Research skills in philosophy for graduates


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  • Electronic Resources in Philosophy 2009 Introduce myself and thank them for coming Talk aims to offer overview of library resources.
  • Electronic Resources in Philosophy 2009 Please look round the library after the session Actually hope you’ll find most of your philosophy needs here Tell them about the photocopier changes
  • Electronic Resources in Philosophy 2009 Legal deposit library, 7 million books etc.
  • It may sound obvious but often easiest to start with references in bibliographies from books and journal articles and move on to using online sources . Newton contains records for print books and journals. It also contains records for all our e-books too. Newton is divided into sections alphabetically by library. If you want to search the holdings of all Cambridge libraries at once, and find electronic material ... ... try our new library search engine LibrarySearch: Searches all Cambridge Library catalogues. LibrarySearch- LibrarySearch is a search engine for University of Cambridge library collections. It allows you to look for • printed books and journals held in any Cambridge University library • electronic material, including journal articles • research papers, data and multimedia collections held in DSpace@Cambridge, the University’s archive of digital scholarly material •Allows Google-style searching •‘ Word cloud’ on the left of the screen helps you find the best search term. If you’re stuck for search terms, click in the top left-hand corner of the menu bar to expand the word cloud . It will show you associated words, spelling variations, and translations for your keyword. Click on any word in the cloud to run a new search. • Narrow down results using right-hand menu on results screen • Also searches CrossSearch to enable seamless searching of book and electronic collections
  • Tips for searching the catalogue if you can’t find what you want: 1. Use a question mark (?) with partial words to find variant endings. librar? will search for library, libraries, librarian, etc. Beware that if you tend to copy and paste titles into a ‘keyword’ search eg Wittgenstein’s Poker that Newton does not always like the ‘s so you could use either the TITLE search, just delete the ‘s and/or put a ? in its place. 2. Searching using ” “ for a phrase eg a search for “Russell and Moore” will return all the records containing that exact phrase. 3. If you are searching for themes or subjects you can try using the ‘subject’ search. BUT be careful because the subject terms are decided by librarians and they may not match what you are looking for. Try your subject term in a ‘keyword’ search instead as keyword searches pick up ANY words from a catalogue record. 4. Setting limits – limit your search using the drop-down menus. ou can also choose to search by: Specific library a specific date range the place of publication – the country in which the item was published the language the type of material you want: manuscript, music score, software … the item’s physical format: microform, motion picture, sound recording …
  • Ejournals – takes you to a searchable database of journal titles and a list of various ways to access the full text of articles you might need. This is a better link to use than just going straight to JSTOR which a lot of students do. Did you know that JSTOR usually only has journal articles that are 3 or more years old?)
  • Why use a subject database? Extensive date range Focus for the search Philosophical terms Few irrelevant results Drawbacks (if any) Relevant articles published in non-philosophy journals
  • It is important to know that some eresources are only available to you because you are a member of the University. Many others are available free on the internet. The catalogue (Newton) will often tell you that an item (book or journal) is an electronic resource but you can’t always get to the full text from the record there. You can limit to ‘electronic resource’ and this is quite handy if you want to find an ebook such as one of the Cambridge Companions. But quick links on philosophy library webpage are a good place to start.
  • The first thing to do to define your topic is to write it out exactly, in simple English. It might pay you to look at a dictionary to clarify in your own mind the precise meaning of the topic and/or individual words. The next step is to underline the significant words in the sentence that defines your topic. If you simply take the keywords you have identified, and enter them into a database, you will probably get some results. But this simplistic search certainly won't give you all the relevant articles on your topic that are available in the database.
  • Resources can be large and complicated. To focus your searching you may need to use use… • Filters • Boolean operators • Proximity searches NEAR • Wildcard/truncation* s?epticism, politi* • Limits & sorting AND , OR and NOT create relationships between your keywords, so you can combine your key concepts into search strings.Think about synonyms – how might other authors refer to your key concepts? - and terms you want to exclude. date, language. Then evaluate the results
  • Library resources in philosophy 2009 Useful options: Basic search – no need to both with this, Advanced search Limits, date language doc type D emonstrate search with mind body problem as terms anywhere and limit by years 2000—2005. l ook at results, note that even in this search it went through the abstracts. More filters, by subject or author (click to expand) , or doc type. Also dates again. Try limiting by author at this point Good tactic is not to restrict too much at first search and then refine down at this stage. Search History. Records all searches,, and gives you a chance to combine previous searches, and save searches To export Mark a few and show e-mail Use suggest option to show alternative terms to mind-body Do a more complicated Search : talk through the Boolean ops and fields on offer. Search Nagel, (just use surname ) and check author field, then Bat ( either in title or anywhere), to solve specific query (you know there is an article, just not sure of details. Look at full record . We have a choice here in displaying the search panel and the full record in a split screen, or switching (red arrow on left to hide search panel: revert by clicking it again). Click on Tour (or full text option) to link to e-journals Repeat Advanced search [ search with Nagel (as subject) combined with bat*(in terms anywhere) . You get 17 hits ( 5 extra by using the wildcard.) Point out Aardvark, no 10 which would not have come up at all with bat in title. Index search : probably most useful for being very specific about author names, So go to McDowell in author index and select J and JH and John and click on Search marked Over 80 records, lets go to limits and limit to Book reviews We get 23. Look at a full record; unusually the book author goes in author field and reviewer has separate field. Exporting records , mark them, print save e-mail, change export details
  • Library resources in philosophy 2009
  • Library resources in philosophy 2009
  • Library resources in philosophy 2009 Would use these where subject coverage beyond scope of specialist philosophy databases such as Philosopher’s Index We could demonstrate:
  • It’s helpful to have a few extra strategies for making better use of Google. The University Library has now registered its holdings with Google. So it's now possible to search Google Scholar and link directly to the full text of journal articles where they are available at Cambridge by clicking on ejournals@cambridge link.
  • Advantages of Google Scholar • Free Fast Many articles are available full-text. • Google Scholar can connect you to library resources. • The sources are more academic than those you would find through a standard search engine query--though you should still always evaluate the content you find. Disadvantages of Google Scholar Some articles are available only as abstracts; others are pay-per-view. • Your results may not be current or as comprehensive as you need. • Coverage tends to be stronger in science and technology and weaker in the humanities. • Google Scholar does not say where it finds its sources, so you cannot have the same confidence in its reliability as you can when searching library sources. Search it to supplement proper literature reviews in your best databases.
  • It is important to record all the details of the sources you use in your work as you will need them for your bibliography and footnotes. Don’t assume you’ll remember where you read something • Keep references on scraps of paper Do Do:• E-mail citations to yourself• Save to e-shelf/ hard drive/ memory stick Consider using referencing software to store all your citations and create your bibliography. safe storage of your citations (but don’t forget to back up!) ability to tag, search and sort your references text editor interfacing to let you ‘cite while you write’ automatic creation of your bibliography or reference list, in the citation style of your choice ... choose the one that works best for you If you do not keep track of all the information at the time you read the book or essay it may be impossible to find them again later when you are short of time. If you don’t know who wrote it, you cannot quote it! Using it without an acknowledgement would be plagiarism. Guidelines on how to reference books, articles etc are available on the Faculty website . 1. Microsoft Applications   Many people keep a list of the sources they’ve consulted in some electronic format such as a Word document, or an Excel spreadsheet. One of the disadvantages of using these is that you may not be able to store all the information that you want in the same place. It is also more time-consuming when you produce a bibliography. Bibliographic management software There are several types of software to consider but Zotero is freely available if you use Firefox as your browser:Although very easy to start using there is a lot you can do with Zotero. This allows you to store huge numbers of references, manage these references (including adding in links to, or pdfs of the full text of articles) and then use these references to automatically create citations and produce bibliographies and footnotes in your work. Firstly here is the basic info if you’re not familiar with it: It’s an extension to the Mozilla Firefox browser. It enables you to capture references from catalogues, Google Scholar, or anywhere where bibliographic information can be recognized. You can archive webpages, store pdfs, images, files etc. It is a good way of managing your resources or references, great for creating bibliographies and easy to cite-while-you-write with word processor plugins . Why should you try Zotero ? For many major databases and websites, the program senses when a list of books or articles is displayed by showing an icon in the address bar, so citation information can be saved with just a few clicks: It costs no money. You are not dependent on your employee-provided site licence to let you access it, so if you leave – like graduate or change sectors – you do not suddenly start having to pay to keep accessing your citations. Upgrades are free, easy and painless. It harvests metadata from journal articles, webpages, Flickr images, YouTube videos with one click and stores them in an easily searchable database where you can tag, annote and create collections It works with content behind paywalls as well as free and open content It stores a snapshot of the saved item – webpage, pdf, whatever, and then THE CONTENTS of that item is indexed and searchable as well as the reference You can drag and drop citations from your library into a wordprocessor, blog post, slide show and instantly have correctly formatted citations Using the WORD plugin, you can insert an in-text citation with one click, and then press the “create bibliography” button and it harvests all your citations and creates a complete reference list. You can synchronise your citations to the web. You can share citations publicly and with groups Because if we all band together and support these kinds of tools and help them to grow and be better, then we are responsibly saving our organisations money and getting closer to giving our users what will work best for them. Instructions for using Zotero 1. Installation Install Firefox for free on your computer if you do not already have it available Download Zotero – if you have downloaded Zotero before check that you have the latest version (currently 2.0.3 on July 15 2010) Check your browser – the zotero icon should be installed For a full description of how to use Zotero look at the video on their homepage 2. Getting stuff into your Library If you didn’t bother to watch the video then there are two really important things you need to know! Firstly, your Zotero Library is always available in your web browser, normally at the bottom RH corner. Click on the icon to get your Library up. Secondly, when conducting a search, the little folder or icon that appears in the location bar of your browser is a good clue that there is downloadable information on that webpage. Try a search in JSTOR or Newton or Google Scholar or any of the other sites that are compatable with Zotero Click on the folder icon in your browser, select the items you want to download and they will pop into your Library
  • Direct quotations should be in quotation marks, with reference to the source, including page numbers. Indirect/paraphrased quotations and borrowed ideas should be acknowledged by means of a reference. A full bibliography of work consulted and used should be appended to the essay or dissertation
  • Research skills in philosophy for graduates

    1. 1. Research Tools in Philosophy How to find resources for research
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Library provision in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>How to use libraries and eresources </li></ul><ul><li>Eresources for Philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ejournals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ebooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographical databases </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Philosophy Faculty Library <ul><li>A specialist philosophy lending library for academics, graduates and undergraduates </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Support for eresources in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Study space </li></ul>
    4. 4. The University Library <ul><li>Legal deposit library </li></ul><ul><li>Over 7 million volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Special collections including G.E. Moore’s papers </li></ul>
    5. 5. Your research sources: 1 <ul><li>Books: Newton or LibrarySearch (includes eBooks) </li></ul><ul><li>Journals*: Newton or Library Search </li></ul><ul><li>ejournals@cambridge but you have to know (and search by) the journal title , not the journal article title </li></ul>
    6. 6. Finding Ebooks All ebooks (except Oxford Scholarship) may be found using Newton or LibrarySearch.
    7. 7. Oxford Scholarship Online: ebooks <ul><li>Selected books published by OUP </li></ul><ul><li>100s of philosophy titles </li></ul> OSO books are not currently searchable in the Library catalogue
    8. 8. Ejournals A-Z
    9. 9. Your research sources: 2 <ul><li>Journal articles </li></ul><ul><li>Book chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Conference papers </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul>Where can I find? Not in the library catalogue!
    10. 10. A Brief look at Databases
    11. 11. Types of Database <ul><li>Citation Databases —They contain only bibliographic information, and sometimes an abstract of articles, but without the actual text of the article. The @cam – find full text may link to the whole article. E.g. Philosopher’s Index, Scopus etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Full-Text Databases – These databases contain the journal articles e.g. JSTOR </li></ul>
    12. 12. You might start from <ul><li>University Library webpage </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy Library webpage </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Library Search </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    13. 13. Find your subject area
    14. 14. Explore your subject
    15. 15. Citation Databases <ul><li>Philosophers’ Index ( ) Covers over 550 journals in philosophy and related subjects, some monographs and some anthologies. Coverage 1940- </li></ul><ul><li>PhilPapers ( )– Free, access to over 200,000 articles. Monitors journal archives, personal pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Web of Knowledge ( ) multidisciplinary coverage of over 10,000 journals in the sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. Coverage 1975- </li></ul><ul><li>Scopus ( ) Largest abstract & citation database for sciences/social sciences, indexing over 3000 arts and humanities journals. Coverage 2002- </li></ul>
    16. 16. FullText Databases <ul><li>Jstor ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive of some dating back to 1600s. Does not usually include journals from last 3-5 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Muse ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>355 titles from over 70 publishers in arts, humanities and social sciences. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Search strategies <ul><li>Good search strategies save time </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what you are searching for before you start. Know what your source covers </li></ul><ul><li>Be critical! </li></ul>
    18. 18. Thinking about your topic <ul><li>Bioethics </li></ul><ul><li>= ethics OR morality OR behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>= euthanasia OR cloning OR medical ethics OR eugenics … </li></ul>
    19. 19. More effective searching <ul><li>Filters e.g. date, source type, language etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual source : Specific journals or publications </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean operators : Using operators like AND to narrow, OR to widen, and NOT to include or exclude terms in your search. (see diagram above) </li></ul><ul><li>Quotation marks : Enclosing terms in quotation marks will find a phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildcard/truncation: Finds the root of a word and various possible endings e.g. politi*, s?epticism. </li></ul>AND OR NOT
    20. 20. Searching Philosopher’s Index <ul><li>Navigating </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Search Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Refining the search </li></ul>Filters Basic Search If you enter more than one word, Proquest will find documents that contain all terms. Use quotation marks to search for a phrase. Advanced Search Use the Advanced Search to search a particular field e.g. Author and for more complex searches. Suggested subject searches
    21. 21. More about the Philosophers Index <ul><li>Combining search options using the Advanced Search </li></ul>‘ vat’ in title ‘ Putnam’ as subject Combines the search terms
    22. 22. Philosophers Index Exporting records View ‘marked’ items here Print, e-mail, save or export to RefWorks Check boxes to ‘mark’ items.
    23. 23. Other Bibliographic databases <ul><li>Web of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>British Humanities Index </li></ul><ul><li>Scopus </li></ul>Results can be refined here General Arts and Humanities databases are good for interdisciplinary topics although you tend to get more irrelevant results.
    24. 24. Get the most out of Google Google Scholar ( ) Finds articles, theses, some books, abstracts etc.
    25. 26. Managing your information <ul><li>EndNote Available on PWF PCs. EndNote Web is also freely available via the Web of Knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Zotero ( ). Freely available if you use Firefox as your browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeley ( ). Free download. </li></ul><ul><li>Delicious ( ) Save and tag URLs </li></ul><ul><li>More information on reference management tools is available from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    26. 27. Plagiarism <ul><li>See the University’s good academic practice and plagiarism website. For information on plagiarism: </li></ul><ul><li>See the Philosophy Faculty's guide to 'Presentation of extended essays and dissertations' for guidance referencing conventions used here. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Help and Guides <ul><li>Online help (within databases) </li></ul><ul><li>Database guides </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>