofmedicinal properties of plants.Herbalist uses herbs (plants and plantextracts) as their way of healing andalleviating illness.
A system of alternative medicine originated in1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on hisdoctrine of similia similibus curentur ("like cureslike"), according to which a substance thatcauses the symptoms of a disease in healthypeople will cure similar symptoms in sick people. Homeopathic practitioners use animal, plant,mineral, and synthetic substances for remedies.
Naturopath follows a natural approach tohealing of the body using natural remediesand the bodys vital ability to heal andmaintain itself.Naturopathic philosophy favors a holisticapproach and minimal use of surgery anddrugs.
One of the oldest medical systems known tomankind. Siddhars are the masters of the medicine. Treatment in siddha medicine is aimed atkeeping the three humors in equilibrium. Soproper diet, medicine and a disciplinedregimen of life are advised for a healthy livingand to restore equilibrium of humors indiseased condition.
A form of traditional medicine widelypracticed by Muslims.Unani medicine is based on the concept ofthe four humors: Phlegm (Balgham), Blood(Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā) and Black bile(Saudā).
In the Philippines, there are different typesof traditional healers. Most of thesehealers consider their healing craft asGod-given, a calling from a supernaturalbeing, and consequently, their healingpractices are profusely infused withprayers and religious rituals. Usually rural-based, they are also present in the urbanand suburban communities.
They believe in animistic and mythological creaturessuch as nuno, lamang lupa, tikbalang and kapres-creatures that often complicate the conundrum ofpathophysiology. Methods of treatment used: prayers, spitting, rubbing,plastering and murmuring. Although most are available for daily consultations,some practice their craft only on tuesdays and fridays,days of the week coinciding with the feast of the Sto.Niño and the feast of the Black Nazarene, when theybelieve their healing powers to be at their optimum.
‘Chiropractic manipulation and massage forthe diagnosis and treatment ofmusculoligamentous and muskuloskeletalailments. Like the albularyo, the hilot s services arefree-of-charge, fearing that set fees willlessen the hilots healing power abilities.Voluntary donations are accepted: P10 - 100or in kind - cigarettes, snacks, etc.
Determines the cause of an illness through the ritual ofluop. Ritual paraphernalia consists of the kalanghuga (a kindof freshwater or saltwater shell), salt (to weaken thesupernatural spirits), benditang palaspas (piece ofblessed palm leaves from Palm Sunday), charcoalmade from a coconut shell, a coconut midrib and a tinplate. A fiery concoction is made from these elements on atin plate, in consonance with prayers and invocationsand performing the sign-of-the-cross thrice over thepatient, the kalanghuga is examined.
The diagnosis is suggested by its appearance: Roughness, aslight affliction; stickiness, a sprain; a figure or form (hugis-hugis), a displeased environmental spirit; brittleness, a reallyangered spirit. The treatment is then suggested and the necessary alternativereferral made. After the diagnostic ritual, the shell is powderedwhile praying, a sign-of-the-cross is performed on the patientsforehead, both palms and plantar arches of both feet. Then, the ritual paraphernalia are thrown under the entrancestairs to prevent the evil spirits from reentering the house.
Performed by most alternative healers thatserves in providing clues as to the natureand cause of the illness.Tawas refers to a diagnostic ritual orprocedure, utilizing a variety of materials:candles, eggs, mirrors, plain paper,cigarette rolling-paper, and alum.
Mediums are believed to possessextraordinary powers to cure sickness, toexorcise evil spirits from the rice fields, or outof the human body, and to intercede withgood spirits for the petitions of the people. They perform all important rituals, chantprayers for the community when the barriofaces a crisis. To insult or harm a medium isto endanger ones life.
Psychic or astral surgeonswho claim to cut incisions withtheir fingers and perform othermiracles of para-science.
Western medicine is the term used todescribe the treatment of conditions withmedications, by doctors, nurses, and otherconventional health care providers whoemploy methods developed according toWestern medical and scientific traditions.Their approach to treatment relies heavilyupon industrially produced medications anda strict compliance to the formal scientificprocess.
Western medicine encompasses all types ofconventional medical treatment, includingsurgery, chemotherapy, radiation, andphysical therapy. The practitioners ofWestern medicine are doctors, nurses,physical, occupational, and respiratorytherapists.
Black Americans have maintained a distinctiveculture even after living in the United States formany generations. Within this culture, however,vast differences exists regarding health care. Unfortunately, black Americans have a 5.9-yearshorter life expectancy and a much higherincidence of hypertension and stroke comparedwith white Americans. Although poverty,discrimination, and limited access to health careexplain some of these statistics, mistrust of " white" health care institutions can exacerbate theproblem
African Americans practicing as traditional midwives usefolk methods rather than nursing school training in theirpractice. Their dissatisfaction grew with medical doctorswho insisted on hospitalization. They referred to the medicalprofessions tendency to force delivery or perform aCaesarean after so many hours of labor as a " technologicalbirth " , not a humanistic birth, not a holistic birth. Religious faith and prayer remain powerful influences withinthe black Christian community. Religious healing is oftenthe first resort for devout black Christians and churchinvolvement is associated with improved health and socialwell being.
Root medicine is an African healing traditioncommon in the Southern United States inwhich healers or " root doctors " useincantations to heal the mind and body.Witchcraft and " fixing " ( i.e. causing spells tocause illness ) are widely accepted butseldom discussed openly. Conspiracytheories may be common in some blackcommunities. For example, some blacks arereluctant to donate organs because theybelieve that they will receive less aggressivecare.
Health and healing are among the most important concerns of NativeAmerican ritual. It is essential to understand the concept of healthother than in terms of Western medicine. One of the main differences between Western medicine and NativeAmerican medicine is that most Indian concepts of health and dailyliving is centered on wellness not illness. Many Native American culture understand illness not as the result ofsome biochemical, physiological, or psychological malady, but as asign of disorder in society or the world, which is reflected in theillness of an individual. Diagnosis thus consists of discerning thestatus of the country or the world. Healing requires repairing orrestructuring the environmental concerns.
The term " medicine " does not have quite the same meaning for anative American Indian as it does in white society. The wordmedicine is not necessarily synonymous with curative. In Northern Plains tribes, the word medicine connotes themysterious, that is, things beyond powers of human understanding.With this wider definition of medicine, the medicine man was not onlythe doctor, but also the diviner, the rainmaker, the soothsayer, theprophet, the priest, and in some instances, the chief or king. So greatwas the influence of the medicine man upon his people that hebecame obstacle number one for the Europeans who tried to imposetheir culture. In most cases, whatever the medicine man refused. thepeople also refused to accept. Today it is common to choosealternative medicine even in most affluent and scientificallyadvanced communities. When modern medicine fails, people seeksources that are unconventional and often far from scientificallyproven.
Latinos are believed to be the United States minority group.Poverty, immigration status, and mistrust of the medicalestablishment may keep many Latinos from seeking healthcare. Latino healing traditions includes Curanderismo in Mexico andmuch of Latin America, Sanferia in Brazil and Cuba, andEspiritismo in Puerto Rico. Most of these traditions distinguishnatural illness from supernatural illness. Curanderos ( traditional; healers ) use incantations and herbs,sobaderos practice manipulation, parteras are midwives andabuelas ( literally " grandmother " but they are not necessarilyrelated to the patient ) provide initial care.
Many traditional Latin American diagnoses remainpopular among US immigrants, but some traditionaltreatments, such as azarca and greta ( lead salts ) andazogue ( mercury ) are harmful. Traditional Latino diagnoses are often alternativecultural interpretations of common symptoms and maybe categorized as hot and cold illnesses. For example,essential hypertension may be considered a hotcondition that should be managed with cold therapiessuch as passion flower tea. It is critical to address thepatients understanding of such chronic diseases at thestart of the therapy.
Asians are culturally diverse group that includesChinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Koreans, andVietnamese nationalities. Traditional Chinese medicineremain popular. Chinese medicine is a tradition, inwhich treats the person as a whole using acupuncture,acupressure, and Chinese herbs. Dietary therapy,traditional herbal medicine, Western medicine, andsupernatural healing may be used. Clients may bereluctant to reveal their health care provider that theyhave been using alternative treatment. Chinesemedicine is based on keeping the bodys yin ( cold )and yang ( hot ) energies in harmonious balance.
India on one hand has a variety of medical systems ofwhich Western medicine is only one. Treatment andmedicine mixes fluidly with religion in Indian culture.The medical heritage of Muslim practices called unanitibbi integrates Arabic medicine, homeopathic systems,and regional and local health practices. Contrary toscientific understanding of germs, viruses, and geneticfaults, illness and diseases are considered to be amatter of imbalance in the doshas ( three body humors). Disease is caused by an imbalance of the bodilyhumors, and cured by a restoration of the balancethrough meditation, diet, and natural medicine.
Indian society prefers to treat patientsholistically, emphasizing prevention. Themajority of Indians use herbal remedies tocure illness. Root causes for diseases areconsidered to include many things such asphysical ailments, stress, and karma.Treatment of illness mostly involveschanges in diet, herbal remedies,massage, application of oil to key areasand rest.
Vietnamese are the Asians that view American health care asa way to relieve symptoms. They expect to be prescribedsomething to cure their illness immediately. Vietnamesefrequently discontinue medicines after their symptomsdisappear because they feel that if they do not experience anysymptoms, there is no illness. Therefore, preventive, long-termmedication must be discussed in length using culturallypertinent education. It is quite common for Vietnamesepatients to save large quantities of half-used antibiotics.Western medicines, especially oral medications, are seen asanother barrier to compliance. Vietnamese commonly believethat Western pharmaceuticals are developed for Americansand Europeans. They believe that the dosage are too strongfor their culture as to their body build so they might readjusttheir dosage to what they consider to be correct.
Vietnamese hold great respect for those witheducation, especially doctors. The doctor isconsidered the expert on health. They expectdoctors to diagnose and heal all in one visitwith little examination or invasive laboratoryor other diagnostic tests. In addition,laboratory procedures involving the drawingof blood are feared and even resisted byVietnamese, who believe that their bodycannot replace what was lost. Surgery isparticularly feared for this reason and is usedonly as last resort.
Lastly, for the Japanese. they believe that the body is as holyas the mind. Japanese culture does not place emphasis onpersonal control, they will be more likely to view an illness assomething outside their own control. Most of Westernmedicine is based on individual choice. Individual choice is aculturally bound issue and one that the Japanese will notalways share. Therefore, they will greatly appreciate guidancefrom health care providers regarding health-related issues.Health care providers should therefore plan interventionsusing structured, planned activities where roles andexpectations are clearly defined. Professionals should avoidphysical touching, which may cause anxiety in the Japanese.A more directive approach should be utilized when workingwith Japanese patients. Japanese patients typically prefer tobe guided through the world of Western medicine.