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Sac document handout industrial revolution

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  • 1. Was the Industrial Revolution of the mid-to-late 19th century beneficial or harmful to Americans? YES: The Industrial Revolution of the mid-to-late 19th century was beneficial to Americans. NO: The Industrial Revolution of the mid-to-late 19th century was harmful to Americans.Read and examine the following documents using the primary source reading/viewing strategies we havediscussed in class. Use the documents to find evidence to support your assigned position. Document 1 Child Labor in the Canning Industry of Maryland July 10, 1909, Lewis W. Hine There are several dangers connected with this work when children do it. On every hand, one can see little tots toting boxies or pans full of beans, berries or tomatoes, and it is self-evident that the work is too hard. Then there are machines which no young persons should be working around. Unguarded belts, wheels, cogs, and the like are a menace to careless children. Mrs. Kawalski, 615 S. Bond St. Baltimore is a widow and has worked with her small children in the berry fields about Baltimore for several years. Last winter she took the children down to Youngs Island, S.C. and worked for Varn and Beard Pkg. Co. Many things has been misrepresented to her after they got there, she found that all the children, whose fare had been paid by the company, had to work all the time. The younger children worked some and went to school some, but they worked regularly as soon as they were able to stand up to the benches. Marie said she is now 12 and her brother is 9 years old. Both of them have worked in the berry fields near Baltimore 2 years ago and at oyster shucking last winter and now are stringing beans at the canneries in Baltimore. Source: Hine, Lewis. Library of Congress collection. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/static/data/nclc/resources/images/canneries3.pdf 1
  • 2. Document 2 “Growth of Cities in the United States” Every thing in the United States presents the aspect of freshness, vigor, and elastic vitality to theEuropean on his arrival here, and he is continually impressed with the consciousness that he is in the midstof a vast progressive movement of a people young, lusty and indomitable, toward the highest socialrefinement, political wisdom, and national grandeur. The cities and villages appear as if they were recentlycommenced, and were being rapidly pushed toward completion, to appear well at some great cosmopolitanfete at hand. We have many startling data with which to illustrate the wonderful progress of our country inindustrial pursuits, social refinement, and true national greatness; but there is none more tangible than thegrowth of our cities. We will select for illustration, only three, from a single State – the cities of Brooklyn,Rochester, and Buffalo, in the State of New York. The wonderful vitality which has stimulated the growthof each has been drawn from separate and distinct sources: Brooklyn from its proximity to a great andincreasing commercial city; Rochester from the inherent energy, industry, and enterprise of its aggregatingpopulation; and Buffalo from its eligible position in the great pathway of commerce between the Atlanticand the States along the Lakes and the Father of Waters. B.J.L.Source: Harper’s New Monthy Magazine Volume 7 Issue 38 July 1853 pp. 171-175http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=harp&cc=harp&idno=harp0007-2&node=harp0007-2%3A1&view=image&seq=181&size=175 2
  • 3. Document 3 [Anti-trust cartoons]: Nursery Rhymes for Infant Industries, No. 15: O is the Oil Trust, a modern Bill Sikes; he defies the police, and does just as he likesSource: Frederick Opper; Copyright W.R. Hearst 1901; Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Divisionhttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005685052/ 3
  • 4. Document 4 The Ideal Home Town (From The Wilmerding News, September 2, 1904)Wilmerding, as Described by the Pittsburg Sunday Leader--Its Advantages and Shortcomings as Viewedby an Outsider--Credited With Being the Leading Center of Socialism of the Peaceful, Sane Variety--Reporter Selects His Prominent Citizens.How Wilmerding is viewed by outsiders is aptly told in the following article, which appeared in thePittsburg Leader of last Sunday:"Wilmerding, the Ideal Town," would not be a misleading title for the little industrial center of 5,000inhabitants fourteen miles from Pittsburg on the Pennsylvania railroad.No other town in Allegheny county can show such a beautiful park or such broad acres of closely croppedlawn, green as the sward of Old Erin. It is this park and the big expanse of emerald carpet that helps somaterially to give the town its ideal appearance. From the lawn rises the beautiful and artistic buildingoccupied by the Wilmerding Y.M.C.A. and the general offices of the Westinghouse Air Brake company.Fronting the park with its trees, shrubbery and charming walks is one of the stately Wilmerding schoolhouses. The ensemble effect is like that of a college town, the Y.M.C.A. and office building representingthe college, the school house a lecture hall, the lawn a great campus and the park an academic grove.The first named is composed almost entirely of the more enlightened and prominent men employed by thegreat Westinghouse plant which forms the sole industrial basis of the place. Electricians, engineers, clerks,surveyors, heads of departments and mechanics are found in the ranks of this organization, a delightfulfellowship pervading the whole. Many of the members are college graduates, coming from such standardschools as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cornell University, Yale, Harvard or University ofChicago. The features described, however, do not constitute the sole basis for the superiority ofWilmerding as an attractive residence quarter and as a town in general. The streets are excellently pavedand kept as clean as can be and the business buildings erected of late bear the stamp of beauty as well asbeing perfectly adapted to their uses. The residence streets, particularly Marguerite Avenue, are beautifulwith well kept shade trees and lawns and are lined with handsome, substantial houses. There are manyartistic front yards in Wilmerding, thanks to the broad minded policy of the Westinghouse interests inoffering annual prizes for the best examples of this kind. The company sets a signal example itself in thebeautifying of the spacious grounds around the big office building. There are rows of magnificent plants ofall kinds and beds of beautiful collas, all maintained in faultless condition by expert gardeners.Source: The Westinghouse World: The Companies, the People, and the Places. Library of Congress collection.http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/papr/west/westpres.html 4
  • 5. Document 5 Breaker boys, Woodward Coal Mines, Kingston, Pa.Source: Detroit Publishing Company c1900. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Divisionhttp://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/det1994007312/PP/ 5
  • 6. Document 6 Ford factory, first assembly line, Highland Avenue, Detroit, MISource: American Landscape and Architectural Design, 1850-1920. Library of Congress collectionhttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/alad:@field(NUMBER+@band(mhsalad+220102)) 6
  • 7. Document 7 With drops of blood. The history of the Industrial workers of the world has been written Wm. Haywood. Secretary. Chicago 1919.Ever since the I. W. W. was organized in June, 1905, there has been an inquisitorial campaign against its lifeand growth, inaugurated by the Chambers of Commerce, Profiteers, large and small, and authorities of Stateand Nation in temporary power.The Industrial Workers of the World is a Labor organization composed of sober, honest, industrious men andwomen. Its chief purposes are to abolish the system of wage slavery and to improve the conditions of thosewho toil.This organization has been foully dealt with; drops of blood, bitter tears of anguish, frightful heart painshave marked its every step in its onward march of progress. • W. W. MEMBERS have been murdered. • W. W. MEMBERS have been imprisoned. • W. W. MEMBERS have been tarred and feathered. • W. W. MEMBERS have been deported • W. W. MEMBERS have been denied the right of citizenship. • W. W. MEMBERS have been exiled. • W. W. MEMBERS have had their homes invaded.These are but a few of the many who have given up their lives on the altar of Greed, sacrificed in the ages-long struggle for Industrial Freedom.We charge that many thousands of members of this organization have been imprisoned, on most occasionsarrested without warrant and held without charge. To verify this statement it is but necessary that you readthe report of the Commission on Industrial Relations wherein is given testimony of those who know ofconditions at Lawrence, Massachusetts, where nearly 900 men and women were thrown into prison duringthe Textile Workers Strike at that place. This same report recites the fact that during the Silk Workers Strikeat Paterson, New Jersey, nearly 1,900 men and women were cast into jail without charge or reason.Throughout the northwest these kinds of outrages have been continually perpetrated against members of theI. W. W. County jails and city prisons in nearly every state in the Union have held or are holding members ofthis organization.We ask the reader how long these terrible persecutions are going to be permitted to continue?This communication is addressed to the working class of the world. This is a voice from the men and womenemployed in the industries. It is a demand for a square deal. The out rages that have been imposed upon uswill yet be suffered by you, if you do not help us in our need. Our fight is your fight. We want you to standshoulder to shoulder with us. Funds are necessary. Checks and money orders can be made out to the GeneralDefense Committee, 1001 West Madison Street, Chicago, Ill.{Begin handwritten}Wm. D. Haywood{End handwritten}SecretarySource: An American Time Cap17sule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. Library Congresscollection. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/rbpebib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbpe+01805500)) 7
  • 8. Document 8 Western Union Telegram, Orville Wright to Bishop Milton Wright announcing the first successful powered flight, December 17, 1903.Source: Words and Deeds in American History. Wright Brothers Papers. Library of Congress collection.http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mcc:@field(DOCID+@lit(mcc/061)) 8

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