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Building Services Eng, JKA PSA

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  1. 1. TARIFF<br />
  2. 2. TOPIC 2 - TARIFF<br />
  3. 3. DEFINITION <br />Payment scale imposed by supplier towards the consumers.<br />Supplier <br />Peninsular Malaysia – TNB<br />Sarawak – SESCO<br />Sabah - SESB<br />
  4. 4. TYPES OF COSTS<br /> Suppliers had to cover two types of costs to produce electricity <br />Variable Costs <br />Fuel Cost, Generation Plants equipment spare parts etc<br /> Fixed Costs<br />Generation Plant Construction, distribution and transmission, emolument, insurance etc<br />
  5. 5.  TARIFF CLASSIFICATION<br />Three main classification<br />1.Equal Rate Tariff<br />2. Two Part Tariff<br />3. Block Tariff<br />
  6. 6. EQUAL RATE TARIFF<br />This tariff is divided into two type of payment. <br /> 1. Payment for lighting and fans. <br /> 2.Payment for power from socket outlet.<br />Is using two split meters. It is rarely use nowadays.<br />
  7. 7. EQUAL RATE TARIFF DIAGRAM<br />lamp<br />switch<br />Meter kwh<br />supply<br />power<br />
  8. 8. EXAMPLE EQUAL RATE TARIFF<br />A user use 100 units to light the lamps and 200 units of electricity from the socket outlet. This is equal rate tariff, so 20cents for each units of energy used in lighting and 25cents for each units of electric power from the socket outlet. Calculate the total energy used for the house in that month.<br /> For lighting: 100 units x 20cents = RM20.00<br /> For Power: 200 units x 25cents = RM50.00<br /> Total payment = RM70.00<br /> <br />
  9. 9. TWO PARTS TARIFF<br />This tariff is divided into two type of payment.<br />1.Payment for Maximum Demand. Permanent usage of energy for each month is called Maximum Demand. Its measured by kW. <br />2.Payment for the rest usage of energy.<br />
  11. 11. EXAMPLE TWO PART TARIFF<br /> A factory used 200 additional units and the maximum demand for the month is 4kW. How much will be paid by the consumer if RM12.00 for each kW maximum demand and 7cents for additional units used for that month?<br /> For Maximum demand: 4kW x RM12.00 = RM48.00<br /> <br /> For Additional Units: 200 units x 7cents = RM14.00<br /> <br /> Total payment = RM62.00<br />
  12. 12. BLOCK TARIFF<br /> This tariff is divided into three scales. <br /> Only one power meter is used. <br /> First scale for any usage of power under certain <br /> units.<br />Second scale for any usage above first units. <br /> Third scale for any usage above second units.<br />
  13. 13. BLOCK TARIFF DIAGRAM<br />METER KWH<br />SUPPLY<br />POWER <br />& LAMP<br />SWITCH<br />
  14. 14. EXAMPLE BLOCK TARIFF<br />A house used 300 units of electricity in that month. Block tariff is used where first 100 units is charged 25cents a unit, 50 secondary units is charged 20 cents a unit and the rest units is charged 23cents a unit. How much is needed to pay the bill?<br /> 1st 100 units = 100 x 25 cents = RM25.00<br /> 2nd 50 units = 50 x 20cents = RM10.00<br /> 3rd 150 units = 150 x 23cents = RM34.50<br /> <br /> Total payment = RM69.50<br /> <br /> <br />
  15. 15. TARIFF RATES<br />Tariff RatesPrint this page <br />“Domestic Consumer” means a consumer occupying a private dwelling, which is not used as a hotel, boarding house or used for the purpose of carrying out any form of business, trade, professional activities or services.<br />TARIFF CATEGORYUNITTariff A – <br />Domestic Tariff   For Monthly Consumption Between 0-400 kWh/month  <br /> For the first 200 kWh (1 - 200 kWh) per month sen/kWh 21.8<br /> For the next 200 kWh (201 -400 kWh) per month sen/kWh 33.4 <br />The minimum monthly charge is RM3.00  <br />For Monthly Consumption More Than 400 kWh/month   <br />For the first 500kWh (1-500kWh) per month sen/kWh 28.6 <br />For the next 100 kWh (501-600kWh) per month sen/kWh 37.8 <br />For the next 100 kWh (601-700kWh) per month sen/kWh 38.7<br /> For the next 100 kWh (701-800kWh) per month sen/kWh 39.7 <br />For the next 100 kWh (801-900kWh) per month sen/kWh 41.7<br /> For the next kWh (901 kWh onwards) per month sen/kWh 44.6 <br />The minimum monthly charge is RM3.00  <br />
  16. 16. Tariff B - Low Voltage Commercial Tariff   <br /> For Overall Monthly Consumption Between 0-200 kWh/month  <br /> For all kWh sen/kWh 37.0 <br /> The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20    <br />For Overall Monthly Consumption More Than 200 kWh/month  <br /> For all kWh (From 1kWh onwards) sen/kWh 39.7 <br /> The minimum monthly charge is RM7.20  <br />Tariff C1 - Medium Voltage General Commercial Tariff  <br /> For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month RM/kW23.93 <br /> For all kWh sen/kWh 28.8<br /> The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00  <br /> Tariff C2 - Medium Voltage Peak/Off-Peak Commercial Tariff  <br /> For each kilowatt of maximum demand per month during the peak period <br /> RM/Kw 35.60 <br /> For all kWh during the peak period sen/kWh 28.8 <br /> For all kWh during the off-peak period sen/kWh 17.7 <br /> The minimum monthly charge is RM600.00<br />
  17. 17. EXERCISE<br />
  18. 18. How much will be paid by PnArduniwati<br />
  19. 19. TARIFF SYSTEM FEATURES<br />Obtain a reasonable return to the supplier<br />Appropriate and acceptable to the various types of users.<br />Easily understood by all levels of users<br />Suppliers will have little benefit with affordable rates paid by consumers<br />
  20. 20. Factors that influence the cost of raising<br />Diversity factor = the max. number of user request / max. load at station<br />Load factor = average demand/max demand<br /> = energy produced in one period/<br /> max. demand x at the same time period<br />Plant capacity factor = average demand /<br /> installed capacity<br />
  21. 21. LOAD CURVE<br />Graphic records to show the demand for power at all times in a period of time. <br />Its shows the view provided an overview of the load time at that time<br />
  22. 22. The information can be obtained from the load curve<br />Area under the curve gives the total energy produced in that period.<br />The ratio of area under the curve and the total are of the square containing the curve ( refer to the max. load), giving a load factor for the period.<br />Curve gives the max. peak demand at the station at the same period.<br />Area under the curve period of time in hours = average demand during that period.<br />* Max request- the max load imposed on a power station in one period ( day, week, month or year<br />
  23. 23. EXAMPLEPower station to generate electricity as a request under the load<br />
  24. 24. Draw an curve load and find :<br />Station maximum demand<br />Total generation<br />Average load<br />Load factor<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. RESULT<br />Maximum demand = 11000 kw<br />Total generation = area under the graph <br /> (3500 x 6) + ( 11000x6) + (4500x4) + (10000x4) + (6000x4) <br /> = 21000 + 66000 + 18000 +40000 + 24000<br /> = 169000kwh<br />Average load = total gen. / period<br /> = 169000 / 24<br /> = 7041.7 kw<br />Load factor = average load/max demand<br /> = 7041.7 / 11000 = 0.64 @ 64%<br />