Should a US President always be honest? SAC by James Ferrara
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Should a US President always be honest? SAC by James Ferrara Should a US President always be honest? SAC by James Ferrara Document Transcript

  • Academic Controversy in the History Classroom This workshop is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University. Historical Question: Should a U.S president always be honest?Author: James Ferrara, Washington Middle School, Meriden, CT.Class/Grade Level: Academic Social studies classroom/ Sixth gradeCT Standards:Grade 6: GLE: 2.2.18 – Evaluate the credibility of a speaker (e.g.hidden agendas, slants or biases).Grade 6: GLE: 2.2.18 – Delineate and evaluate the argument andspecific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and theevidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence isintroduced.Overview:By entering a point in history when Abraham Lincoln recalls the death andillness of family and friends, one can truly empathize with the kind ofchildhood Lincoln experienced, thus encouraging him to serve in the militaryto serve his country. As a young man, Lincoln’s personable demeanor andservice in the 1832 Black Hawk War increased his profile enough to get himelected to a seat in the state legislature in 1834, where he became aninfluential voice in the state senate as a member of the Whig Party and amoderate critic of the practice of slavery. Lincoln moved to Springfield,Illinois in 1837, where he began to practice law. When leaving his seat inCongress, he met and courted Mary Todd, the future Mrs. Lincoln. Thissynopsis gives students a clear understanding of a Lincolns credibility(knowledge of law precepts, military dedication to his country, honorablefamily man (husband), influential power of persuasive rhetoric).
  • Document Summary:http://memory.loc.gov/mbrs/berl/136012.mp3“Document 1” is an audio primary source document of Lincolns Gettysburg Address. Itis an excellent source to provide students the opportunity to hear a "pitch" directly fromLincoln himself where honest and clear rhetoric (debatable) is used to deliver necessaryinformation concerning the significance and rational of the civil war going on at the time.Lincoln arrived in Gettysburg by train the day before the event, spent the night at theWills house on the town square instead of at a hotel, and delivered his short speech fordedication of the Solders National Cemetery on November 19, 1863. He delivered theGettysburg address text under a Honey Locust tree on Cemetery Ridge. In Lincoln’sspeech, he mentions the foundations and principles of the United States government, agovernment which stands of the people, by the people, and for the people. Studentscan use this audio to interpret is trustworthiness through his words and confidentsounding voice.http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moa;cc=moa;rgn=full%20text;idno=ABT5677.0001.001;didno=ABT5677.0001.001;view=image;seq=0001“Document 2” is a primary source text document. Its content includes the address ofthe Honorable Abraham Lincoln, in vindication of the policy of the framers of theConstitution and the principles of the Republican party, delivered at Cooper Institute,February 27th, 1860, issued by the Young Mens Republican Union, with notes byCharles C. Nott & Cephas Brainerd. This document is an excellent source to drawstudents attention to just how legislators at the time conducted business. For example,on page two, the document reveals how one such act regarding the freeing of slavespassed with neither “yays” nor “nays” in Congress, stressing it was such a powerfulissue that no vote was needed to pass it on through. It allows students to examine ifthis information is honorable or is it just a means of convincing the general public that apolicy of any kind is omnipotent and beyond people’s votes.http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/lincoln/pdf/freespeech.pdf“Document 3” is a primary source document that displays a certificate of authenticationthat was used to sell Lincoln’s plan to abolish slavery and expand territory. The words“free men, free soil, free men” on the ad may suggest to students that Lincoln may notbe so honorable and trustworthy. He may stop at nothing to entice people to join withhim in this struggle to acquire what they didn’t already have. This document serves asa source of propaganda in the political sense at this time of conflict and may leadstudents to discuss whether Lincoln was indeed honest.
  • http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mtj1&fileName=mtj1page018.db&recNum=1215“Document 4” is a primary source document of Thomas Jefferson: The ThomasJefferson Papers Series 1, a General Correspondence. Even though it is difficult toread a handwritten document, students will marvel at the opportunity to struggle withlocating words that Jefferson uses to convey honor and honesty.http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=atla;cc=atla;rgn=full%20text;idno=atla0078-3;didno=atla0078-3;view=image;seq=00295;node=atla0078-3%3A1“Document 5” is a primary source document that should be used as scaffolding, orbuilding student’s confidence with persuasive articles. In this particular article, what isbeing conveyed is the attractiveness of the western territories and how significantowning territory is to the American lifestyle. By engaging students in this exposure first,one can make students aware of political bias and they can begin to analyze author’spurpose when reading historical, primary documents.http://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/apr08/abe.htmlDetails of Abraham Lincolns second inauguration have come into clearer focus with therecent discovery at the Library of Congress of three glass negatives that show the largecrowd gathered at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., for the presidents address onMarch 4, 1865. “Document 6” reveals two newly discovered images that depict just howhonest Lincoln was and leaves students to draw their own conclusions. Thesenegatives had been labeled long ago as being either the Grand Review of the Armies orthe inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant. Carol Johnson, a curator of photography at theLibrary of Congress, spotted the misidentification on Friday, Jan. 4, while checking oldlogbooks and finding the annotation “Lincoln?” in the margin. Only two other photos ofLincolns second inauguration were previously known, but a careful visual comparisonconfirmed that these three negatives portray the same event.
  • Procedure (80 minutes):I. Introduction of lesson, objectives, overview of SAC procedure Duration: 15 minutes A. Introduction: This lesson is designed to provide students the opportunity to explore a question, to present and to listen to contrasting viewpoints, and to engage in discussion before reaching a consensus, or drawing a synthesizing conclusion. This lesson also lends itself to developing morality and using primary source documents in order to engage in critical thinking, in particular about the role the leader of their country plays in any circumstance. B. Objectives:Content Objectives ● Students will analyze, evaluate, question, and synthesize contrasting viewpoints in order to draw a conclusion about their historical question and source credibility.Language Objectives ● Students will use 6 primary source documents to listen, read, speak, and write in order to reach a consensus concerning the historical question position.Overall Class Objectives ●Students will demonstrate that understanding alternative positions and formulating historical syntheses will guide them into a world of complex & controversial ideas. C. Overview of SAC procedure Estimated Duration: 30 minutes 1. Assign groups of four and assign arguments to each team of two(10 minutes). In each group, teams read and examine the Document Packet Each student completes the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2), and works with their partner to prepare their argument using supporting evidence. Students should summarize your argument in #3. Students should have access to a cd player, mp3 player, or I-pad, or computer with internet access when listening to primary source document #1. 2. Position Presentation (10 minutes) Team 1 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 2 records Team 1’s argument in #4. Team 2 restates Team 1’s position to their satisfaction. Team 2 asks clarifying questions and records Team 1’s answers. Team 2 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the
  • Preparation matrix. Team 1 records Team 2’s argument in #4. Team 1 restates Team 2’s position to their satisfaction. Team 1 asks clarifying questions and records Team 2’s answers. 3. Consensus Building (10 minutes) Team 1 and 2 put their roles aside. Teams discuss ideas that have been presented, and figure out where they can agree or where they have differences about the historical questionClosure:Students will also extend their ideas in a closure by identifying key traits, characteristics,or actions of a good leader/ president. The written product could be in the form ofdesigning a Powerpoint presentation (technology), a handwritten or typed list of keytraits a good president should possess, a word sort of traits to categorize, a writtenresponse to text, open ended type question, similar the that above, or a dramatizationexposing a good quality president.Students will demonstrate their understanding alternative positions and formulatinghistorical syntheses sharing their consensus building statement with the class orally. Bypresenting this information, the teacher will have an indication of which objective havebeen met and assess which students need extra support with any of the following areas:Closure Informal assessment Checklist on the next page:
  • Closure Informal assessment Checklist: ___ Advanced Student/students in group were able to identify appropriate primary ___ Goal source documents to support their position. ___ Basic ___ Advanced Student/students in group were able to summarize their arguments ___ Goal for their position from the supporting documents. ___ Basic ___ Advanced Student/students in group were able to present their position to ___ Goal opposing group members. ___ Basic___ Advanced Student/students in group were able to engage in successful ___ Goal consensus building and draw a conclusion. ___ BasicAssessment:Student’s will be assessed informally using the “Closure Informal assessment Checklist”in order to gather information of which objectives had been mastered. See checklist forcriteria. Students will identify key traits, characteristics, or actions of a good leader/ president bycomposing a written product of their choice: Powerpoint presentation (technology), ahandwritten or typed list of key traits a good president should possess, a word sort oftraits to categorize, a written response to text, open ended type question, similar thethat above, or a dramatization exposing a good quality president.
  • Differentiation:Modalities/ Identification: Suggested Modications:Visual learners Provide text rich document (enlarged font size) depending on the reading level. Provide content based vocabulary with definitions for students to refer to during reading.Auditory learners Provide mp3 format and recording for at least one source. Provide a “reader” (other peer or teacher) to conduct a read aloud of the primary source document.Kinesthetic learners Provide a word sort of traits of presidents (verbs, adjectives, nouns) to categorize to build schematic knowledge for the final assessment project piece. Provide primary source documents and highlighters for students to access, manipulate, and highlight relevant information towards their position.Accelerated/Honors/Advanced Provide primary source document with content richlearners vocabulary with a dictionary to search for definitions, synonyms, & antonyms for students to refer to during reading if needed. Provide literature circle roles to members of the advanced group (predictor, connector, facilitator, and summarizer) to support the reciprocal teaching model.Special Education learners Provide a word sort of traits of presidents (verbs, adjectives, nouns) to categorize to build schematic knowledge for the final assessment project piece. Provide primary source documents and highlighters for students to access, manipulate, and highlight relevant information towards their position. Provide a “reader” (other peer or teacher) to conduct a read aloud of the primary source document. Provide primary source document with content rich vocabulary with a dictionary to search for definitions, synonyms, & antonyms for students to refer to during reading if needed.English Language Learners See Inclusion (Special Education) modifications. *Provide pronunciations & definitions w/ vocabulary.
  • DOCUMENT PACKET Document 1Students will listen to a recording of Lincoln’s words to judge the useof his words.Vocabularyengaged=busy, occupied, or involved.Consecrated= to dedicate, make, or declare sacred.perish= to suffer, destroy, or wither away; die.Source: http://memory.loc.gov/mbrs/berl/136012.mp3
  • Actual speech (derived from) See next page for text for students to access:http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/lincoln/speeches/gettysburg.htmlFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, anew nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all menare created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or anynation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a greatbattle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a finalresting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It isaltogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate -- we cannot consecrate -- we cannothallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, haveconsecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will littlenote, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they didhere. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished workwhich they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us tobe here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from thesehonored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave thelast full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shallnot have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth offreedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people,shall not perish from the earth.
  • Document 2Students will read and extract excerpts from this speech that pertainto Lincoln and his integrity.VocabularyVindicated = to justify an argument, to clear fromaccusation, or defend an argument/ stance.Source:http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moa;cc=moa;rgn=full%20text;idno=ABT5677.0001.001;didno=ABT5677.0001.001;view=image;seq=0001
  • Document 3This primary source document is a “pdf” file and can be printed out for classroom use; itcannot be downloaded, copied, or pasted. This image was selected to provide studentsa certificate of authentication that was used to sell Lincoln’s plan to abolish slavery andexpand territory. The words “free men, free soil, free men” on the ad may suggest tostudents that Lincoln may not be so honorable and trustworthy. He may stop at nothingto entice people to join with him in this struggle to acquire what they didn’t already have.This document serves as a source of propaganda in the political sense at this time ofconflict and may lead students to discuss the how Lincoln may or may not be truthful.VocabularyCertify= to guarantee, to award, or to vouch.“wide awake” = a phrase that signals one’s alertness.Source:http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/lincoln/pdf/freespeech.pdf
  • Document 4“Document 4” is a primary source document of Thomas Jefferson: The ThomasJefferson Papers Series 1, a General Correspondence. Even though it is difficult toread a handwritten document, students will marvel at the opportunity to struggle withlocating words that Jefferson uses to convey honor and honesty.Source:http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mtj1&fileName=mtj1page018.db&recNum=1215
  • Document 5“Document 5” is a primary source document that should be used as scaffolding, orbuilding student’s confidence with persuasive articles. In this particular article, what isbeing conveyed is the attractiveness of the western territories and how significantowning territory is to the American lifestyle. By engaging students in this exposure first,one can make students aware of political bias and they can begin to analyze author’spurpose when reading historical, primary documents.Source:http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=atla;cc=atla;rgn=full%20text;idno=atla0078-3;didno=atla0078-3;view=image;seq=00295;node=atla0078-3%3A1
  • Document 6Details of Abraham Lincolns second inauguration have come into clearer focus with therecent discovery at the Library of Congress of three glass negatives that show the largecrowd gathered at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., for the presidents address onMarch 4, 1865. “Document 6” reveals two newly discovered images that depict just howhonest Lincoln was and leaves students to draw their own conclusions. Thesenegatives had been labeled long ago as being either the Grand Review of the Armies orthe inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant. Carol Johnson, a curator of photography at theLibrary of Congress, spotted the misidentification on Friday, Jan. 4, while checking oldlogbooks and finding the annotation “Lincoln?” in the margin. Only two other photos ofLincolns second inauguration were previously known, but a careful visual comparisonconfirmed that these three negatives portray the same event.Source:http://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/apr08/abe.html Some of the language and phrasing in these documents have been modified from the originals.
  • Don’t forget the rules of aCAPTURE SHEET successful academic controversy! □Practice active listening. □Challenge ideas, not eachStudent Name:_________________ other.Members in group: □Accept your assignment. □Share responsibility and give equal speaking time. Historical Question: Should a U.S president always be honest?Preparation: Highlight your assigned position. Yes As a true leader of productive citizens of any country, the president of the United States in particular, should always be honest because they are seen as a representative voice of the people and a role model for others. No In spite of the president being a role model and a voice of the people, the president reserves the right to withhold information or manipulate the facts for 1)national security and/ or 2) indict him/herself from accusations as protected by our fifth amendment.
  • Read through each document searching for support for your side’s argument.Use the documents to fill in the chart(Hint: Not all documents support your side, find those that do):Document # What is the main idea of What details support your this document? position? 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • Work with your partner to summarize your arguments for your position using thesupporting documents you found above:Position Presentation: You and your partner will present your position to your opposing group members. When you are done, you will then listen to your opponents’ position. While you are listening to your opponents’ presentation, write down the some main ideas in details that they present here: Opposing side: “You listen and record.” Main Idea #1 Main Idea #2 Main Idea #3 Main Idea #4 Main Idea #5 Main Idea #6 Page Presentation Page 1 of 2
  • Clarifying questions I have for the opposing partners: “You ask and record.” Clarifying question #1 – How did they answer? Clarifying question #2 – How did they answer? Clarifying question # 3 – How did they answer? Page Presentation Page 2 of 2
  • Consensus Building: Put your assigned roles aside. Where does your group stand on the question? Where does your group agree? Where does your group disagree? Your consensus answer does not have to be strictly yes, or no.We agree that::We disagree that:Our final consensus: Consensus Building: Page 1 of 1