Chapter 10- A Changing Nation 1815-1840
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Chapter 10- A Changing Nation 1815-1840

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Overview of chapter 10

Overview of chapter 10

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Chapter 10- A Changing Nation 1815-1840 Chapter 10- A Changing Nation 1815-1840 Presentation Transcript

  • 1815-1840
  • Section 1: Building a Nation  The Era of Good Feelings  The War of 1812 resulted with the Republicans in control of the government.  Republican candidate, James Monroe, won the 1816 presidential election in a landslide!  This was a huge defeat for the Federalist Party and in a few years the party had disappeared.
  •  President Monroe‘s major belief was promoting national unity.  A local newspaper coined this new sense of national unity as the “Era of Good Feelings.”  Monroe was reelected in 1820.
  • Building the National Economy  There was a growing belief that the federal government should increase economic prosperity.  This belief came from different regions. Three major Congress members who favored federal action were Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster.
  • Henry Clay Spoke for the people located in the West.  Better roads and canals to transport goods from one region to another.  Wanted to three regions of the country to trade with one another 
  • John C. Calhoun Spoke for the people in the South  Believed in the idea of states‘ rights.  Opposed tariffs because they raised the price of goods that southerners bought. 
  • Daniel Webster  Spokesperson for the Northeast  A supporter of high tariffs as a way of protecting industry.
  • The Second Bank of the United States    Due to the Bank of the United States‗ charter running out, the economy suffered. In 1816, a second Bank of the United States was established. This control of the money supply gave a boost to American businesses.
  • The Tariff of 1816 After the War of 1812, British manufacturers looked to the United States to sell their products.  The British had the factories to produce goods at a lower price than the American companies.  The British‘s ability to sell goods below market price drove several American businesses out of business. 
  •  Congress answered the angry business owners with the Tariff of 1816.  Protective tariffs on foreign textiles, iron, leather goods, paper, and other products.  Even higher tariffs were passed by Congress in 1818 and 1824.  Popular in the North.  Resented in the South.
  • Clay’s American System    American System- high tariffs and a federal program of public works that would help the three regions. The wealth produced by tariffs would allow northerners to buy farm products from the West and South. Government revenue would be used to build up the infrastructure in the South and West.  Roads, bridges, and canals.  The South was not convinced.
  • Section 2: Dealing with other Nations    Relations with Spain. At the time of the War of 1812, Spain controlled more territory in the America‘s than any other European country. However, this power was steadily weakening. Spain‘s control was especially weak in Florida due to having no control of slave escapees joining the Seminole Nation.
  • Andrew Jackson (soon to be 7th president) was sent by the U.S. to recapture the slaves.  He captures the escaped slaves, destroyed Seminole villages, seized two Spanish towns, and caused the governor to flee Florida.  It was clear that Spain could not protect Florida.  Spain ceded Florida to the United States in the Adams Onis treaty of 1819. 
  • Spanish Colonies win Independence The American and French revolutions were causing movements in almost all Spanish colonies. There was an uncontrollable tension calling for change in Latin America.  It was in 1821 that Spain agreed to Mexico‘s independence.  By 1825, most areas in Latin America had thrown off European rule. 
  • Monroe Doctrine President Monroe and his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, were concerned that several European powers were going to assist Spain to regain its colonies.  United States and Britain wanted to remain trading partners with Latin America.  The doctrine states that new European settlements would not be allowed. Any attempt would ne considered ―dangerous to our peace and safety.‖  The Monroe Doctrine boosted the influence of the United States in the region.  
  • Section 3: The Age of Jackson     John Quincy Adams and Jackson in Conflict Andrew Jackson was a wealthy man when he took the role as president. However, he began life with very little. ―Old Hickory‖ The idea that ordinary people should participate in American political life I am tough as a hickory tree!
  • The Election of 1824       Four people ran for president in 1824, including:  John Quincy Adams  Andrew Jackson  Henry Clay  William Crawford NO candidate won a majority of electoral votes The choice was between Jackson and John Quincy Adams Election had to be decided in the House of Representatives Speaker of the House Henry Clay made a “corrupt bargain” with John Quincy Adams . John Quincy Adams became president. Clay became Sec. of State. FYI: Another political party developed…The AntiJacksons (called the Whigs)
  • The Presidency of John Quincy Adams  Although John Quincy Adams had ambitious plans, he accomplished very little.  Supported Clay‘s American System and wanted the federal government to play a larger role in supporting the economy   He lacked the political skill to push his programs through Congress. John Quincy Adams only served one term due to the fact that he could never win the trust of the American people.
  •  A New Era in Politics  Suffrage ○ The right to vote  Voters chose the presidential electors  Democracy in the Age of Jackson  Ordinary people should vote in elections and hold public office.  Did not trust the government  Supporters called themselves Jacksonians  Suspicious of banks
  • Bell work:       Place the state http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/states_e xperiment_dragdrop_Intermed_State15s_500.html Click on the state http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/USA_Ge ography/USA_G0_click_1024.html Map movie http://www.animatedatlas.com/movie-verse.html
  •  New Political Party  The two party system returned after ending briefly during the Era of Good Feelings.  Republican party was spilt: - John Quincy Adams -> National Republicans - Jackson -> Democrats  Jackson vs Clay  Jackson was victorious!  Two major political parties: Democrats and Whigs ○ The Whigs wanted the government to improve the country‘s economy. These were the rich business people and southern farmers. ○ The Democrats included the average people, frontier farmers as well as factory workers.
  • Election Changes  Jacksonian Democracy  Jackson‘s supporters wanted to make the voting system more democratic: ○ Eliminated the caucus system  Political candidates chosen by Congressmen ○ Created nominating conventions  Delegates selected a party‘s candidate based on the people‘s vote  Jackson did the best in the West and South
  •  Jackson’s Inauguration  Victory for the ―common man‖  ―It was the People‘s day, and the People‘s President, and the People would rule.‖
  • The Spoils of Victory  ―To the victory go the spoils…‖  Jackson replaced some government officials with his campaign supporters.  He believed that he was expanding democracy by these actions. 
  • Section 4: Indian Removal  Native American of the Southeast  10,000 Native Americans still lived east of MS ○ Many were farmers or lived in towns  Cherokees’ leader Sequoyah  Established a government based on written constitution (1827)
  •  Conflict over land  Native Americans lived on fertile land  Forced Movement  The Indian Removal Act (1830) carried out by President Jackson to help the U.S. expand westward  Remove Native Americans from land east of the Mississippi River  Relocate them to the ―Indian Territory‖—land west of the Mississippi River, present day Oklahoma
  •  Removal of Choctaws ○ The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek of 1830 (Choctaws) ○ Unfair to Natives ○ Lots of suffering and thousands died along the trips westward  Cherokee Removal ○ Still had their land in 1837 (Jackson‘s presidency) ○ President Martin Van Buren forced the Cherokees to move. ○ Trail of Tears
  • Trail of Tears  http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resour ce/akh10.socst.ush.exp.trail/trail-oftears/
  • Black Hawk War April-August, 1832 Who was involved?  Native Americans  (led by Black Hawk)chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes VS Americans.  Where?  Illinois and Wisconsin 
  • What happened?       The Native Americans had land in Illinois and Wisconsin. In the 1820‘s, the U.S. took it away. They forced Black Hawk‘s people to sign treaties giving up their land. Black Hawk began raiding white settlements. U.S. troops (General Henry Atkinson) pursued the tribe. Black Hawk surrendered, but Atkinson's men opened fire anyway, killing 200 women, children and warriors. Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned for a year. Then he rejoined the remnants of his tribe on a reservation in Iowa.
  • Did you know… Abraham Lincoln enlisted in an Illinois militia unit during the Black Hawk War. He became a captain, but did not see action.  Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) Also fought in the war. 
  • Section 5: State’s Rights and the Economy  The Bank War  The Second Bank of the United States earned strong support from business people.  On the other hand, many Americans disliked the Bank. They opposed the way the bank restricted loans made by state banks. This limited the amount of money the banks could lend, which angered farmers and merchants.  The Bank‘s most powerful enemy was Andrew Jackson, who called the Bank ―the Monster.‖
  • In this cartoon, President Jackson battles the Bank of the United States and its branches.
  •  The Bank‘s president, Nicholas Biddle, was having Congress renew the Bank‘s charter.  ―The Bank. . . Is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!‖ – Jackson  Immediate veto! ○ Although many Americans thought Jackson took too much power as president, most agreed with his veto of the bank and he won reelection in 1832.  John c. Calhoun ->VP ○ Shortly after he was reelected he decided to ―kill the bank!‖ ○ He withdrew all government deposits and the bank was forced to shut down.
  •  Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun were once friends. They became fierce opponents in a quarrel over state's rights, or the right of the states to limit the power of the federal government.
  • The Nullification Crisis The South was still upset about the high tariffs that were put into place in 1828.  The South responded by trying to nullify the tariff   States had a right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law it considered unconstitutional  Some southern states wanted to secede, or break away from the U.S.  Basically this was a conflict over how much power the federal government should have
  •  Arguments for Nullification  John C. Calhoun ○ The union grew from an agreement between the various states. Each state kept certain powers ○ If the federal government could enforce this unjust law, could it also use its power to end slavery?  Arguments against Nullification  Senator Daniel Webster ○ The Unites States had been formed by the entire American people, not states.
  • The Vice President Resigns  Calhoun soon afterward resigned his office of Vice President. Martin Van Buren became Jackson‘s Vice President in 1833. I am the new Vice-President of 1833.
  • South Carolina Threatens to Secede passed this to try to solve the problem  Congress in the south  It was a lower tariff  It did not please the south South Carolina voted to nullify the tariffs  They also warned the federal govt. not to use force to impose the tariffs  Jackson was furious. He issued a ―Proclamation to the People of South Carolina.‖ It said that the Union could not be dissolved  Unable to win support from other states, South Carolina then repealed its tariff nullification 
  • The End of the Jackson Era Jackson retired from office after two long terms.  Martin Van Buren   Jackson‘s choice  He was Jackson‘s secretary of state and vice president.  Elected in 1836 over the Whig party ○ The Whigs were a group of people who disliked Jackson and had tried to prevent any candidate from receiving a majority of electoral votes. ○ However, Van Buren received a majority of both the electoral and the popular vote.
  •   The Panic of 1837  During his term in office, a depression occurred. ○ Hundreds of banks went bankrupt.  The people who had supported Jackson turned against Van Buren and the Whigs gained ground The Election of 1840  Van Buren vs. William Harrison (Whig candidate) ○ Harrison won!  The Whigs were in power and the Age of Jackson was over.