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Censorship
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  • Censorship- the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient to the government or media organizations as determined by a censor.
  • a bill signed in 1798 by John Adams requiring all those who spoke out against the government to back up their statements in court or else be punished criminally. 1873-In 1872, feminist Victoria Woodhull published an account of an affair between a celebrity evangelical minister and one of his parishioners. Comstock, who despised feminists, requested a copy of the book under a fake name, then reported Woodhull and had her arrested on obscenity charges. He soon became head of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, where he successfully campaigned for a 1873 federal obscenity law, commonly referred to as the Comstock Act, that allowed warrantless searches of the mail for "obscene" materials. Comstock later boasted that during his career as censor, his work led to the suicides of 15 alleged "smut-peddlers." 1930- The Hays Code was never enforced by the government--it was voluntarily agreed upon by film distributors--but the threat of government censorship made it necessary. The U.S. Supreme Court had already ruled in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio (1915) that movies were not protected by the First Amendment, and some foreign films had been seized on obscenity charges. The film industry adopted the Code as a means of avoiding outright federal censorship. The Code, which regulated the industry from 1930 until 1968, banned what you might expect it to ban--violence, sex, profanity--but also prohibited portrayals of interracial or same-sex relationships, as well as any content that was deemed anti-religious or anti-Christian. 1954- Like the Hays Code, the Comics Code Authority is a voluntary industry standard. Because comics are still primarily read by children, and because it has historically been less binding on retailers than the Hays Code was on distributors, the CCA is less dangerous than its film counterpart. This may be why it is still in use today, though most comic book publishers ignore it and no longer submit material for CCA approval. The driving force behind the CCA was the fear that violent, dirty, or otherwise questionable comics might turn children into juvenile delinquents--the central thesis of Frederic Wertham's 1954 bestseller Seduction of the Innocent (which also argued, less credibly, that the Batman-Robin relationship might turn children gay). 1971- The massive military study titled United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense , later known as the Pentagon Papers, was supposed to be classified. But when excerpts of the document were leaked to the New York Times in 1971, which published them, all hell broke loose--with President Richard Nixon threatening to have journalists indicted for treason, and federal prosecutors attempting to block further publication. (They had reason to do so; the documents revealed that U.S. leaders had--among other things--specifically taken measures to prolong and escalate the unpopular war.) In June 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the Times could legally publish the Papers. 1996- The Communications Decency Act of 1996 mandated a federal prison sentence of up to two years for anyone who...uses any interactive computer service to display in a manner available to a person under 18 years of age, any comment, request, suggestion, proposal, image, or other communication that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs.The Supreme Court mercifully struck the Act down in ACLU v. Reno (1997), but the concept of the bill was revived with the Child Online Protection Act (COPA) of 1998, which criminalized any content deemed "harmful to minors." Courts immediately blocked COPA, which was formally struck down in 2009. 2004- During the live-broadcast Super Bowl halftime show on February 1st, 2004, Janet Jackson's right breast was exposed (sort of) and the FCC responded to an organized campaign by enforcing indecency standards more aggressively than it ever had before. Soon every expletive uttered at an awards show, every bit of nudity (even pixellated nudity) on reality television, and every other potentially offensive act became a possible target of FCC scrutiny. But the FCC has gotten more relaxed over the past five years, and under the Obama administration is likely to become more so still. Meanwhile, the U.S. Supreme Court will review the original Janet Jackson "wardobe malfunction" fine--and with it the FCC's indecency standards--later in 2009.
  • The ruling body for regulating entertainment in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission or FCC. This all-powerful body was designed to regulate exactly what is heard on the radio, seen on TV and generally most forms of public communication. While the commission is not supposed to infringe upon First Amendment rights, it can censor based on indecent or obscene material. The radio is one of the FCC’s main areas of interest due to the growing popularity of songs which include often profane lyrics. From the times of 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. the FCC is able to regulate the radio and allow only edited songs, as they deem this time period as a time where children are part of the audience. But how necessary or even effective is this? For instance, in singer Jeremih’s song Birthday Sex he used many very clear phrases about sex and pleasuring women yet the only word changed on the edited version is sex. The song is instead Birthday Texts. Texts sounds just like sex you might say, or also the fact that sex as a word is much more tame than the FCC approved phrase of “g-spot.” Another unusual trend in censorship is censoring only the word “god” in the phrase “god damn.” If using the Lord’s name in vain is bad, shouldn’t the use of a swear word before be censored also? The FCC’s methods are unusual and deemed criminal by some, but they have had a chilling effect in keeping down the number of cases of indecency in media by issuing large fines. According to their website they handed down an excess of “8 million dollars in fines in 2004” which covered only 12 cases. Now that’s scare tactics. Also, The FCC has similar power to the governing bodies of the US, such as the Senate or House of Representatives. But, unlike those bodies the FCC board is not
  • Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of unflattering but objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. It is also the suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power. The government often has the power of the army and the secret police , to enforce the compliance of journalists with the will of the government to extol the story that the government wants people to believe, at times even with bribery, ruin of careers, imprisonment, and even assassination. This type of censorship can be used to manipulate the political ideals and views of the population. Journalists are often victims of political censorship as they often attempt to tell the story as it is, often to the detriment of the government.
  • Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet . All The People's Republic of China , which continues Communist rule in politics, if not in the controlled economy, employs some 30,000 'Internet police' to monitor the internet and popular search engines such as Google and Yahoo . Google is actually shutting down operations in China because of attempts by the government to hack their system. Many Middle Eastern/African countries are beginning to use Internet Censorship to control what their people look at or learn on the Internet. This is often an extended form of political censorship.
  • Parents and educators fear that their children will be subjected to material they are not prepared for when it comes to reading literature in school. They fear premature exposure to sex, drugs, profanity, or other obscene situations. Prevents children from developing coping mechanisms and doesn’t allow them to be exposed to real world situations. Many books have been banned for vulgar or objectionable diction, not to mention some that have been banned for using the Lord’s name in vain. Students who read books that contain none of these types of controversial words are bound to encounter them elsewhere and schools are robbing students of the experience of knowing how to handle these occurrences in speech or literature. The most widely accepted type of censorship is censoring material that does not just present an idea but instead attempts to sway to an idea. Example- Hitler’s Mein Kampf
  • In California, school officials have changed textbooks regulations to keep offensive material from getting into textbooks. Historical references, images and phrases have all been either suppressed or changed in order to provide a more “politically correct” learning environment. Some of the changes include: Not referring to the “Founding Fathers” as anything but “the Framers” to avoid being sexist, not depicting unhealthy foods such as hot dogs, sodas or cake, Mount Rushmore can no longer appear in textbooks because Native Americans find it offensive, and even yachts are banned for being an elitist symbol. These lawmakers have taken censorship to a completely new level. This new level is characterized by making an “art form of being offended,” says Rev. Jerry Falwell of WorldDailyNews.net. Unless we as a society set clear limits on censorship now, the epidemic of over-censorship will soon control all of us. If every person who gets offended is allowed to dictate what is censored; our country will soon grow out of control.

Transcript

  • 1. Censorship Jamie McNeill
  • 2. What is Censorship
    • Suppression or deletion of-
    • Speech
    • Political views
    • Print
    • The Internet
  • 3. History in America
    • 1798- John Adams
    • New York Society for the Suppression of Vice
    • Movie Industry
    • Comic book industry
    • Internet
    • Television (Wardrobe Malfunction)
  • 4. FCC/ Censorship on the Radio
    • The ruling body for regulating entertainment in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission or FCC
    • From the times of 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. the FCC is able to regulate the radio and allow only edited songs, as they deem this time period as a time where children are part of the audience. But how necessary or even effective is this? For instance, in singer Jeremih’s song Birthday Sex he used many very clear phrases about sex and pleasuring women yet the only word changed on the edited version is sex. The song is instead Birthday Texts. Texts sounds just like sex you might say, or also the fact that sex as a word is much more tame than the FCC approved phrase of “g-spot.” Another unusual trend in censorship is censoring only the word “god” in the phrase “god damn.” If using the Lord’s name in vain is bad, shouldn’t the use of a swear word before be censored also?
    • Improper governing system-The FCC has similar power to the governing bodies of the US, such as the Senate or House of Representatives. But, unlike those bodies the FCC board is not elected by the people.
  • 5. Political Censorship
    • Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of unflattering but objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. It is also the suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power. The government often has the power of the army and the secret police, to enforce the compliance of journalists with the will of the government to extol the story that the government wants people to believe, at times even with bribery, ruin of careers, imprisonment, and even assassination.
    • This type of censorship can be used to manipulate the political ideals and views of the population.
    • Journalists are often victims of political censorship as they often attempt to tell the story as it is, often to the detriment of the government.
    • Vietnam War Papers
    • African countries
  • 6. Internet Censorship
    • Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet.
    • The People's Republic of China, which continues Communist rule in politics, if not in the controlled economy, employs some 30,000 'Internet police' to monitor the internet and popular search engines such as Google and Yahoo. Google is actually shutting down operations in China because of attempts by the government to hack their system.
    • Many Middle Eastern/African countries are beginning to use Internet Censorship to control what their people look at or learn on the Internet.
    • This is often an extended form of political censorship.
    • Contents
    • [ hide]
    • 1 Software
      • 1.1 Technical censorship
  • 7. Reporters Without Borders Internet censorship ratings.       No censorship      Blue Some censorship       Yellow Under surveillance       Red Internet black holes Black
  • 8. Censorship in Schools
    • Fears of parents- Parents and educators fear that their children will be subjected to material they are not prepared for when it comes to reading literature in school.
    • They fear premature exposure to sex, drugs, profanity, or other obscene situations. Prevents children from developing coping mechanisms and doesn’t allow them to be exposed to real world situations.
    • Many books have been banned for vulgar or objectionable diction, not to mention some that have been banned for using the Lord’s name in vain. Students who read books that contain none of these types of controversial words are bound to encounter them elsewhere and schools are robbing students of the experience of knowing how to handle these occurrences in speech or literature.
    • The most widely accepted type of censorship is censoring material that does not just present an idea but instead attempts to sway to an idea. Example- Hitler’s Mein Kampf
    • Prevents development
    • Most widely accepted method
    • Violation of First Amendment
  • 9. Censorship to the Extreme/Book Banning
    • In California, school officials have changed textbooks regulations to keep offensive material from getting into textbooks. Historical references, images and phrases have all been either suppressed or changed in order to provide a more “politically correct” learning environment. Some of the changes include: Not referring to the “Founding Fathers” as anything but “the Framers” to avoid being sexist, not depicting unhealthy foods such as hot dogs, sodas or cake, Mount Rushmore can no longer appear in textbooks because Native Americans find it offensive, and even yachts are banned for being an elitist symbol.
    • 100 Most Challenged Books 1990-2000
    • Book Banning in Iowa
    • Part 2
    • Reasons for classics being banned
    • Chinese Censorship
  • 10. Works Cited
    • ALA | Home - American Library Association . Web. 13 Jan. 2010. <http://ala.org>.
    • &quot;Censorship: The Negative Effects Parents Don't Know About -.&quot; Associated Content - associatedcontent.com . Web. 08 Dec. 2009. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1715279/censorship_the_negative_effects_parents.html?cat=47>.
    • Falwell, Jerry. &quot;Politically correct censorship abuse.&quot; Blessed Cause . Web. 08 Dec. 2009.
    • &quot;Radio Censorship and the FCC -.&quot; Associated Content - associatedcontent.com . Web. 08 Dec. 2009. <http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2343622/radio_censorship_and_the_fcc_pg3.html?cat=9>.
    • <http://www.blessedcause.org/BlessedCause%20Exclusives%20II/BanEverything.htm>.