Should the African Elephant be Protected? SAC by Sarah Stolfi
Academic Controversy in the History Classroom This workshop is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University. Historical Question: Should the African Elephant be protected? Author: Sarah StolfiClass/Grade Level: 7th grade World StudiesCT Standards:2.1 Access and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources includingelectronic media (maps, charts, graphs, images, artifacts, recording and text).2.2 Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including electronic media(maps, charts, graphs, images, artifacts and text).3.2 Analyze and evaluate human action in historical and/or contemporary context from alternativepoint of viewOverview:Africa is home to unique animal species. The global community is passionate about the protection ofthis wild life, especially the African elephant. Large of tracts land have been set side in Eastern Africafor conservation, where elephant herds can graze. Many African countries rely money from tourismthat features animal conservation, such as Safaris. Big game hunters are attracted to these areas tohunt for sport. Many Africans have a quality of life where they live on less than a dollar a day.Although African elephants are endangered they provide a source of income for poachers and alsofood for families. Elephant ivory still gets a high price in underground markets and the consequencesfor poaching are not stiff enough. Jail sentences are brief and the fines are not that high. For manypoor people, poaching is often worth the price. African elephants migrate and require vast areas ofland to graze. As parts of Africa become more urbanized, migrating elephants often end up thewhere they do not belong. This makes the elephants even more venerable. Elephants eat largequantities and consume farmer crops.Yes: Elephants are an endangered animal and need protection from poachers
No: The elephants need large areas of land to graze, they get into farmers crops and eat the crops; elephant meat could feed a starving family. Document Summary:Document 1 shows a Khartoum Sudan Zoo, where a young African elephant is being protected in azoo. This document meant to make students feel African elephants should be allowed to roam free.Document 2 shows an illustration called the Revengeful and Chivalrous Elephant of Africa. It depictsa man being chased by an elephant. What students are expected to glean from this picture thatelephants can be seen as a problem for humans. Students will draw on understandings of the spacerequired for an elephant to have an appropriate level of grazing land.Document 3 shows the glory of hunting. The photo features Theodore Roosevelt, an avid sporthunter standing next to his kill. Students are suppose to infer by looking at this photo that elephanthunting was popular during the early 20th century. The will also drawn the fact that today elephantsare protected and hunting elephants to kill them for sport can be regarded as taboo.Document 4 shows what appears to be white colonists trailing tribesman carrying off ivory from arecent hunt. Students are expected to infer that hunting of elephants was common practice and wasdone in abundance.Document 5 shows an animated circus (jubilee) poster advertisement. The poster features severalperforms and also elephants putting on a show. Students are supposed to look at the picture andinfer that elephants can be protected in a circus life. Perhaps some students will even makeconnections to their own personal experiences.Document 6 shows a United State government document, H.R.4849 the Anti-poaching act of 1988.This document outlines the anti-poaching legistation and outlines punishment and defines whatactivity constitutes poaching activity. Students are expected to use this document to gain knowledgeabout the consequences of poaching and also to learn about who animals, specifically elephants arebeing protected.Procedure (80 minutes): 1. Introduction of lesson, objectives, overview of SAC procedure (15 minutes) 2. SAC group assignments (30 minutes) a. Assign groups of four and assign arguments to each team of two. b. In each group, teams read and examine the Document Packet c. Each student completes the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2), and works with their partner to prepare their argument using supporting evidence. d. Students should summarize your argument in #3. 3. Position Presentation (10 minutes) a. Team 1 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 2 records Team 1’s argument in #4. b. Team 2 restates Team 1’s position to their satisfaction. c. Team 2 asks clarifying questions and records Team 1’s answers.
d. Team 2 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 1 records Team 2’s argument in #4. e. Team 1 restates Team 2’s position to their satisfaction. f. Team 1 asks clarifying questions and records Team 2’s answers. 4. Consensus Building (10 minutes) a. Team 1 and 2 put their roles aside. b. Teams discuss ideas that have been presented, and figure out where they can agree or where they have differences about the historical questionClosure:Teacher will close the lesson using an exit slip. On the exit slip students will write a detail supportingtheir viewpoint and detail that is an opposing view point.Assessment:Teacher will assess student learning through the construction of a persuasive response essay. In thisessay, students will argue reflect on both sides of this issue and then explain how they feel morestrongly about one side over another in a well written response. Essays will be written in a 5-paragraph format and will contain a thesis statement and three-body paragraphs in which studentwriting will support their thesis statement with the use of primary source documents for support. In theclosing paragraph, students must include a rebuttal statement indicating an understanding of thestrongest argument for the other side and then use it against them. Students will peer edit eachother’s work. Then submit a final draft for teacher review.Differentiation:In order to differentiate this lesson, accelerated students will write their paper from the opposingviewpoint, in other words they will write about side that they don’t agree with. Hopefully, thistechnique will foster a sense of controversy for them and help them to draw conclusions about bothsides. Special education students will write about the side they favor. They will also have variousaccommodations based on their individual needs such as, sentence starters; different graphicorganizers may also be used if needed. For example, some students will use a graphic organizerwith extra white space. For other special education students graphic organizers may include partiallycompleted details. Additionally, important details in text will be highlighted for ease of use. ForEnglish language learners, a word bank will be provided. This modification is also meant to serve asan accommodation for all students and will assist with vocabulary development. The length of theessay will be modified to the specific needs of both special education students and English languagelearners.
DOCUMENT PACKET Document 1As the desire for conservation and protection has grown so too has thedevelopment of zoos. Zoos provide people with the opportunity to viewendangered species in their "natural" habitat. This image shows a Zoolocated in Khartoum.Source: Sudan. Khartoum. Khartoum Zoo. A young African elephant • Digital ID: (digital file from original photo) matpc 17315 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/matpc.17315 • Reproduction Number: LC-‐DIG-‐matpc-‐17315 (digital file from original photo) • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/matpc.17315/
Document 2Elephants require a lot of land to migrate and graze. Many farmers andurbanites are concerned that Elephants are wandering into urban placeswhere they do not belong.Source: The revengeful and chivalrous elephant of Africa Digital ID: (digital file from original print) pga00240 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pga.00240 Library of Congress Prints and Photographs DivisionWashington, D.C. 20540 USA
Document 3At the start of the 20th century land conservation and wild life protection wasnot enforced as it is today. Without advent of plastics, elephant ivory wasused to make many practical items. Additionally, hunting elephants was apopular sport. In this image below President Theodore Roosevelt, ispictured holding gun leaning on an elephant carcass. This image glorifieshunting African elephants.Source: [Theodore Roosevelt, three-quarter length portrait, standingnext to dead elephant, holding gun, probably in Africa] • Digital ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c31443 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c31443 • Reproduction Number: LC-‐USZ62-‐131443 (b&w film copy neg.) • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c31443/
Document 4Africa’s land was colonized by many European countries. Africa was asource of income for many countries abroad. Africa had an abundance ofelephants and it provided Europeans access to ivory. In this picture belowtwo colonists appear walking tribesmen who are carrying off ivory tusks.Source: [Carrying off the ivory] • Digital ID: (digital file from intermediary roll film copy) cai 2a15229 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cai.2a15229 • Reproduction Number: • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cai.2a15229/
Document 5African elephants became an important of oddity shows and circuses acrossthe western and eastern hemispheres. Pictured here is an advertisementfor a minstrel jubilee featuring elephants. Elephants featured in theseshows were protected and kept safe by humans.Source: Wm. H. Wests Big Minstrel Jubilee Digital ID: (digital file from intermediary roll copy film) var 1834 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/var.1834 Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
Document 6This is summary of H.R.4849 the Anti-poaching act of 1988 in this documentthe United State government makes it clear that importing elephant ivoryand poaching of elephants is illegal. This document outlines the criminalpenalties for being caught by law enforcement with the intent to illegal sellelephant ivory in underground “illegal” markets. It also defines what itconstitutes as illegal.SUMMARY AS OF:6/16/1988--Introduced.African Elephant Anti-Poaching Act of 1988 - Makes it unlawful for any person to import into theUnited States any African elephant ivory from Burundi or from any country which: (1) is not amember of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(the Convention); (2) does not have a population of African elephants living in the wild; or (3) is nota part of the African Continent. Exempts from such prohibition ivory from an African elephant thatwas legally taken by sport hunting in a country, other than Burundi, that: (1) is a member of theConvention; (2) has a population of African elephants living in the wild; and (3) is part of the AfricanContinent.Sets forth civil and criminal penalties for knowing violations of this Act. Authorizes the Secretary ofthe Interior (the Secretary) to assess a civil penalty of up to $10,000 for each violation. Sets forthnotice and hearing requirements relating to such civil penalties. Sets forth criminal penalties of a fineof between $5,000 and $20,000, and/or one years imprisonment. Grants jurisdiction to the U.S.district courts over any actions arising under this Act. Directs the Secretary or the Secretary of theTreasury to pay appropriate rewards, from sums received as penalties, fines, or property forfeituresunder this Act, to persons furnishing information which leads to an arrest, criminal conviction, civilpenalty assessment, or forfeiture of property for any violation of this Act or regulations issued underit. Makes ineligible for such rewards Federal, State, or local government officers or employees whofurnish such information or render related service in the performance of their duties.Sets forth enforcement provisions. Requires enforcement of this Act, and any regulations or permitsissued pursuant to it, by the Secretary, the Secretary of the Treasury, or the Secretary of thedepartment in which the Coast Guard is operating, or all such Secretaries. Authorizes suchSecretaries to utilize for such purposes by agreement and with or without reimbursement, thepersonnel, services, and facilities of any other Federal or State agency. Authorizes U.S. district courtjudges and U.S. magistrates to issue warrants or other process required for such enforcement. Setsforth provisions relating to: (1) inspections, arrests, searches, and seizures; and (2) application ofother laws. Authorizes the Attorney General to seek injunctions against violators. Sets forth forfeitureprovisions as follows.Subjects to forfeiture to the United States in cases of violations of this Act or regulations, permits, orcertificates issued under it: (1) all imported African ivory involved; and (2) all equipment, vessels,vehicles, aircraft, and other means of transportation used to aid various activities involved.Authorizes such Secretaries to issue appropriate enforcement regulations and charge reasonable feesfor expenses to the Government connected with permits or certificates authorized under this Act(including application processing and reasonable inspections), and with the transfer, board, handling,or storage of fish or wildlife or plants and evidentiary items seized and forfeited under this Act.Requires deposit of such fees in the Treasury to the credit of the appropriation which is current and
chargeable for the cost of furnishing the services. Allows appropriated funds to be expended pendingreimbursement from parties in interest.Directs the Secretary to administer this Act, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury andthe Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating.Provides that nothing in this Act shall be construed as superseding or limiting in any manner thefunctions and responsibilities of the Secretary under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 or of theSecretary of the Treasury under the Tariff Act of 1930.Preempts any State law or regulation to the extent that it permits what is prohibited, or prohibitswhat is authorized, under this Act or regulations issued under this Act. Vocabulary: Appropriation: a sum of money that has been set aside from a budget, especially a government budget, for a specific purpose Evidentiary- relating to, consisting of, or based on evidence Regulation- an official rule, law, or order stating what may or may not be done or how something must be done. Seizures- taking of something by force Superseding- to take the place or position of something that is less efficient, less modern, or less appropriate, or cause something to do this. Violations- crime or infringement of a law or rules, especially oneSource: than a misdemeanor or a foul in sports. less seriousH.R.4849Latest Title: African Elephant Anti-Poaching Act of 1988Sponsor: Rep Fields, Jack [TX-8] (introduced 6/16/1988) Cosponsors (None)Latest Major Action: 6/22/1988 Referred to House subcommittee. Status: Referred toSubcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation and the Environment.http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-‐bin/bdquery/z?d100:HR04849:@@@L&summ2=m& Some of the language and phrasing in these documents have been modified from the originals.
CAPTURE SHEET Don’t forget the rules of a successful academic controversy! 1. Practice active listening. 2. Challenge ideas, not each other Should the African Elephant be 3. Try your best to understand the other protected? positions 4. Share the floor: each person in a pair MUST have an opportunity to speak 5. No disagreeing until consensus-‐Preparation: building as a group of four 1. Highlight your assigned position. Yes: Elephants are an endangered animal and need protection from poachers No: The elephants need large areas of land to graze, they get into farmers crops and eat the crops; elephant meat could feed a starving family. 2. Read through each document searching for support for your side’s argument. Use the documents to fill in the chart (Hint: Not all documents support your side, find those that do):Document What is the main idea of this document? What details support your position? # 3. Work with your partner to summarize your arguments for your position using the supporting documents you found above:
Position Presentation: 4. You and your partner will present your position to your opposing group members. When you are done, you will then listen to your opponents’ position. While you are listening to your opponents’ presentation, write down the main details that they present here: Clarifying questions I have for the opposing partners: How they answered the questions:Consensus Building: 5. Put your assigned roles aside. Where does your group stand on the question? Where does your group agree? Where does your group disagree? Your consensus answer does not have to be strictly yes, or no. We agree: We disagree: Our final consensus: