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(Phil 6334) Learning about world in face of error (questions)? & Flow Chart overview of Phil of Sci movements 1930-today
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(Phil 6334) Learning about world in face of error (questions)? & Flow Chart overview of Phil of Sci movements 1930-today

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PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: How Do We Learn About the World In The Face of Uncertainty and Error? (Questions to Ask) …

PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: How Do We Learn About the World In The Face of Uncertainty and Error? (Questions to Ask)
FLOW CHART overview of Philosophy of Science movements 1930-today.
(from D. Mayo 6334 slides)

Published in: Education

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  • 1. D. Mayo PHILOSOPHY: Understand and Justify Human Knowledge About the World PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: How Do We Learn About the World In The Face of Uncertainty and Error?  Is there a scientific method?  How do we obtain good evidence?  How do we make reliable inferences from evidence?  What makes an inquiry “scientific” or rational?  Is there scientific progress? Problems with answers from logic empiricist philosophers of science:     Is there a scientific method? The “logics” for science are oversimple, open to paradoxes Standard canons are violated in actual science Scientific methods change with changing aims, values, technologies, societies How do we obtain good evidence?  empirical data are uncertain, finite, probabilistic  data are not just “given”, they have to be interpreted introducing biases, theory-ladenness, value-ladenness (scientific, social, ethical, economic) How do we make reliable inferences from evidence?  Inductivist: cannot justify “induction”  logics of induction failed  Falsificationist: deduction won’t teach anything new; cannot pinpoint blame for a failed prediction What makes an inquiry “scientific” or rational?  None of the philosophical attempts to erect a demarcation for science seem to work. Is there scientific progress?  no account of cumulative growth of knowledge  old “paradigms” are swept away by new ones which are “incommensurable” with the old
  • 2. D. Mayo PHILOSOPHY: Understand and Justify Human Knowledge About the World PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: How Do We Learn About the World In The Face of Uncertainty and Error? LOGICAL EMPIRICIST ATTEMPTS: 1930-60 “Armchair Philosophy of Science” Inductive Logics: C(h,e) Logic of Falsification Carnap Popper Problems, Paradoxes “Historicism in Philosophy of Science” KUHN (1962) CRISIS IN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE POST-POSITIVISM STS/ HPS pessimistic optimistic New Models of Rationality “naturalistic turn” Relativism Search for More THEORY CHANGE PostAdequate Theories of modernism MOVEMENT-1970s, 80s Induction, Testing, & Kuhn, Lakatos, Laudan anarchy “Rational Reconstruction” Decision-Making dadaism BAYESIANS irrationality Inference as updating degrees of social belief constructivism Sc New Experimentalist Turn 1980s,1990s Error Statistical Philosophy: Mayo 1996?