The Divine Comedy


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The Divine Comedy

  1. 1. The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri By: Jose Emmanuel Maningas and Kenneth Solomon
  2. 2. When you hear the word “Divine Comedy”, what comes into your mind?
  3. 3. How does Dante’s Divine Comedy try help men and women prepare for the afterlife?
  4. 4. Do you think Dante’s Divine Comedy is real? Why?
  5. 5. Dante’s Divine Comedy  The Divine Comedy is an allegory of a human soul’s journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven. Allegory is a work in which the characters and events are to be understood as representing other things and symbolically expressing a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning.  Some regard it as a real Divine intervention, others regard it as a literary piece of work. What matters most is the engraftment of the work in the minds and hearts of the people throughout the world in different generations.
  6. 6. Spotlight on the Author Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) was born in Florence of a prominent family. He apparently played a leading part in politics, rising to the highest local position in 1300. Soon afterwards, another party rose to power. Dante was accused of a crime and was exiled. Later, a decree was passed pardoning all exiles on condition that they paid a fine. Dante refused to pay the fine. He continued to live at his place of exile, Ravenna, where his daughter was a nun and his son a benefice. He was well-liked at Ravenna, and when he died, he was buried with the highest honors.
  7. 7. Vocabulary 1. Bemoaning his fate - to express grief or disappointment about something. 2. Without cessation - a stop, pause, or interruption, especially a permanent discontinuation.
  8. 8. Vocabulary 3. Carved cornices - the top projecting section of the part of a classical building that is supported by the columns entablature. 4. Purging of sins - to make somebody or something pure and free from guilt, sin, or defilement.
  9. 9. The Journey to Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven
  10. 10. 1st Circle: Limbo 2nd Circle: The Lustful 3rd Circle: The Gluttonous 4th Circle: The Avaricious and Prodigal 5th Circle: The Wrathful & Sullen 6th Circle: Heretics 7th Circle: The Violent 8th Circle: The Fraud 9th Circle: Treachery
  11. 11. The Four Rivers of Hell Acheron – the river between Neutrals and Limbo  Styx – the river between the 5th Circle and the Wall of Dis (Satan) which covers the 6th Circle.  Phlegethon – the river between the 6th Circle and the 7th Circle  Cocytus – the river which separates the 9th Circle and the place where Lucifer rests.
  12. 12. The Three Rings of the Seventh Circle  First Ring: Violence against neighbors: Tyrants and Murderers.  Second Ring: Violence against themselves (Suicides) and against their possesions (Squanderers)  Third Ring: Violence against God:  First Zone: Blasphemers  Second Zone: Sodomites  Third Zone: Usurers
  13. 13. The Ten Pouches of the Eighth Circle  First Pouch: Panders and Seducers  Second Pouch: Flatterers  Third Pouch: Simonists  Fourth Pouch: Diviners, Astrologers, & Magicians  Fifth Pouch: Barrators  Sixth Pouch: Hypocrites  Seventh Pouch: Thieves  Eighth Pouch: Fraudulent Counselors  Ninth Pouch: Sowers of Scandal and Schism  Tenth Pouch: Falsifiers of Metals, Persons, Coins and Words
  14. 14. The Earthly Paradise 7th Terrace: The Lustful 6th Terrace: The Gluttonous 5th Terrace: The Avaricious and the Prodigal 4th Terrace: The Slothful 3rd Terrace: The Wrathful 2nd Terrace: The Envious 1st Terrace: The Prideful Excessive Love of Earthly Goods Insufficient Love Perverted Love
  15. 15. The Terraces of Purgatory Temporal Punishment The 1st Terrace The Prideful punished by bearing the weight of heavy stones The 2nd Terrace The Envious punished by having their eyelids sewn up with iron wires The 3rd Terrace The Wrathful punished by dark smoke The 4th Terrace The Slothful made to run without respite The 5th Terrace The Avaricious, with bound hand and foot, lie stretched on the ground, face down The 6th Terrace The Gluttonous, condemned to emaciating hunger and thirst The 7th Terrace The Lustful, purified through fire
  16. 16. Empyrean 9th Sphere: Primum Mobile 8th Sphere: Fixed Stars 7th Sphere: Saturn 6th Sphere: Jupiter 5th Sphere: Mars 4th Sphere: Sun 3rd Sphere: Venus 2nd Sphere: Mercury 1st Sphere: Moon
  17. 17. The Heavens Reason why they where put there/What are they doing there 1st Heaven: Sphere of the Moon Site of those whose vows gave way before violence 2nd Heaven: Sphere of the Mercury Those here are those who gave service in life, but whose service was somewhat marred by ambition. 3rd Heaven: Sphere of the Venus Site of those who were lovers, but whose love was marred by wantonness
  18. 18. 4th Heaven: Sphere of the Sun Each of the spirits here is an ardent sun in their own right, glowing with the light of love. They dance and whirl about, and will circle around visitors such as Dante to inform them of what lies in this Heaven. They can also see the thoughts of visitors. Different groups of spirits may speak to visitors as they pass through this Heaven. 5th Heaven: Sphere of the Mars Each of the specks of light is a spirit, the souls of the soldiery of Christ, or, as a voice from the cross puts it 'In this fifth circle of the Eternal Tree of which no fruit shall fail, no leaf be shed, which from its summit with full life is fed, are spirits which before to Heaven they came were of such eminence of earthly fame as must the more exalt the loftiest song'.
  19. 19. 6th Heaven: Sphere of the Jupiter In this Heaven the spirits again glow with light, and wheel in ordered flight through the wide white star of Jupiter, singing as they go the Song of the Just. Each flight moves so as to form a golden letter on the face of the Heaven, and chants the Latin words and phrases which these letters, collected together, shape, such as 'Diligite Justitiam' and 'Qui Judicatis Terram'. When a word is formed, the spirits pause for a while before moving on to form new words and phrases in the Heaven. The spirits here are the just, Princes who have loved righteousness, and people who were once Pagans who are now in bliss. 7th Heaven: Sphere of the Saturn The souls are lucent spheres of beautiful light, who each enhance the light of the others, and who can whirl as they speak and ascend and descend the ladder. Those here are those who had given themselves to devout contemplation in life, and who practised temperance. This includes St Benedict.
  20. 20. 8th Heaven: Sphere of the Fixed Stars The spirits here are all vicars of Christ, who have done His will in life. One of the spirits of this Heaven, a sphere of light of the greatest beauty, is St. Peter. He examines Dante concerning Faith, and approves his answer with a triumphant cry through the Heaven of 'Deus Laudmus'. Following this, he is examined on Hope by St. James, who also approves his answer with a cry of delight from Heaven, and a clarion cry of 'sperent in te' from the spirits there which is accompanied by a glorious flash of white light. Lastly, St. John appears, the light emanating from him so bright that it blinds Dante (though not permanently). He examines Dante concerning Love. Again, Dante passes the examination, and the most sweet strain Dante has yet heard sounds through Heaven. A strong light strikes him and by it, Beatrice restores his sight, making it, in fact, better than before. 9th Heaven: Primum Mobile The spirits here are the Three Spheres of the Angels / Nine Choirs of Angels and the souls of those who were baptized before reaching the age of reason.
  21. 21. Seraphim Cherubim Thrones These are the highest order or choir of angels. They are the angels who are attendants or guardians before God's throne. Seraphim have six wings, two cover their faces, two cover their feet, and two are for flying. Cherubim rank after the seraphim and are the second highest in the nine hierarchies or choirs of angels. They were closely linked in God's glory. They are manlike in appearance and double-winged and were guardians of God's glory. They symbolized then, God's power and mobility. Thrones are the Angels of pure Humility, Peace and Submisssion. They reside in the area of the cosmos where material form begins to take shape. The lower Choir of Angels need the Thrones to access God.
  22. 22. Dominions Virtues Powers Dominions are Angels of Leadership. They regulate the duties of the angels, making known the commands of God. Virtues are known as the Spirits of Motion and control the elements. They are sometimes referred to as "the shining ones." They govern all nature. They have control over seasons, stars, moon; even the sun is subject to their command. They are also in charge of miracles and provide courage, grace, and valor. Powers are Warrior Angels against evil defending the cosmos and humans. They are known as potestates. They fight against evil spirits who attempt to wreak chaos through human beings.
  23. 23. Principalities Archangels Angels Given their hostility to God and humans due to sin, Christ's ultimate rule over them expresses the reign of the Lord over all in the cosmos. This is the Lordship of Christ, which reveals God's tremendous salvation in conquering sin and death at the cross, and now takes place in the Church. Archangels are generally taken to mean "chief or leading angel“, they are the most frequently mentioned throughout the Bible. They may be of this or other hierarchies as St. Michael Archangel, who is a princely Seraph. The Archangels have a unique role as God's messenger to the people at critical times in history and salvation as in The Annunciation and Apocalypse. These angels are closest to the material world and human begins. They deliver the prayers to God and God's answers and other messages to humans. Angels have the capacity to access any and all other Angels at any time. They are the most caring and social to assist those who ask for help.
  24. 24. 10th Heaven: Empyrean This is the highest Heaven, outside of time and space. It is the Heaven of God's immediate presence and the only real home of the angels and the redeemed, whose blessedness consists of their eternal vision of Him. The Empyrean was thus used as a name for the firmament, and in Christian literature, notably the Divine Comedy, for the dwelling-place of God, the blessed, celestial beings so divine they are made of pure light, and the source of light and creation. This is the true home of the Angels and Saints who praise God unconditionally and without hesitation. Seeing God satisfies their greatest desires.