Chapter 15 Writing Simple SentencesIdentifying Subjects The subject is a noun or pronoun that tells who or what is being talked about in the sentence. Ex. A wild dog barked in the distance.Identifying Complete Subjects The complete subject is the simple subject along with all the words that describe it. Ex. Since 2000, major advancements have included color displays and touch screens. Ex. My bedroom window is hard to open.Identifying Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and its object. Ex. Mathematicians with an interest in Sudoku have discovered over five billion unique grids. Study Frequently Used Prepositions Box on pg. 222
Chapter 15 Cont.’dIdentifying Action Verbs Action verbs tell what the subject is doing and shows mental or emotional action. Ex. Kobe Bryant plays basketball. Wendy loves backpacking.Identifying Linking Verbs Linking verbs so not show action. They connect the subject to a word or words that describe or rename it. Ex. An aging population is one trend that is creating more services jobs. Related service fields, such as home maintenance, look strong too. Study Frequently Used Linking Verbs on pg. 225Identifying Helping Verbs Helping verbs come before the main verb. Ex. The candidates will name their running mates within two weeks. Do you want breakfast now?
Chapter 16Writing Compound Sentences Using Coordinating Conjunctions A coordinating conjunction joins together two simple sentences into a compound sentence. A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple complete sentences (independent clauses). Remember FANBOYS (For And Nor But Or Yet So) Ex. I could order the chicken fajitas, or I could have chili. Using Semicolons A semicolon can join two complete sentences, but it cannot join a sentence and a fragment. Incorrect: Because New York City has excellent public transportation; it was a good choice for the convention. Correct: New York City has excellent public transportation; it was a good choice for the convention.
Chapter 16 Cont.’d Using Transitional Words and Phrases When a transitional word or phrase joins two sentences, a semicolon always comes before the transitional word or phrase, and a comma always comes after it. Refer to Frequently Used Transitional Words and Phrases on pg. 240 Addition Cause-and-Effect ContradictionAlso, besides, As a Nevertheless, however, ifurthermore, in addition, result, therefore, consequently, n contrast, stillmoreover thus Ex. Some of the world’sEx. Golf can be an Ex. Professional baseball best athletes are trackexpensive sport; players are bigger and stars; nevertheless, fewbesides, it can be hard stronger than ever before; of their names are widelyto find a public golf therefore, home runs have knowncourse. become more common. Alternatives Time Sequence Instead, on the At the same contrary, otherwise time, eventually, finally, later, meanwhile, Ex. Shawn got a football subsequently, then scholarship; otherwise, he could Ex. The popularity of women’s tennis has not have gone to college. been growing; meanwhile, the popularity of men’s tennis has been declining.
Chapter 17 Writing Complex SentencesUsing Subordinating Conjunctions A subordinating conjunction joins an independent clause with a dependent clause to make a complex sentence. Ex. Because Tanya was sick yesterday, I had to work a double shift. Study Frequently Used Subordinating Conjunctions on pg. 249Punctuating with Subordinating Conjunctions Use a comma after the dependent clause. Ex. Although they had no formal training as engineers, Orville and Wilber Wright built the first airplane. Do not use a comma after the independent clause. Ex. Orville and Wilber Wright built the first airplane although they had no formal training as engineers.Using Relative Pronouns You can also create a complex sentence by joining two simple independent sentences with a relative pronoun. Ex. The Miami Heat’s LeBron James, who was only eighteen years old at the time, was the Cleveland Cavaliers’ first pick in the 2003 NBA Draft. Ex. Japanese merchants are allowed to sell whale meat that is left over after the research.
Chapter 18Fine-Tuning Your SentencesVarying Sentence Openings Beginning with Adverbs: Ex. Originally, the cards were white. Beginning with Prepositional Phrases: Ex. In 1940, the U.S. government issued the first “green cards.”Combining Sentences Creating Compound and Complex Sentences: Ex. Many young adults do not vote because they don’t trust politicians. Maybe they are too lazy to vote, or maybe they don’t think their votes will do any good. Expanding Simple Sentences: Ex. Public libraries provide essential services. They are often underfunded. Often underfunded, public libraries provide essential services. Creating a Series: Ex. Consumers are buying more iPads, smart phones, and bottled water.Choosing Exact Words Specific words refer to particular people, places, and things. General words refer to entire classes of things. Ex. I would like to apply for the job you advertised. I would like to apply for the assistant manager’s job you posted on Monster.com
Chapter 18 Cont.’dUsing Concise Language Say what you have to say in as few words as possible and without unnecessary repetition. Wordy: During the period of the Great Depression, many people were out of work. Concise: During the Great Depression, many people were out of work. Repetitive: They were repeatedly told time and time again to follow safety procedures. Concise: They were repeatedly told to follow safety procedures.Avoiding Clichés Include phrases like “raining cats and dogs” and “hard as a rock.” Cliché: After a year of college, I learned that what goes around comes around. Revised: After a year of college, I learned that if I don’t study, I won’t do well.