Academic Controversy in the History Classroom This workshop is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University. Historical Question: Did the Emancipation Proclamation free the enslaved population?Author: Bernice MontagnaClass/Grade Level: Language Arts/Grade 6CT Standards:1.8 – Demonstrate an understanding of the interactions of the structures and functions of government and law at thelocal, state, national and international levels.1.9– Demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of citizens.2.2 – Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including electronic media (e.g. maps, charts,graphs, images, artifacts, recordings and text).2.3 – Create various forms of written work (e.g. journal, essay, blog, Web page, brochure) to demonstrate anunderstanding of history and social studies issues.2.4 – Demonstrate an ability to participate in social studies discourse through informed discussion, debate and effectiveoral presentation.3.2 – Analyze and evaluate human action in historical and/or contemporary contexts from alternative points of view.Overview:The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Lincoln to carry out his executive war powers duringthe Civil War on January 1, 1863. It proclaimed that all slaves in the Confederate States, states inrebellion against the Union, be freed. The Proclamation freed 50,000 slaves immediately and almostall as the Union army passed through the Confederate State. On September 22, 1862 he formallystated that all the slaves would be freed in any Confederate States that did not return to the Union byJanuary 1, 1863. The Emancipation Proclamation made restoration of the Union and freedom for theslaves the goal of the war. The white southerners of the Confederate State were infuriated by thisannouncement and believed that the war was a race war. It also discouraged Confederate allies inEurope from supporting the Confederate cause and wanting to become involved in the situation. Itactivated more Abolitionists movement in the country to become more involved in the slavery cause.It wasn’t until the Thirteenth Amendment, which became effective on December 1865 that slaverybecame illegally throughout the United States.
Document Summary:Document 1- Charles Dana, the Assistant Secretary of War from 1863 to 1865, letter to WilliamSeward, the Secretary of State, is expressing his opinion of the Lincoln’s formal announcement of theEmancipation Proclamation in September 1862. He is suggesting that Lincoln may have a personalinterest in making the executive order to free the slaves and restore the Union. He expresses hisdistaste for the slave population in his letter to Seward.Document 2- Hannibal Hamlin, Lincoln’s Vice President from 1861 until March 1865, is expressinghis gratitude for Lincoln’s announcing the executive decision to call a halt to slavery and restore theUnion. He also states that the Proclamation will be viewed and approved by future generation as adecision for the good of our country.Document 3- William Green Adams, leading farmer and miller in Letcher County KY, wrote to showhis feeling about Lincoln’s announcement of his intentions to restore the Union. He is urging the PostMaster of Kentucky to support Lincoln’s Proclamation that will end slavery and restore the Union.Document 4- Walter Gaines and Henry Rowland, friends of Lincoln, wrote to him about their travelexperiences home and their stay at a lodging where they heard Jefferson Davis speak about theEmancipation Proclamation. Gaines and Rowland were surprised by the feelings of the people ofKentucky .Their letter warns Lincoln of Davis’s intentions as President of the Confederacy. Theyclearly give suggestions to Lincoln on how to restructure his Cabinet to prevent this occurrence.Document 5- This is a wood engraving of the freed slaves after they learned about Lincoln’sEmancipation Proclamation issued on January 1 1863. They are taking up any type of weapon theycan use to fight against the Confederates to preserve their newly gained freedom. . They have loadedup their belongings to leave their masters and even if they don’t have any place to go, except tofreedom.Document 6- these illustrations compare how a slave was sold as punishment for crime beforeEmancipation Proclamation; and how an African-American was whipped as punishment for crime in1866. This illustration compares the two punishments of the African-Americans prior to theEmancipation and post Civil War. It shows that the southern states disregarded the Proclamation andthey still treated the African-Americans with contempt.Procedure (80 minutes): 1. Introduction of lesson, objectives, overview of SAC procedure (15 minutes) 2. SAC group assignments (30 minutes) a. Assign groups of four and assign arguments to each team of two. b. In each group, teams read and examine the Document Packet c. Each student completes the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2), and works with their partner to prepare their argument using supporting evidence. d. Students should summarize their argument in #3. 3. Position Presentation (10 minutes) a. Team 1 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 2 records Team 1’s argument in #4. b. Team 2 restates Team 1’s position to their satisfaction.
c. Team 2 asks clarifying questions and records Team 1’s answers. d. Team 2 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 1 records Team 2’s argument in #4. e. Team 1 restates Team 2’s position to their satisfaction. f. Team 1 asks clarifying questions and records Team 2’s answers. 4. Consensus Building (10 minutes) a. Team 1 and 2 put their roles aside. b. Teams discuss ideas that have been presented, and figure out where they can agree or where they have differences about the historical questionClosure:The reporter for each group will report to the class the consensus reached by their group. The classappointed recorder will record each group’s position using Socrative .com website. The class recorderwill post each group’s position and supporting reasons. At the end of class the students will processthe results and come to a class consensus on the SAC question.Assessment:Students will write a persuasive essay from their personal point of view answering the SAC questionand document packet as text support for their opinion.Differentiation:I would use the website LessonWriter.com to differentiate the lesson for average, low and ELLstudents. Lessonwriter.com website is free to teachers for this purpose and it includes the CCSSstandards, vocabulary for each level, and questions to use based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.Lesson Writer Procedure: 1. Upload the reading passage for each document into Lesswriter.com. 2. Lesson Writer then assesses each passage for text complexity and determines vocabulary for the average, general and ELL student. 3. Lesson Writer includes pre-reading vocabulary activities to use in the Introduction of the SAC activity for the lower level readers.
Document 1Charles Dana was Assistant Secretary of War from 1863 to 1865. Dana in his letter to WilliamSeward the Secretary of State was expressing his opinion of the Lincoln’s formal announcementof the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862. He is suggesting that Lincoln may havea personal interest in making the executive order to free the slaves and restore the Union. Heexpresses his distaste for the slave population in his letter to Seward.Recd 25. SeptN-York 23d. Sept. 1862My Dear Sir--The "Proclamation"1 would please me better if it had omitted one short paragraph "and will do no act or acts torepress such persons or any of them in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom"-- this jars on melike a wrong tone in music -- nor do I believe either of the two names signed to it would hesitate one momentto shoulder a musket and "go in" to crush out an effort to repress what is suggest they will not.-- This is theonly "bad egg" I see in "that pudding" -- & I fear may go far to make it less acceptable than it deserves to be-- Ihope I may be in error for I have no pride of opinion – …..Perhaps "the President" had a personal interest as to this matter-- I have none -- my only belief is that a Slavenegro in a Slave State -- (cultivating cotton) is "the right man in the right place" -- and in any other place orcondition -- so much the worse for him--Your friend & obedient ServantCharles A. Dana[Note 1 Lincoln had issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22. For the text of theproclamation, see Collected Works, V, 433-36.]VocabularyOmitted- left out of somethingRepress- to control by forceJars- shakes something abruptlyTone- quality of soundHesitate- pause while doing somethingMusket- long barreled gunCultivating- grow or plant cropsObedient- doing as told Source: A letter from Charles A. Dana toWilliam H. Seward, Tuesday, September 23, 1862 (Emancipation Proclamation)http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d1858200)) Document 2
Hannibal Hamlin was Lincoln’s Vice President from 1861 until March 1865 when his termexpired. He was replaced by Andrew Johnson in the election of November 1864.Bangor Sept. 25 1862.My Dear SirI do not know, as, in the number of the correspondence with which you are burdened, this note will ever meetyour eye-- But I desire to express my true and sincere thanks for your Emancipation Proclamation.1 It will standas the great act of the age-- It will prove to be wise in Statesmanship, as it is Patriotic-- It will beenthusiastically approved and sustained and future generations will, as I do, say God bless you for the greatand noble act.Yours SincerelyH Hamlin[Note 1 Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862.] Vocabulary Correspondence- written messages Burdened- a load being carried Statesmanship-a man who shows respect for the public good Enthusiastically- showing eagerness about something Sustained- help keep something in placeSource: A letter from Hannibal Hamlin to Abraham Lincoln, September 25, 1862http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d4235300))
Document 3William Green Adams was a leading farmer and miller in Letcher County KY. He was a captainin the Union army when war broke out. He was shot by a sniper and died on June 29, 1863. Heis writing to show his feeling about Lincoln’s announcement of his intentions to restore theUnion.Office of the Auditor of the TreasuryFor the Post Office Department,Dec 31st 1862.For God’s sake, stand by the Proclamation--1 No taking back, show the people you intend to stand firm by anypolicy you may adopt & the people will stand by youThe Good men of Kentucky will stand by you in every effort to crush the rebellion, and if you will let thepolitical jugglers know they have to toe the mark, they will sink & come tooGreen Adams[Note 1 This is a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln had issued the Preliminary EmancipationProclamation on September 22, 1862 and the final version of the proclamation was to be issued on January 1,1863.] Vocabulary Intend- to plan for a purpose Rebellion- organized attempt to overthrow a governmentSource: A letter from Green Adams to Abraham Lincoln, December 31, 1862http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d4244200))
Document 4Walter Gaines and Henry Rowland, friends of Lincoln, wrote to him about their travelexperiences home and their stay at a lodging where they heard Jefferson Davis speak about theEmancipation Proclamation. Gaines and Rowland were surprised by the feelings of the peopleof Kentucky toward Lincoln’s Proclamation to restore the Union and free the slaves.Louisville, KentuckyDec 21st 1862Dear SirWe rushed to write you, having just arrived from Richmond, Va. We reside seven and half miles out on thePetersburg Road, and have always been Union men and at least until recently escaped the conscription. Wehave been robbed of everything, and are entirely ruined, and have resolved to die rather than fight against theold flag. We were in the Spotswood House on the night of Dec 1st, and heard Jefferson Davis remark to anumber of his friends "that there would soon be a rupture in Lincolns Cabinet, and that the appointment ofmen who favored the Emancipation scheme would together with the Proclamation would ensure Kentuckyssympathies in our cause, together with the late Democratic victories, would ensure the ultimate triumph ofSouthern Arms." We observed everything in our route, which was through Chattanooga & Knoxville Tenn.,then through Cumberland Gap to Lexington and from there to this point. We were utterly astonished andalarmed at the feeling exhibited in this state regarding your late Proclamation1 Citizens and soldiers, alike arecondemning your course, and we think it our duty as your friends, good citizens and loyal to the government, togive you the opinions of the people of this State and a part of the Army as it is.If changes are to be made in your cabinet allow these suggestions.Secretary of State. John J Crittenden Ky.Secretary of Interior Joseph Holt Ky.Secretary of War Ambrose Burnside R. ISecretary of Navy Com Vanderbilt N. Y.Postmaster Genl. Thomas Hicks of MdCommander in chief in the field General George. B. McClellan—With the above changes, you can serve your times as President of the whole United States. Without it, youwill not serve six weeks longer. Mark it! VocabularyWe are with respect, Conscripture- forcing people join the armyWalter H Gaines Rupture- break apart somethingHenry S. Rowland Scheme- a plan of action Astonished- very surprised Condemning- to say something is bad or wrongSource: A letter From Walter H. Gaines and Henry S. Rowland to Abraham Lincoln, December 21, 1862http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mal:@field(DOCID+@lit(d2034400))
Document 5This is a wood engraving of the freed slaves after they learned about Lincoln’s EmancipationProclamation issued on January 1 1863.Source: The effects of the proclamation - freed Negroes coming into our lines atNewbern, North Carolinahttp://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c12158
Document 6 Two illustrations showing: Slave being sold as punishment for crime, before Emancipation Proclamation; and African-American being whipped as punishment for crime in 1866.Source: Slavery is Dead? http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/93507943/Some of the language and phrasing in these documents have been modified from the originals.
CAPTURE SHEET Don’t forget the rules of a successful academic controversy! 1. Practice active listening.Did the Emancipation Proclamation free the enslaved 2. Challenge ideas, not each other population? 3. Try your best to understand the other positions 4. Share the floor: each person in a pair MUST have an opportunity to speakPreparation: 5. No disagreeing until consensus- 1. Highlight your assigned position. building as a group of four Yes: The Emancipation Proclamation freed the enslaved population. No: The enslaved population wasn’t really freed by the Emancipation Proclamation. 2. Read through each document searching for support for your side’s argument. Use the documents to fill in the chart (Hint: Not all documents support your side, find those that do):Document What is the main idea of this document? What details support your position? # 3. Work with your partner to summarize your arguments for your position using the supporting documents you found above:
Position Presentation: 4. You and your partner will present your position to your opposing group members. When you are done, you will then listen to your opponents’ position. While you are listening to your opponents’ presentation, write down the main details that they present here: Clarifying questions I have for the opposing partners: How they answered the questions:Consensus Building: 5. Put your assigned roles aside. Where does your group stand on the question? Where does your group agree? Where does your group disagree? Your consensus answer does not have to be strictly yes, or no. We agree: We disagree: Our final consensus: