week 3 - Chapter 2 nonverbal communication week 3


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week 3 - Chapter 2 nonverbal communication week 3

  1. 1. Nonverbal Communication Communicating Without Using Words
  2. 2. Nonverbal Categories <ul><li>Sign language – Simple gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Action language – Stand up and walk out of a meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Object language – Jewelry, clothing, makeup, automobiles, furnitures. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nonverbal Process <ul><li>Cue – First, look for wordless cue: Good morning. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation – Secondly, match cue with our expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Inference – Draw an inference based on nonverbal cue and our expectations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reading and Misreading Nonverbal Cues <ul><li>Majority of us are easily misled. </li></ul><ul><li>People can usually read someone else’s feelings from facial expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Job interviews. </li></ul><ul><li>A clever applicant might make a point of smiling, gesturing and talking a lot during a job interview, but a savvy interviewer would be cautious about reading too much into that show of outgoingness. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functions of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Accenting – Emphasize some part of a verbal message (raise eyebrow). </li></ul><ul><li>Complimenting – Reinforce general tone or attitude of verbal communication (slumping posture and upright posture). </li></ul><ul><li>Contradicting – Contradict verbal messages we send, deliberately or unintentionally (Tears in eyes and quiver voice). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Regulating – Regulate the flow, pace and back and forth nature of verbal communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating – Repeat what verbal messages convey. Car keys in hand, and announce I’m leaving now. </li></ul><ul><li>Substituting – Take the place of verbal messages. (Thumbs up as encouragement). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principles of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal communication occurs in a context - Context is important to verbal messages and so is nonverbal. Folded arms and laid – back posture. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviours are usually packaged – Verbal and nonverbal messages are usually simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviour always communicates – All behaviour communicates. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Nonverbal behaviour is governed by rules – Certain expressions are same for all mankind, certain are not. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviour is highly believable – If we know the individuals, we are quick to believe nonverbal messages even if it contradicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviour is meta-communicational – communication about communication. Behaviours we exhibit while communicating is really about communication itself. Facial expression about the meal. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dimensions of the Nonverbal Code <ul><li>Body movement - kinesics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emblems – Dictionary definitions, thumbs up sign. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrators – Gestures that complement verbal signals, measure distance with the space between our hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect displays – Type and intensity of various emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulators – Controls flow of communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptors – Personal habit and self expressions, normally done in private or under pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye contact – can vary between societies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Communicator’s Physical Appearance <ul><li>Artifacts – Clothing, jewelry, eyeglasses, objects we own and decorate our office. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockbroker with 1986 Toyota. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Touch – Physical contact is essential to human existence. Social, and psychological balance, stimulation, security, and reassurance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional, social, sexual implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First meeting, good job done, welcome back party. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Paralanguage – How something is said and not to what is said. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal vocal cues involved in speech behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing, phrasing, tone, pitch and intensity of delivery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal qualifiers – principal cue to identify and interpret sarcasm and cynicism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps to identify emotional states and conversational turn – taking. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Space – proxemics; space communicates in many ways in the business world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office size, windows, what floor, distance from head of company = status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrinking cubicles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearing personal space. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration level, phone ringing, noise level. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hoteling – giving up of space. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working pods. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Effects of Space on Communication <ul><li>Better communication quality if less than 30 feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Categories of Personal Space: </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate – from actual touching to a distance of about 18 inches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevator, subway, car, airplane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid eye contact. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Personal – protective bubble defining our personal distance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close phase; 18 to 30 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far phase: 30 inches to 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common business phrase – “arm’s length relationship” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social – 4 – 12 feet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose visual detail, but clearly aware of presence and can easily make eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near phase – 4 to 7 feet; business conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far phase – 7 to 12 feet; business transactions. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Public – Close phase – 12 to 15 feet. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far phase – more than 25 feet. Individuals as part of landscape. Communication is difficult. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Time – use of time and how we view its role. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally determined to a large extent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North America, importance on punctuality and promptness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser extent European see it as a commodity that can be saved, wasted, spent or invested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South America – lateness is fashionable. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Colour – used in variety of ways with a long history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal intentions (this project have green light); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal reactions (the move prompted red flags); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underscore our moods (feeling blue today); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call our emotions (green with envy); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype and categorize others (blonde from Marketing). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colours play an important role, especially in food packaging and food purchase decision (green). </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Smell – powerful communicator reaching far and wide throughout human emotion and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an important part in our ability to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Average human is able to recognize approx. 10,000 different odors. </li></ul><ul><li>We can recall smells with 65% accuracy after a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual recall of photos sinks to 50% after 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfume, cologne and after shave to signal freshness </li></ul><ul><li>Deodorants and antiperspirants to mask natural body odor. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Breath mint to cover smell of bacteria in our mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Room fresheners to disguise odors in homes, cars and offices. </li></ul><ul><li>Links us back to childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic mood manipulation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Taste – Closely relate to sense of smell. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly subjective in nature, what is “bitter” to some is “rich and full bodied” to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Espresso coffee, broiled asparagus are “acquired tastes” </li></ul><ul><li>Taste in food is changing along with the demographic makeup of our society. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese food is now available in fast food. </li></ul><ul><li>Fine dining and take out is now available in different cuisines. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Sound – an important part of nonverbal research. </li></ul><ul><li>Public address systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Other forms: melodic human voice, nature and machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and subculture determines our reaction to musical compositions and performances. </li></ul><ul><li>Melodies of orchestra vs reggae and hip hop. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Silence – May be used to communicate as powerfully and directly as any verbal code. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used both positively and negatively. </li></ul><ul><li>To affect, reveal, judge, activate. </li></ul><ul><li>Asians make extensive use of silence during meetings and contract negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Silence may serve a number of important functions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Silence <ul><li>To provide thinking time – assess, weigh impact, gather your thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>To hurt – as a weapon. Silence treatment. An early indication of trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>To isolate oneself – use as response to personal anxiety, shyness, or threats. New to the company. Know when to speak and how much to say. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent communication – used as communicate emotional response. Can be a determination to be uncooperative or defiant. Can be used to express affection or agreement. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>To communicate nothing – sometime we have nothing to say. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind, receivers in communication process interpret silence just like they interpret words, motions and other forms of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>They assign meaning to what your are not saying, to whom, and occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer, supplier, internal auditor. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Some Effects of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal cues are often difficult to read – a single cue don’t just represent a single denotative meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal cues are often difficult to interpret – what may mean one thing in one context, culture, or circumstances may mean something entirely different in another. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal behaviors are often contradictory – posture and vocal tone may say one thing but our eyes say another. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Some Effects of Nonverbal Communication <ul><li>Some nonverbal cues are more important than other – usual or unusual behaviour? </li></ul><ul><li>We often read into some cues much that isn’t there, and fail to read some cues that are clearly present – meaningless cues. </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not as skilled as this as we tend to think we are; our confidence often exceeds our ability – caution! It’s easy to misinterpret, misread or misunderstand someone. </li></ul>