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Chapter 3   perception communication (pp)
 

Chapter 3 perception communication (pp)

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  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page
  • Bayer Corporation/Notre Dame Management Development Program Business Communications Page

Chapter 3   perception communication (pp) Chapter 3 perception communication (pp) Presentation Transcript

  • Perception
    • Perception is the process by which an organism attains awareness or understanding of its environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information.
    • (From Wikipedia)
  • Perception in Communication
    • In living our lives and communicating with each other our perception of reality is less important than reality itself.
    • Our perceptions are influence by:
      • physical elements - what information your eye or ear can actually take in, how your brain processes it.
      • environmental elements - what information is out there to receive, its context.
      • learned elements - culture, personality, habit: what filters we use to select what we take in and how we react to it.
  • Perception in Communication
    • Colour blind people will not perceive "red" the way as other people do. Those with normal vision may physically see "red" similarly, but will interpret it culturally:
    • Red meaning "stop" or "anger" or "excitement" or "in debt" (US).
    • Red meaning "good fortune" (China).
    • Red meaning your school's colours.
  •  
  • Selective Attention
    • The world deluges us with sensory information every second. Our mind produces interpretations and models and perceptions a mile a minute. To survive, we have to select what information we attend to and what we remember.
  • Information That Attracts Our Attention
    • Sends out strong physical stimulus: contrast, blinking, loudness, etc.
    • Elicits emotion -- TV dramas, memory aid: when taking notes on an article, write your emotional response to it.
    • Is unexpected? (This may draw your attention or conversely, you may miss it entirely with your mind filling in the missing pieces you expected to receive.).
    • Fits a pattern.
    • Previous knowledge that gives it context.
    • Interests you.
    • Connects to basic needs (belonging, sex, danger, hunger...).
    • Is useful.
    • Note how important your cultural filters will be in determining the answers to these questions--what hooks your emotions? What is "normal" and what is "unexpected", etc.
    • Some sample visual perception
  • Perception Process
    • Perception is a three phase process of selecting , organizing and interpreting information , people, objects, events, situations and activities. You can understand interpersonal situations better if you appreciate how you and another person construct perceptions.
    • We select only certain things to notice, and then we organize and interpret what we have selectively noticed.
    • What we select to perceive affects how we organise and interpret the situation.
    • How we organise and interpret a situation affects our subsequent selections of what to perceive in the situation.
    • Who would you like to be your girlfriend ?
  • Selection
    • Notice what is going on around you. Is the room warm or cold? Messy or clean? Large or small? Light or dark? Can you smell anything?
    • Are sleepy, hungry comfortable?
    • We narrow our attention to what we defined as important in that moment.
  • Selection
    • We notice things that STAND OUT , and even change.
    • Hear a loud voice than a soft one.
    • We deliberately influence what we notice by indicating things to ourselves.
    • Smoking is a habit; Focus on burning smell of the match, the smoke, the nasty view of ashtrays with cigarette butts, how bad a room smells when you smoke in it.
  • Selection
    • What we select to notice also influenced by who we are and what is going on in us. Looking for a job.
    • Motives, thirsty people stranded on desert see an oasis.
    • Expectations, likely to perceive what we expect to perceive and what others have led us to perceive.
  • Organization
    • Once we selected what to notice, we must make sense of it.
    • Organize in meaningful ways.
    • Constructivism; we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata.
  • Schemata
    • Prototypes; most representative example of a category. Defines categories by identifying ideal cases.
    • Ideal models for friendship, family, business group, or relationship.
    • Personal Construct; bipolar, mental yardstick we use to measure people and situation.
    • Intelligent – unintelligent, kind – unkind.
  • Schemata
    • Stereotype; predictive generalization about individuals and situations based on the category into which we place them.
    • May be accurate or inaccurate.
    • Scripts; guide to action in particular situation.
    • A sequence of activities that define what we and others are expected to do in specific situation.
    • Daily activities – dating, talking to professors, dealing with clerks, interacting with co-workers
  • Schemata
    • Organize our thinking about people and situation.
    • Make sense of what we notice and figure out how to act.
    • Social perspectives and cultural views.
  • Interpretation
    • After selection and organizing our perception, what they mean is not clear.
    • Interpretation – subjective process of explaining perceptions in ways that let us make sense of them.
    • Attribution; explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do.
  • Interpretation
    • In judging whether others can control their actions, we decide whether to hold them responsible for what they do.
    • We can be positive depending on how we explain what they do.
    • Self serving bias; bias favour to ourselves.
    • Inclined to make positive actions or negative actions. E.g passing and failing an exam.
    • Can distort our perception .
  • Influences on Perception
    • Everyone does not perceive situations and people in the same way.
    • Physiology; we differ in our sensory abilities and physiologies.
    • We tend to perceive more negatively when tired.
    • Medical conditions; drugs that affect our thinking.
    • Age; the older we are, the richer our perspective for perceiving life and people.
    • Culture; beliefs, values, understandings, and practices.
  • Influences on Perception
    • Social roles; the training we receive to fulfill a role and the actual demands of the role.
    • Editor thinks about layout, and design features.
    • Law graduates tend to be analytical, argumentative and logical.
    • Physicians are trained to observe physical symptoms.
    • Cognitive abilities; how elaborately we think about situations and people and our personal knowledge of others.
    • Self; how we perceive people reflects as much about us and our experiences as about those people.
  • Guidelines for Improving Perception and Communication
    • Recognize that all perceptions are partial and subjective.
    • Avoid mindreading – one of the behaviours that contribute to conflict.
    • Check perceptions with others.
    • Distinguish between facts and inferences.
    • Guard against the self serving bias.