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The earth’s hydrosphere

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  • 1. THE EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE
    • The Earth’s liquid water constitutes the hydrosphere.
    • 2. The vast majority of Earth’s water is in the oceans (salt water), with smaller, but geologically important, quantities of fresh water in lakes, rivers, and ground water.
    • 3. The components of the hydrosphere, as well as the cryosphere (frozen water), the atmosphere, and the biosphere, participate in the global hydrologic cycle.
    • 4. Earth’s water supply has had, since Earth was created, major influences on Earth’s climate, its landscape and mineralogy, the composition of its atmosphere, and on the origin and evolution of life.
    • 5. The total mass of Earth’s water is about 300 times the mass of the atmosphere.
    • 6. Without water, which facilitates the formation of carbonate rock, the atmospheric content of CO2 would be far higher than it is.
  • Volume Percent of Total_
    OCEANS 1,350 x 1015 m3 97.3
    CRYOSPHERE 29 x 1015 m3 2.1
    (Glaciers & Polar Ice)
    UNDERGROUND 8.4 x 1015 m3 0.6
    (Aquifers)
    LAKES & RIVERS 0.2 x 1015 m3 0.01
    ATMOSPHERE 0.013 x 1015 m3 0.001
    BIOSPHERE 0.0006 x 1015 m3 4 x 10-5
    THE EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE:Distribution of Water on Earth
  • 7. Distribution of Water on Earth
  • 8.
  • 9. The Hydrologic Cycle
  • 10. Typical Elevation Profile of Oceanic Margins
  • 11.
  • 12. Echo Sounders for Measuring Ocean Depths and Floor Profiles
  • 13. Major Topographic Divisions and Profile of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin