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Lesson Plan Template <br />based on Understanding by Design by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins<br />Title of Lesson: War is Hell- Civil War Soldiers and Primary Sources Author: Frank PortoGrade Level: 8School: ACES Mill Road SchoolTime Estimated: 2 class periods<br />Brief OverviewIn this lesson students will use primary sources to go beyond the textbook descriptions of the harshness of the Civil War.Historical Inquiry QuestionLooking at multiple primary sources, can we find firsthand evidence that fighting in the Civil War was painful and difficult?Content KnowledgeStudents will have read the textbook account of the daily life of soldiers in the War and the hardships they faced, both Union and Confederate.As a result of this lesson, students will know what it was like to be a soldier participating in this warSkillsThis lesson helps to develop close reading skills of students, skill in reading primary sources. Students also practice finding evidence to support conclusions and using that evidence to write a paragraphCT Standards Addressed1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of significant events and themes in United States history.2.2 Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including electronic media.2.3. Create various forms of written work to demonstrate and understanding of history and social studies issues.3.2 Analyze and evaluate human action in historical and/or contemporary contexts from alternative points of view.Prior KnowledgeStudents should know the causes of the Civil War and have a basic understanding of the conflict. They should also have read the textbook description of “daily life of the Civil War soldier”Resources neededLibrary of Congress Resources (with title and permanent URL (include thumbnail image of resource) #gallery 2011647017 [Savage Station, Va. Union field hospital after the battle of June 27, during the Civil War]2011. | 1 photograph | Raymond, Matt.LC-DIG-ppbd- 00364 (ONLINE) [P&P] | LC-DIG-ppbd-00364 (original digital file) Other resource: soldiers’ letters fromhttp://www.civilwararchive.com/LETTERS/letters.htmProcess of LessonHook/Warm Up: Read the section on “daily life of the soldiers” in the textbook. Ask students if they think the text does a good job of making them feel like they are “talking to someone who was there.” Tell the students about the saying, “War is Hell” and brainstorm what a saying like that might mean. Tell students we will read some first-hand accounts of what things were like.Inquiry Activity:Students will be given 5 primary sources (4 letters and 1 photograph) and an organizer for taking notes. They will work in pairs to do a close reading of the documents and complete the chart.The teacher will circulate amongst the pairs making sure that they are focusing on the parts of the document that relate to the “harshness” of the war, helping to define terms, and making sure students are on-task.Application Activity:When the chart is completed, students will use that information to write “another paragraph to be ADDED to the textbook” that better illustrates the violence that soldiers on both sides faced.EvaluationStudents will be evaluated using the attached paragraph writing rubricPossibilities for DifferentiationFor students on or above grade level, few modifications would need to be made. Students who are not strong readers should be paired with stronger readers. Students can be given hi-lighters. With students who have particular difficulty with large amounts of text the teacher will “box “or hi-light relevant portions of the documents. For a class where the majority of students are not strong readers the teacher may read the documents aloud and ask students to hi-light relevant parts. The chart can also be modified to make the boxes larger (it could be on 2 pages rather than one) for students who write in large letters and need more room. Students with attention problems should be allowed to take short breaks between documents.<br />Civil War Soldiers Primary Source Chart<br />What is the document?Who created it?What does this source say about the harshness of the war?Document 1Document 2 Document 3Document 4Document 5<br />Document 1: Confederate Letter<br />Camp <br />7 Reg Ga Vol Near Zolicofer Tenn April the 4th 1864<br />Mrs Sary Jane Benefield<br />Dear beloved wife I seat my self this morning to drop you A few lines to let you no that I am well at this time and hoping this few lines may --- ---- to hand and find you enjoying the best of health Jane I have no mise of intrust to write to you Only we have had A hard march we marched five days it snode and rained everyday we ar campt a- Zolicofer tennessee Aleven miles from the line of Virginia When you hear from me again I will be in Virginia I recton We hav stopied at Zolicofer to rest A few days on tuesday the 22 of March the snow fell two feet deep hear & it has bin snowing & raining evry sence We ar on our rode to Virginia I think Jane we ar faring verry bad for something to eat we git flour with the brand in it & it is half oats & man cant hardly eate it we dont git half A nuf if it We steal A little & prearsh A little We cant by nothing our money ant no count Jane this is the fift letter I hav rote to you & got no ancer yet Jane I dont no what to think Jane you sed you wood write to me every week if you have rite to me I hant got you letter Jane if node how bad I want to hear from you you wood write to me I hant got A crutch of fear from no body Sence I left home I am About eight hundred milds from home Jane I dont no how to write if I git A letter I wood no better how to write Jane tell brother that I am A looking for A letter from him thay Say that the Yankes is Advansing on richmon A gin we hav to go and defend it we A folling back out of east tennessee Jane we saw a bad time A marching threw the snow & rain thay ar A feeding us on oats & rye & wheat mus- togather & it not boiled the chaf & brand is all in it Giv my lov and best respects to all friends I must Close So no more at present Only remains your truly husband until deth <br />Write soon Good By When this you See remember Me <br />Z H J Benefield Dy rect your letter to Bristle tenn Com G 7 Reg Ga Vol<br />Document 2: Union Letter<br />Memphis August 26, 1863 (?)<br />Dear Brother<br />I once more take the pleasure of writing a few more lines hoping they may find you well. Although I am sorry to say I am not well at present. I had the chills very bad last Saturday and Sunday. I am afraid they will keep with me all this fall. I am taking medicine for them now. I think I have got them checked now for awhile but I am afraid they will come back again. Their has been several of our boys took French leave and went home without furlows, they all are marked as deserters and will be treated as such when they come back. Captain Dablin is under arrest for going home without leave. I had a notion of coming home myself, but I think I had better not. I sent my likeness (portrait) directed to you on the 19th. I sent it by Ben Johnson Sargeant Company I of Newburgh. He has gone home recruiting. I directed for you and put a stamp on it. He will drop it in the post office at Evansville for you. You have got one and Sarah has got one now. I want you to give that one to Ann Clark and tell her when she wants 15(?) jaw me she can jaw me before my face. I received a letter from Ann and I have sent another back and told her I should send the likeness. I sent Jim Rhodes a letter a few days ago. The wheather is pretty warm here, yet I was in town a few days ago and I found out their was plenty of Irish South their. Yet so now I must bring my letter to a close. Give my best respect to all uncles, aunts, brothers, sisters, cousins and all enquiring friends. So now I remain your affectionate Brother Joseph Saberton.<br />Direct to John Saberton Evansville<br />Joseph Saberton<br />Company C<br />25th Reg Ind Vol<br />Memphis, Tenn<br />Written by James Barton Company I<br />Document 3: Confederate Letter<br />July 21, 1861<br />Camp Pickens<br />Dear Wife,<br />I take this opportunity of writing you these few lines to inform you that I am well at this present time and when these few lines come to hand they may find you enjoying the same health. We had another great battle Sunday, it commenced at 6 o'clock and ended at 6 o'clock, it was the hardest battle that was ever fought in America. They had 10 to our one--we conquered them, we lost about 800 in killed and wounded. The Yankees lost about 5,000 and we took 1,300 prisoners and 125 horses, baggage wagons and 64 pieces of cannon besides a great many things. I was not in the battle but could hear the report of the cannons which was in very plain view and we was in site of the battlefield, it was a sad and dreary day. I never had spent such a sabbath in my life before I have seen the horror of war. I had to stand sentinel [duty] at the hospital door were I could see all the wounded soldiers. I stood from Sunday 12 o'clock till Monday night. -- I had to be up all night to guard the wounded--it was the saddest thing I ever saw to hear the moans of the wounded and dying. I saw the surgeons operating on them, it made me shed tears to see how they suffered, some had to have both of their arms cut off and some their legs. I saw all the surgeons operations, it was a distressing sight to see them how they suffered--we like to got old Scott, [General Winfield Scott] they got his coat. We have completely routed them. I expect we will attack Washington City next. President (Jefferson ) Davis] came here Sunday. He went out on the battlefield, he came round and looked at all the wounded soldiers and shed tears over them, he is pleasant and graceful in his manner --it seemed to put new vigor in his army to see him in their presence. <br /> I have heard and read a good deal about war but I have seen the horror at last. I never want to look into another hospital if I can help myself again. I have nothing more to say about the war. If it should be the will of the almighty for me to go into battle -I trust to be in his care --he has the power to save. I will put my trust in him. I want you to write to me as soon as I can direct it in the care of Captain Williams and how are you getting along and if they have sent you provisions yet. I don't know when I can come up but I will come as soon as I can. I am always thinking of you and the children. I hope I will return to you all again. I want you to raise them right if I should not get back. Nothing more at present but remain your affectionate husband until death parts us.<br />Joseph M. Elkins<br />To: Sarah Elkins<br />Flint Hill, Virginia<br />Document 4: Union Letter<br />Feb. 27th, 1865<br />Dear Father,<br />Having a little spare time, I improve it by writing to you. We left Washington City one week ago Saturday last for Alexandria, VA, the next morning (Sunday) we sailed in the steamer Therman Livingston for North Carolina, we landed at Smithville at the mouth of Cape Fear river last Tuesday. The same evening we reembarked and came up the river about 8 miles to this fort, where we have been ever since, though we are expecting to leave at any hour. Wilmington was captured the day we reached here, where we will go from here I have no idea.<br />We are having quite a nice time here, all the oysters we want, all we have to do is to go down to the beach when the tide is out and gather them. It is about 10 miles from here to Wilmington. The only draw back upon us here is that it has been raining almost the time since we have been here.<br />While we were at Washington City we were paid off. I had intended to have sent some money home, but Joe Donnohue, on account of not having been mustered with the regt Jan 1st, did not draw any pay, so I lent him the money I otherwise would have sent home, but I will have the more to send home the next time. We drew 4 months pay, we were at Washington 3 weeks lacking one day.<br />We had a good time while we were there, we had good quarters, plenty to eat, and plenty to spend. But while we were at sea, we were about as sea sick a set of fellows as you ever heard of. I got sick and got well in about 3 hours, so afterward I could afford to laugh at the others, but while I was sick, I think I threw up all I had eatin for the last six months, and a good share of what I expect to eat for the next six to come, not to exaggerate at all.<br />I suppose that the draft is creating quite an excitement just now. I hope so, put 300 thousand more men in to the field and the war will soon be ended.<br />Not wishing those patriotic young men at home any harm at all, I hope every one of them will be drafted. I would do me good to see some of them trudging along through the mud carrying a gun and knapsack.<br />My health is excellent, spirits ditto. I expect that this year will end the war, and when it is over I shall return home and be proud that I helped end it. I have been in 8 or 10 fights and expect to be in some more. I have had many fair shots at rebels but never hit but one that I know of. The first time I ever shot at a man I was so excited at the thought that I trembled like a leaf, but I got used to that kind of business, and I can draw a 'bead' on a rebel now as coolly as would on a squirrel and be as glad to see him fall.<br />It is curious how careless of life war will render any man. Before I came into the army, it would have shocked me to see a man cut with a knife, or knocked down with a club. Now I can see any number of men killed and never give them a thought, or glance. Ah well, such is war and it can't be helped.<br />Well I will close for the present. Give my love to mother and Preston and all my friends. Please write soon and often, and give me all the news. We have not had any mail for more than a week and don't know anything.<br />Your affec' son,<br />John MillerCo, "G" 123rd Ind. Vols.<br />2nd Brigade, 1st Division 23rd Army Corps<br />Wilmington, North Carolina<br />P.S. I forgot to tell you, I am 20 years old to day<br />Document 5: Union Battlefield<br />[Savage Station, Va. Union field hospital after the battle of June 27, during the Civil War]2011. | 1 photograph | Raymond, Matt.LC-DIG-ppbd- 00364 (ONLINE) [P&P] | LC-DIG-ppbd-00364 (original digital file) <br />CriteriaPoints4321 Main/Topic Idea SentenceMain/Topic idea sentence is clear, correctly placed, and is restated in the closing sentence.Main/Topic idea sentence is either unclear or incorrectly placed, and is restated in the closing sentence.Main/Topic idea sentence is unclear and incorrectly placed, and is restated in the closing sentence.Main/Topic idea sentence is unclear and incorrectly placed, and is not restated in the closing sentence.____Supporting Detail Sentence(s)Paragraph(s) have three or more supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea.Paragraph(s) have two supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea.Paragraph(s) have one supporting detail sentence that relate back to the main idea.Paragraph(s) have no supporting detail sentences that relate back to the main idea.____<br />